Multinational operations normally require more C2 capability than the unit or controlling headquarters has available. Force projection also calls for more modularity to allow tailoring of forces. Given these facts, the Army created several organizations that the commander can call upon for assistance when conducting multinational operations. Other organizations exist within various regions that local units may be more familiar with, but the organizations and teams discussed here provide a sample that planners should consider in their planning and training. Although not officially responsible to do so, the Defense Language Institute produces survival kits--normally booklets or cards with basic phrases (stop, lie down)--for deploying forces. With sufficient lead time, the Defense Language Institute can produce a wide range of language-related products.
The Training and Doctrine Command has codified the MLT concept. The MLT consists of approximately 23 functional subject-matter experts to assist joint, multinational, or Army-level commands in joint, multinational, and interagency environments. Six MLTs are available for deployment with one MLT remaining in alert status for rapid response to requirements. MLTs are capable of providing advice and assistance to supported units and ensuring rapid and accurate coordination between headquarters. MLTs have organic transportation, communications, and language capabilities. Language capabilities appropriate for all theaters come from the Defense Language Institute. The Power PAC Company provides organic communications capability for all MLTs.
This team consists of a 5-person coordination cell capable of managing and coordinating available HNS, resourcing the contingency force, obtaining local HNS resources through local purchase or contracting actions, and coordinating with financial and legal advisors to ensure proper execution of HNS contracts, as required. The team requires administrative and logistical support. This team is designed for contingency operations only and is intended to be the last team off the first plane in undeveloped areas where no prearranged HNS exists.
The US Army Materiel Command's (USAMC) logistics support element (LSE) and the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP) are nontraditional means of performing a variety of missions associated with logistics support of US and multinational forces involved in military operations.
LOGISTICS SUPPORT ELEMENT
The LSE is a deployable multifunctional unit that works for the Army component commander and is designed to link the strategic and operational levels of logistics with the tactical units. The LSE is comprised of modular subunits that are called forward by the supported commander as required. The LSE provides C2 for forward elements of the strategic base which are primarily DOD civilians and contractors. With augmentation, the LSE can provide support to multinational forces. Its capabilities include depot maintenance, calibration of test equipment, ammunition surveillance, release of pre-positioned strategic stocks, and battle-damage assessment.
LOGISTICS CIVIL AUGMENTATION PROGRAM
US armed forces use of contractors to provide supplies and services during both peacetime and contingencies dates back to the Revolutionary War. Today, a program exists to preplan for the effective use of civilian contractors in wartime and other contingencies to augment US forces and support DOD missions. The US Army's Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics is the proponent for LOGCAP and USAMC administers the contract.
LOGCAP is a Department of the Army capstone program that includes all preplanned logistics, engineering, and construction-oriented contingency contracts actually awarded and peacetime contracts that include contingency clauses. Preplanned weapon system sustainment contracts, ASCC contingency contracts, and the USAMC support contract are prime examples of augmentation contracts that fall under the auspices of the LOGCAP capstone program.
The fundamental goals of LOGCAP are--
- To plan during peacetime for the effective use of contractor support in a contingency or crisis.
- To leverage global and regional corporate resources as facility and logistics services support multipliers.
- To provide an alternative augmentation capability to meet facility and logistics services shortfalls.
- To provide a quick reaction to contingency or crisis requirements.
LOGCAP provides another augmentation support alternative by capitalizing on the civilian sector both inside and outside the continental US. To meet identified logistics, engineering, and construction-services requirement, the CINC and ASCC consider using the following sources (normally in this order), based on availability and other factors--
- Organic support (active component and RC, other DOD agencies).
- Coalition forces and HNS.
During a contingency, the CINC and/or ASCC normally establishes an acquisition review board to determine the optimum means for satisfying CS and CSS requirements based on criticality, timeliness, quality, administration effort, and cost. At a minimum, the following agencies should provide representatives to this board:
- Assistant chief of staff, G4 (logistics), serves as the chairman.
- LSE commander, responsible for team LOGCAP.
- Theater support command.
- US liaison office to MOD.
- US Allied Command Europe (USACE).
- Resource management.
- Regional contracting agency.
- Defense Logistics Agency.
Team LOGCAP's mission is to provide a central management structure and conduit of information for ensuring the smooth execution of LOGCAP requirements. The LSE commander provides coordinating authority over team LOGCAP; this element is a selectively manned, equipped, and trained team. It is prepared to deploy worldwide in support of any contingency requiring LOGCAP capabilities. The team can--
- Advise the requiring activity on LOGCAP capabilities.
- Integrate LOGCAP augmentation capabilities into the deployed force structure to meet METT-T requirements.
- Assist the customer in articulating approved logistics and construction requirements to the contractor.
- Ensure compliance and facilitate the teaming of the customer and contractor to accomplish the mission.
The LOGCAP has tremendous capability and potential. It is, however, an asset that can be misused and abused. Prior planning before its use and control during execution of contingency support ensures that it remains a valuable CS and CSS force multiplier.
The challenge for engineer planners and executors is to achieve the optimal mix of contractor and military engineer-unit capabilities. Construction contractors are best suited for the longer-duration, heavy construction work in stabilized environments. In turn, contractors leverage local resources (labor and materiel) to minimize costs and impact on intratheater lift and port facilities. The contractor's presence contributes significantly to local-area political and economical stabilization and thereby reduces the need for the presence of US security forces. US commanders in theater must recognize the need for military oversight of contract and contractor activities in the areas of project management, financial management, quality assurance, and audit.
During force-projection operations, extensive contracted civilian-engineer capabilities will probably be available only after D+30 due to mobilization and deployment time lines. Civilian-engineer contracting may be available sooner when deliberately and properly planned for during permissive entry conditions. As Army engineers deploy into the theater, they may be joined by contracted civilian engineers. The Army engineer staff should consider the following when coordinating engineer plans and operations with contracted civilian engineers:
- Requesting the latest engineer intelligence data from any contractors working in the theater to help identify force-projection theater Army engineer requirements and enemy engineer capabilities. (Requirements include availability of real estate, construction materials, and facilities; data on threat mines and obstacles and soils; and construction support from the HN.)
- Establishing engineer staff links between the Army and contracted civilian-engineer staff through the JTF, USACE, or naval facility and the theater engineer staff and headquarters.
- Providing necessary Army engineer LNO support.
- Developing time lines that quickly phase in contracted civilian-engineer capabilities to relieve a deployed Army.
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