UNITED24 - Make a charitable donation in support of Ukraine!

Military

Glossary

AAFES
Army and Air Force Exchange System

ADA
air defense artillery

ADCON
administrative control

administrative control
the direction or exercise of authority necessary to fulfil military department statutory responsibilities for administration and support; ADCON may be delegated to and exercised by service commanders at any echelon at or below the service component command; the secretaries of military departments are responsible for the administration and support of their forces assigned or attached to unified commands; secretaries fulfil this responsibility by exercising ADCON through the service component commander of the unified command; ADCON is subject to the command authority of the combatant commander

AFCS
Army facilities component system

AIDS
acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIFC
American Friends of Action Internationale Contre La Faim

alliance
the result of formal agreements between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives; see also multinational

AMC
Army Materiel Command

antiterrorism
defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military forces; also called AT

AO
area of operations

AOFDA
US Aid Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance

ARFOR
Army force

ARL
airborne reconnaissance low

armistice
in international law, a suspension or temporary cessation of hostilities by agreement between belligerent powers

Army facilities components system
the Army engineer's construction, execution, and logistics system in support of OCONUS contingency facility requirements; it provides detailed engineer theater planning data, austere designs consistent with joint construction standards, and logistics data for construction bills of material that are available in TMs 5-301 through 5-304

ARSOF
Army special operations forces

ASD(ISA)
Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs

ASD(S&R)
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy and Requirements

ASD(SO/LIC)
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict

branch
a contingency plan (an option built into the basic plan) for changing the disposition, orientation, or direction of movement of the force

buffer zone
the space controlled by the peace operations force that assures the specified parameters (as determined by METT-T, ROE, range of the belligerent's direct and indirect weapons systems, and commander's intent) and degree of risk will not be exceeded

CA
civil affairs

CADST
civil affairs direct support team

CAO
chief administrative officer

CARE
Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Incorporated

center of gravity
the hub of all power and movement upon which everything depends; that characteristic, capability, or location from which enemy and friendly forces derive their freedom of action, physical strength, or the will to fight

CID
criminal investigation division

CINC
commander-in-chief

CINCLANT
commander-in-chief, Atlantic Fleet

CIS
common item support

civil affairs
the activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between military forces and civil authorities, both governmental and nongovernmental, and the civilian population in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate operational objectives; civil affairs may include performance by military forces of activities and functions normally the responsibility of local government; these activities may also occur, if directed, in the absence of other military operations

civil-military operations
the complex of activities in support of military operations embracing the interaction between the military force and civilian authorities fostering the development of favorable emotions, attitudes, and behavior in neutral, friendly, or hostile groups

CLO
chief logistics officer

CMOC
civil-military operations center

COA
course of action

coalition
an ad hoc agreement between two or more nations for a common action

combat service support
the focus of logistics at the tactical level of war; the synchronization of essential functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain soldiers and their weapon systems in an area of operations; includes but is not limited to that support rendered by service support troops to arm, fuel, fix, move, man, and sustain soldiers and their equipment

combat support
operational assistance for combat elements

combatant command
the command authority over assigned forces vested in the commanders of unified commands by Title X, US Code, Section 164, or as directed by the President in the Unified Command Plan (UCP); COCOM provides full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions; COCOM is not transferable; the CINC uses COCOM to organize and employ his commands and forces, assign tasks, designate objectives, and give authoritative direction over al aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the assigned missions; the CINC normally exercises COCOM through his service component commanders

combatting terrorism
actions taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum, including antiterrorism--defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts--and counterterrorism-- offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism

combined arms
application of several arms, such as infantry, armor, artillery, and aviation

command
constitutes the authority to issue orders covering every aspect of military operations and administration; the sole source of legitimacy for US commanders originates from the US constitution, federal law, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice and flows from the President to the lowest US commander in the field; the chain of command, from the President to the lowest commander in the field, remains inviolate (Presidential Decision Directive 25)

COMSEC
communications security

conflict termination
the process and period during which military forces transition from active combat operations to postconflict activities and from postconflict activities to redeployment

conflict
the period characterized by confrontation and the need to engage in hostilities other than to secure strategic objectives

constraint
limitations placed on the command by a higher command; constraints restrict freedom of action for planning a mission by stating what must be done

coordinating authority
a consultation relationship between commanders, but not an authority to exercise control; the CINC and other subordinate commanders designate coordinating authority to assist during planning and preparation for actual operations; the CINC specifies coordinating authority to foster effective coordination; however, coordinating authority does not compel any agreements; within the parameters set by the CINC's organization of the theater and the command relationships that he establishes, the Army organizes itself to best accomplish its missions; the CINC has the authority to direct certain Army organizational options but normally leaves internal Army organization and command relationships to the ASCC

COSCOM
corps support command

counterintelligence
information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations, persons or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document, or communications security programs

counterterrorism
offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism

CRS
community relations service

CS
combat support

CSCE
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

CSS
combat service support

CTC
combat training center

CTF
combined task force

CVS
commercial vendor services

demilitarized zone
in contrast to buffer zones, demilitarized zones are not normally occupied by third-party presence but are patrolled by observer teams or surveyed from observation posts; DMZs are created to neutralize certain areas from military occupation and activity; generally speaking, they are areas which are claimed by both sides and where control by one could constitute a direct threat to the other

DIA
Defense Intelligence Agency

direct liaison authorized
the authority granted by a commander at any level to a subordinate to directly coordinate an action with a command or agency within or outside the command; DIRLAUTH is a coordination relationship, not an authority through which command is exercised

DIRLAUTH
direct liaison authorized

DMZ
demilitarized zone

doctrine
fundamental principles by which military forces guide their actions in support of national objectives; doctrine is authoritative but requires judgment in application

DOD
Department of Defense

DOS
Department of State

DPKO
department of peacekeeping operations

DSAA
Defense Security Assistance Agency

end state
military end state includes the required conditions that, when achieved, attain the strategic objectives or pass the main effort to other instruments of national power to achieve the final strategic end state; that end state describes what the NCA wants the situation to be when operations conclude-both military operations, as well as those where the military is in support of other instruments of national power; in the peace operations context, end state includes the political and military conditions described by the authorizing power as the objective of peace operations

FAA
Foreign Assistance Act

FALD
field administration and logistics division

FAO
Food and Agricultural Organization

FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Agency

FIN
Finland

FLSG
force logistics support group

force protection
security program designed to protect soldiers, civilians employees, family members, facilities, and equipment in all locations and situations; accomplished through planned and integrated application of combatting terrorism, physical security, operations security, personal protective services; supported by intelligence, counterintelligence, and other security programs

force projection
the movement of military forces from CONUS or a theater in response to requirements of war or operations other than war; force-projection operations extend from mobilization and deployment of forces, to redeployment to CONUS or home theater, to subsequent demobilization

foreign assistance
assistance ranging from the sale of military equipment to donations of food and medical supplies to aid survivors of natural and man-made disasters; US assistance takes three forms--development assistance, humanitarian assistance, and security assistance

fratricide/friendly fire
a circumstance applicable to persons accidentally killed or wounded or equipment accidentally or mistakenly damaged in military action by friendly forces actively engaged with the enemy while directing fire at a hostile force or what is thought to be a hostile force

FYROM
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

HA
humanitarian assistance

health services
all services performed, provided, or arranged by the Army Medical Department to support, promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of military personnel

HOM
head of media

host nation
a nation that receives the forces and/or supplies of allied nations and/or NATO organizations to be located on, to operate in, or to transit through its territory

host nation support
civil and/or military assistance rendered by a nation to foreign forces within its territory during peacetime, times of crisis, emergencies, or war; assistance provided during war is based upon agreements mutually concluded between nations

HSS
health service support

humanitarian assistance
assistance provided by DOD forces, as directed by appropriate authority, in the aftermath of natural or man-made disasters to help reduce conditions that present a serious threat to life and property; assistance provided by US forces is limited in scope and duration and is designed to supplement efforts of civilian authorities who have primary responsibility for providing such assistance

HUMINT
human intelligence

IAPF
Inter-American Peace Force

IC
Irish Concern

ICRD
International Committee of the Red Cross

illum
illumination

IMC
International Medical Corps

INGO
international nongovernmental organizations

INS
Department of Immigration and Naturalization Service

intelligence
the product resulting from collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas

IPB
intelligence-preparation-of-the-battlefield

IRC
International Rescue Committee

ISE
intelligence support element

JAG
judge advocate general

JCS
Joint Chiefs of Staff

joint tactics, techniques, and procedures
actions and methods that implement joint doctrine and describe how forces are employed in joint operations; joint TTP are promulgated by the JCS

joint task force
a force composed of assigned or attached elements of two or more services and constituted by appropriate authority for a specific or limited purpose or missions of short duration

JOSE
joint operations support element

J-STARS
joint surveillance target attack radar system

JTF
joint task force

JTFCEM
joint task force contingency engineer manager

letter of assist
a contractual document issued by the UN to a government, authorizing it to provide goods or services to a peacekeeping operation; the UN agrees either to purchase the goods or services or authorizes the government to supply them subject to reimbursement by the UN

liaison
that contact or intercommunication maintained between elements or military forces to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action

LIC
low-intensity conflict

LNO
liaison officer

LOA
letter of assist

LOC
line of communication

LOGCAP
Logistics Civil Augmentation Program

logistics
the process of planning and executing the movement and sustainment of forces to execute military operations; includes the design, development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel; logistics includes--

  • acquisition, preparation, maintenance, equipping, movement, and health service support of personnel;

  • acquisition or furnishing of services;

  • acquisition, construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities;

logistics is an overarching function that must encompass the range of military operations; at the tactical level, logistics focuses on the traditional CSS functions of arming, fixing, fueling, manning, moving, and sustaining soldiers

logistics support element
a multifaceted logistical organization that has a work force easily tailored to meet logistics requirements and can control the interface among strategic, operational, and tactical logistics

LPT
logistics-preparation-of-the-theater

LSCS
Logistics Support Command, Somalia

LSE
logistics support element

LWR
Lutheran World Relief, Incorporated

MARFOR
Marine force

MCC
movements control center

MEDCOM
medical command

METL
mission-essential task list

METT-T
mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, and time available

MFO
multinational force and observers

MINURSO
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara

MP
military police

MSF
Medicines Sans Frontiers

MSR
main supply route

MTT
mobile training teams

multinational
pertaining to activities of both alliance and coalition organizations

multinational operation
a collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations; typically conducted within structures of coalitions or alliances

MWR
morale, welfare, and recreation

nation assistance
diplomatic, economic, informational, and military cooperation between the US and the government of another nation, with the objective of promoting internal development and the growth of sustainable institutions within that nation; corrects conditions that cause human suffering and improves the quality of life of the nation's people

NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC
nuclear, biological, chemical

NCA
National Command Authorities

NEO
noncombatant evacuation operations

NGO
nongovernment organization

nongoverment
organization
a professional association, foundation, multinational business or other group with an interest in improving the quality of life of people

NOR
Norway

NORD
Nordic

NSC
National Security Council

NSE
national support element

OAS
Organization of American States

OCONUS
outside the continental United States

OMA
operations and maintenance Army

ONUC
United Nations Operations in the Congo

ONUMOZ
United Nations Operation in Mozambique

ONUSAL
United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador

OOTW
operations other than war

OPCON
operational control

OPCOM
operational command

operational command (NATO)
used to assign missions or tasks to subordinate commanders, to deploy units, to reassign forces, and to retain or delegate OPCON and/or TACON as deemed necessary; OPCOM does not include responsibility for administration or logistics; OPCOM may denote the forces assigned to a commander

operational control (US)
as discussed in joint doctrine, operational control is a slightly broader authority than OPCOM; OPCON, in addition to the authorities of the NATO operational command, includes the authority to prescribe the chain of command; organize commands and forces; suspend or reassign officers; delineate functional responsibilities; and delineate geographic AORs; the CINC uses OPCON to delegate the most authority with which subordinates can direct al aspects of military operations and joint training needed to accomplish any assigned mission; a commander with OPCON may control forces from one or more services; OPCON does not normally include the authority to direct logistics, administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit training; during OPCON the service component commander retains this service authority

operational control (NATO)
the authority delegated to a commander to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks which are usually limited by function, time, or location; further includes the deployment of units concerned and the retention or delegation of tactical control to those units; does not include authority to assign separate employment of components of concerned units; neither does it, of itself, include administrative or logistical control

operational control (PDD 25)
a subset of command given for a specific time frame or mission; includes the authority to assign tasks to US forces already deployed by the President and assign tasks to US units led by US officers; within the limits of operational control, a foreign UN commander cannot change the mission or deploy US forces outside the area of responsibility agreed to by the President, separate units, divide their supplies, administer discipline, promote individuals, or change the internal organization of units

operations other than war
military activities during peacetime and conflict what do not necessarily involve armed clashes between two organized forces

OPLAN
operations plan

OPORD
operations order

OPSEC
operations security

PA
public affairs

PAO
public affairs officer

PDD
Presidential decision directive

PDF
Panamanian Defense Force

PE
peace enforcement

peace operations
an umbrella term that encompasses three types of activities; activities with predominantly diplomatic lead (preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peace building) and two complementary, predominately military, activities (peacekeeping and peace-enforcement)

peace-building
postconflict actions, predominately diplomatic, that strengthen and rebuild civil infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid a relapse into conflict

peace-enforcement
the application of military force, or the threat of its use, normally pursuant to intermational authorization, to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to maintain or restore peace and order

peacekeeping
military or paramilitary operations that are undertaken with the consent of all major belligerents; designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an existing truce and support diplomatic efforts to reach long-term political settlement

peacemaking
a process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement that arranges ends to disputes and resolves issues that led to conflict

PHS
Public Health Service

PK
peacekeeping

preventive diplomacy
diplomatic actions taken in advance of a predictable crisis and aimed at removing the sources of conflict before violence erupts or to limit the spread of violence when it occurs

principles of war
the enduring bedrock of Army doctrine that provides general guidance for the conduct of war at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels

procedures
a standard and detailed course of action that describes how to perform a task

psychological operations
planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and, ultimately, the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals; the purpose is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives

PSYOP
psychological operations

PVO
private voluntary organization

QRF
quick reaction force

ROE
rules of engagement

rules of engagement
directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which US forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other encountered forces

SAM
surface-to-air missile

SCF-UK
Save the Children Federation-UK

SECDEF
Secretary of Defense

SECSTATE
Secretary of State

security assistance
groups of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives

SF
Special Forces

SFODA
Special Forces operational detachments-A

SIGINT
signals intelligence

SJA
staff judge advocate

SO
special operations

SOF
special operations forces

SOFA
status of forces agreement

SOMA
status of mission agreement

SOP
standing operating procedures

special operations
actions conducted by specially organized, trained, and equipped military and paramilitary forces to achieve military, political, economic, or psychological objectives by nonconventional military means in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive areas; they are conducted in peace, conflict, and war, independently or in coordination with operations of general purpose forces; politico-military considerations frequently shape special operations, requiring clandestine, covert, or low-visibility techniques and oversight at the national level; special operations differ from conventional operations in degree of risk, operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets

specified command
a command with a broad, continuing mission under a single commander normally composed of forces from one service

split-based logistics
dividing logistics management functions so that only those functions absolutely necessary are deployed, allowing some management functions to be accomplished from CONUS or another theater

SRSG
special representative to the secretary general

STANAG
standardization agreement

status of forces agreement
an international agreement that demonstrates the legal relationship between the armed services of sending states and the host nation; determines a standard legal treatment and provides a basis for solving legal problems required by the presence of foreign forces abroad

strategy
the art and science of employing the armed forces and other elements of national power during peace, conflict, and war to secure national security

support
relationships for one force to aid, assist, protect, or logistically support another force; the supporting force gives the needed support to the supported force; establishing supported and supporting relationships among components is a useful option to accomplish needed tasks; this concept applies equally to all dimensions of the joint force organized by the CINC; categories of support include--

Mutual support describes actions that units render one another against an enemy because of their assigned tasks, their positions relative to one another and to the enemy, and their inherent capabilities

General support provides designated support to a supported force as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof; the most centralized support relationship; for combat units, this relationship provides the most flexibility for influencing the battle during conduct of operations and is used when the enemy situation is unclear; more commonly used in the defense rather than the offense

Direct support provides designated support to a specific force and authorizes the supported force to directly seek this support; a supporting force is designated to directly assist a supported force; this is accomplished by providing support on a priority basis to the supported force; however, the supporting force may provide support to other forces when it does not jeopardize the mission or put at risk the supported force; authority to accomplish support of other than direct supported forces rests with the higher tactical or operational commander but also may be delegated as described by doctrine, the operations plan, or operations order; for example, this support includes the elements of a general support artillery brigade assigned a direct support mission and temporarily diverted to support a force other than the designated force

Close support is that action of the supporting force against targets or objectives sufficiently near the supported force as to require detailed integration or coordination of the supporting action with the fire, movement, or other actions of the supported force

SWE
Sweden

SYG
secretary general

TACAIR
tactical air

TACON
tactical control

tactical command (NATO)
the authority delegated to a commander to assign tasks to forces under his command for the accomplishment of the mission assigned by higher authority; differs from TACON in that TACON involves only the necessary control of movements and maneuvers to accomplish a previously assigned mission

tactical control
the detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned; in general, the delegation of tactical control is only necessary when two or more units not under the same operational control are combined to form a cohesive tactical unit; a commander having tactical control is responsible for formulating the plan and issuing the necessary orders to the unit; the CINC uses TACON to limit the authority to direct the tactical use of combat forces; TACON is normally detailed and specifies local direction of movement and maneuver to accomplish an assigned task; TACON does not provide organizational authority or administration and support responsibilities; the service component normally retains this authority; both NATO and US joint doctrine share the same definition for TACON

tactics
the employment of units in combat; the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to one another and/or to the enemy in order to use their full potential; for example, a commander designates a unit as a reserve and plans for its use

techniques
the general and detailed methods used by troops and/or commanders to perform assigned missions and functions, specifically, the methods of using equipment and personnel; for example, a tactic of covering an obstacle with direct and indirect fires may be executed by emplacing machine guns on the flanks to fire down the length of the obstacle and mortars firing on the obstacle initially then beyond it to cutoff withdrawal of an opposing force

tenets
a basic truth held by an organization; the fundamental tenets of Army operations doctrine describe the characteristics of successful operations

TOR
terms of reference

total mission awareness
the ability of commanders at all levels to consider everything that affects their operation; applies to operations other than war and war

TSP
training support package

UN
United Nations

UNAVEM
United Nations Angola Verification Mission

UNCIVPOL
United Nations civilian police

UN-DMT
United Nations Disaster Management Team

UNDHA
United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs

UNDOF
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force

UNDP
United Nations Development Program

UNFICYP
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus

UNGA
United Nations General Assembly

UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF
United Nations Childrens' Fund

unified command
a command with a broad, continuing mission under a single commander and composed of significant assigned components of two or more services

UNIFIL
United Nations Intervention Force in Southern Lebanon

UNIKOM
United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission

UNITAF
unified task force

UNMIH
United Nations Mission in Haiti

UNMO
United Nations military observers

UNMOGIP
United Nations Military Observer Force in India and Pakistan

UNOMIG
United Nations Mission in Georgia

UNAMIR
United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda

UNOMIL
United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia

UNOMUR
United Nations Mission for Uganda-Rwanda

UNOSOM
United Nations Operations in Somalia

UNPROFOR
United Nations Protection Force

UNSC
United Nations Security Council

UNTSO
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization

USACIC
criminal investigation command

USAID
United States Agency for International Development

USCG
United States Coast Guard

USINCCENT
United States Central Command

USD(A)
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition

USD(P)
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy

USDA
Department of Agriculture

USFORDOMREP
United States Forces Dominican Republic

USFORSOM
United States Forces, Somalia

USIA
United States Information Agency

USIS
United States Information Service

USYG
under secretary general

versatility
the ability of units to meet diverse challenges, shift focus, tailor forces, and move from one role or mission to another rapidly and efficiently

VIP
very important persons

war
a state of open and declared armed hostile conflict between political units such as states or nations; may be limited or general in nature

WFP
World Food Program

WHO
World Health Organization

WVRD
World Vision Relief and Development, Incorporated



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list