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Appendix K

Reception Operations

This Appendix discusses the different ways personnel, unit equipment, and materiel will enter a theater.

Reception Complexes

  K-1. Normally, the majority of personnel, unit equipment, and materiel will enter a theater through two types of reception complexes, the Joint Aerial Port and the Joint Water Port.

JOINT AERIAL PORT COMPLEX

  K-2. The Joint Aerial Port Complex containing an Air Terminal is a key node in any reception and deployment operation. During deployment operations the Aerial Port Complex handles flows in both directions, inbound as well as outbound movement.
  K-3. The operation of a Joint Aerial Port Complex can be divided into two parts, the air terminal operations run by the Air Mobility Command and the air terminal support functions which are, in most cases, the responsibility of the Army Component Command. However, other Service Component Commands may be responsible for operating some functions.
  K-4. These support operations may include port clearance, movement control, onward movement, liaison, operation of holding areas, postal operations, and personnel replacement processing. Table K-1 identifies some of the organizations located within the Aerial Port Complex and illustrates some of the functions they perform.

Table K-1. Support Organizations and Functions at a Joint Aerial Port Complex

Organization or Activity

Parent Organization

Theater
C2

Major Functions

Aerial Port Squadron/Mobility Flight

USTRANSCOM (AMC)

Per Command Arrangement Agreements

Plan aircraft loads, process and document personnel and cargo, load and service airlift aircraft.

Aeromedical Evacuation Liaison Team

USTRANSCOM (AMC)

Per Command Arrangement Agreements

Communicate/coordinate aeromedical evacuation requirements between medical facilities and the Global Patient Regulating Center.

Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group Army Component Command OPCON to Senior Support Command Coordination with the TALCE, clear arrival and departure airfield.
Port Movement Control Detachment Movement Control Agency OPCON to Senior Support Command Assist deploying units with onward movement from port. Resolve problems with frustrated cargo.
ASG Liaison Element

Theater Support Command OPCON to Senior Support Command Coordinate ASG support at port.
NEO Liaison Element Army Component Command OPCON to Senior Support Command Coordinate all movements of noncombatants.
Aircraft Maintenance Team Army Component Command OPCON to Senior Support Command Provide technical assistance to Army aviation units deploying through the Joint Aerial Port Complex.
Postal Operations Terminal Air or Army Component Command OPCON to Senior Support Command Process inbound or outbound mail shipments.
Tanker Airlift Control Element USTRANSCOM (AMC) Per Command Arrangement Agreement Control, coordinate, and monitor US airlift operations.
Port Security Air Component Command, Army Component Command outside airfield OPCON to Senior Support Command Provides physical security for the airfield and port complex.
Airlift Clearance Authority Air Component Command Air Component Command Provide clearance for theater airlift of Air Force cargo from Aerial Port Complex.
Host Nation Support Elements Host Nation OPCON to Senior Support Command Operate airfield, load/ unload aircraft, service aircraft, provide local transportation, provide security, provide air defense, and so forth.
  K-5. In the Joint Aerial Port Complex various organizations establish sites to carry out these functions. These sites are designated by the Joint Aerial Port Complex Commander in coordination with the host nation and other Allied commands which may be using the facility. Many of these functions are performed at supporting nodes. Some of these supporting nodes include Holding Areas (Enemy Prisoner of War, NEO, Frustrated Cargo, and so forth), Assembly Areas (Convoy, Helicopter, Vehicle, and so forth), and Railheads. Figure K-1 depicts a notional configuration of a Joint Aerial Port Complex illustrating some of the functions performed in the complex. Some of the supporting nodes are also shown.

Figure K-1. Notional Joint Aerial Port Complex

  K-6. The JFC selects the Aerial Port Complex, and USTRANSCOM activates it with Air Mobility Command assets. A/DACG elements (provided by the primary user) should be front loaded on the TPFDD to facilitate the processing and onward movement of follow-on units.
  K-7. Functionally, the APOD can be divided into three main areas: the airfield/off-loading ramp, holding area, and marshaling area, as shown in Figure K-2. TALCE will off-load personnel and cargo from the aircraft and move them to the specified off-loading ramp. The A/DACG then moves and processes the personnel and cargo in the holding area. Upon release, personnel and cargo move to the marshaling area. From the marshaling area, the Port Movement Control Detachment coordinates the unit's movement to its TSB.
  K-8. The TPFDD should sequence a unit's advance party and main body through the APOD and to the TSB 24 hours prior to the arrival of its equipment at the SPOD or railhead.
  K-9. The airfield/off-loading ramp activities are controlled by the TALCE. Each load, when off-loaded from the aircraft, will be released to the A/DACG for return to unit control at the established release point.

Figure K-2. Notional APOD Diagram

  K-10. TALCE will:
 
  • Advise the A/DACG of the airflow and expected arrival of aircraft.
  • Plan and supervise aircraft parking.
  • Receive passenger and cargo manifests from the loadmaster.
  • Supervise off-loading the aircraft (normally accomplished by the aerial port squadron), including removal of shoring and dunnage.
  • Provide all MHE and special off-loading equipment, including operators.
  • Ensure communications between the TALCE and A/DACG and all functional areas of the TALCE.
  • Inform the A/DACG of any change in operations.
  • Maintain statistical data on the operation.
  • Release the load to the A/DACG at the established release point.
  K-11. The A/DACG will:
 
  • Maintain coordination with the TALCE and the deploying unit (if the A/DACG is in the lead element, it will immediately coordinate with the TALCE upon its arrival).
  • Maintain records on personnel and equipment received and cleared.
  • Provide off-load teams with pusher vehicles.
  • Coordinate with the TALCE for recovery and storage of shoring materials.
  • Provide fuel, oil and minor maintenance for transported vehicles.
  • Provide or coordinate for emergency services as required. (For more information see FM 55-12.)
  K-12. The deploying unit troop or plane load commander will:
 
  • Provide unit liaison personnel to the A/DACG.
  • Assist the A/DACG as required.
  • Provide assistance to primary loadmaster.
  • Receive instructions from the off-load team chief.
  • Ensure that all aircraft tie-down equipment, pallets, and nets are returned to the TALCE.
  • Provide one copy of the passenger and cargo manifests to the A/DACG.
  K-13. The holding area activities are controlled by the A/DACG. The holding area will be selected by the TALCE in coordination with the A/DACG. The marshaling area is where the deploying element terminates its air movement and prepares for in-theater movement. The personnel will normally move to the TSB where they will reunite with equipment and supplies. Some small units will arrive by air with accompanying equipment and will be capable of transporting themselves to their employment location.

DISPOSITION OF UNITS AND MATERIEL WITHIN THE APOD

  K-14. Arriving unit equipment will be moved to either a Vehicle Assembly Area in the vicinity of the Railhead (if one is available) or to the Convoy Assembly Area depending on the mode used for onward movement.
  K-15. Arriving unit helicopters will be towed to the Helicopter Assembly Area by trained crews and prepared for flight to the Helicopter Marshaling Area normally located outside of the Joint Aerial Port Complex.
  K-16. Palletized non-unit materiel will be unloaded and transported either to the Pallet Holding/Breakdown Area or other cargo storage area. Palletized unit materiel beyond the unit's capability to transport will normally be loaded directly onto common-user US, host nation, or Allied vehicles and depart the complex with deploying unit personnel.
  K-17. Non-unit ammunition, and other hazardous materiel, arriving in the complex will be transported to designated hazardous cargo storage areas in accordance with local procedures established for hazardous materiel to comply with NEW and Quantity/Distance restrictions.

OUTBOUND OPERATIONS

  K-18. The Joint Aerial Port Complex will also support outbound operations. These operations could include NEO, movement of enemy prisoners of war, or the movement of human remains, reparable spares, or mail. To accommodate outbound operations, the Joint Aerial Port Complex Commander will designate specific locations within the complex to serve as Enemy Prisoner of War Holding Areas, mortuary holding area, and NEO Holding Areas.

JOINT WATER PORT COMPLEXES

  K-19. Another key node in any reception and deployment operation is the Joint Water Port Complex containing a water terminal. As with the Joint Aerial Port Complex, the Joint Water Port Complex may handle flows in both directions including the reception of unit materiel and non-unit cargo, as well as the outbound movement of equipment requiring repair, empty containers, and possibly captured enemy equipment.
  K-20. As with the Joint Aerial Port Complex, a number of US and host nation support organizations are responsible for performing the many functions associated with the operation of a Joint Water Port Complex. Some of the US organizations are provided by the JFC's component commands while others are provided by components of USTRANSCOM. Table K-2 identifies the organizations, some of the functions they perform within the Joint Water Port Complex, and the theater command and control relationships. USCINCTRANS has established standing agreements with each of the unified commanders. These agreements are CAA and delineate command relationships for USTRANSCOM elements located in the unified commander's AOR under peace and wartime conditions. The unified commander is the ultimate authority for command relationship within the theater and delineates them via OPLANs and orders.

Table K-2. Organizations and Functions at a Joint Water Port Complex

Organization or
Activity

Parent
Organization

Theater
C2

Major Functions

MSC Office

USTRANSCOM

(MSC)

Per Command Arrangement Agreement

Coordinate husbanding services of ships in port.

Composite Transportation Group

Army Component Command

OPCON to Senior Support Command

Perform port operation and terminal service functions.

MTMC

USTRANSCOM (MTMC)

Per Command Arrangement Agreement

Manage theater common-user seaports and workload the JFC designated port operator.

Ocean Cargo Clearance

Authority

USTRANSCOM (MTMC)

Per Command Arrangement Agreement

Coordinate movement of outbound cargo from sea port.

Logistic Support Element

Army Materiel Command

OPCON to Senior Support Command

Provide Support to Army prepositioned afloat operations.

Naval Control of Shipping Organization Naval Component Command Naval Component Command Coordinate deployment of merchant ship convoys
Port Support Activity Deploying unit or designated unit OPCON to Port Operator Provide support necessary to assist in deployment (that is, vehicle drivers, equipment operators, limited maintenance, security, life support).
Port Movement Control Team MCA OPCON to Senior Support Command Assist deploying units with onward movement from port.
Area Support Group TSC OPCON to Senior Support Command Coordinate ASG port support.
NEO Liaison Element Army Component Command OPCON to Senior Support Command Coordinate all movements of noncombatants.
Helicopter Maintenance Team TSC OPCON to Port Operator Provide technical assistance to Army aviation units deploying through the Joint Water Port Complex.
DHA Control Group PSA OPCON to Port Operator Provide necessary services for accommodating personnel at DHA.
Tanker Airlift Control Element USTRANSCOM (AMC) Per Command Arrangement Agreement Control, coordinate, and monitor US airlift operations at Sea-to-Air Interface Site.
Aerial Port Squadron/Mobility Flight USTRANSCOM (AMC) Per Command Arrangement Agreement Provide cargo/passenger service at SAIS.
Airlift Clearance Authority Air Component Command Air Component Command Provide clearance for theater airlift of cargo from SAIS.
ASG SAIS Liaison Element TSC OPCON to Port Operator Coordinate ASG support at SAIS.
Port Security (Waterside) USCG OPCON to Naval Component Command Provide physical security of the port complex.
Port Security (Pierside) Army Component Command/Navy Component Command/Host Nation OPCON to Port Operator Provide physical security of the port complex.
Host Nation Support Elements Host Nation OPCON to Senior Support Command Operate port, load/unload vessels, operate airfield, load aircraft, provide local transportation, provide security, provide air defense, and so forth.
  K-21. The JFC may designate MTMC as the port manager and a Service component (normally the Army as the primary user) as the port operator. Within the Joint Water Port Complex, the various organizations establish sites where they can carry out these functions. These sites are designated by the Joint Water Port Complex Commander (appointed by senior support commander) in coordination with the host nation and other Allied commands which may be using the facility.
  K-22. The SLRP deploys and conducts a reconnaissance and provides detailed information to the JFC on projected port operations.
  K-23. Figure K-3 depicts a notional configuration of a Joint Water Port Complex showing some of the functions that would be performed in the complex. The figure shows a composite profile of the complex including the SAIS.

DISPOSITION OF PERSONNEL AND MATERIAL IN THE JOINT WATER PORT COMPLEX

  K-24. Arriving materiel is unloaded and moved to appropriate processing areas located within the complex. If the unit vehicles can be driven off a RO/RO ship or lifted from another type of ship and placed alongside on the pier, drivers from the unit will be provided from the DHA based on daily coordination between the Joint Water Terminal Operator and the operator of the DHA. Drivers may also be provided by the PSA located at the complex. The drivers move the equipment to a Marshaling Area in the vicinity of the Railhead (if one exists) or to the Convoy Assembly Area depending on the mode used for onward movement. Arriving unit helicopters will be towed to the Helicopter Assembly Area by trained crews and prepared for flight to the Helicopter Marshaling Area normally located outside of the Water Port Complex.
  K-25. Containerized non-unit materiel will be unloaded and transported directly to destination or to the Container Holding/Handling Area within the complex. Containerized unit materiel will accompany the other elements of the deploying unit. Non-unit ammunition arriving in the complex will be transported to designated ammunition storage areas in accordance with local procedures established for hazardous materiel and Net Explosive Weight restrictions. Breakbulk cargo will be lifted from ship holds and placed on common-user US, host nation, or Allied vehicles for onward movement from the complex, as arranged by the Port Movement Control Team within the Joint Water Port.
  K-26. The complex will also support outbound operations when required. These operations may include large numbers of personnel for NEO; the movement of enemy prisoners of war, empty containers, or the movement of damaged equipment or captured enemy equipment. To accommodate these outbound operations, the Joint Water Port Complex Commander would designate specific locations within the complex to serve as an Enemy Prisoner of War Holding Areas and NEO Holding Areas.

Figure K-3. Notional Joint Water Port Complex (with Sea-Air Interface Site)

  K-27. In certain cases, there may be urgent need for selected sustainment materiel or items of unit equipment arriving by sea to be moved by theater airlift to intermediate or final destinations within the theater. The designated items are unloaded from arriving vessels and immediately transported to a SAIS located within, or in close proximity to, the Joint Water Port Complex for onward movement by theater air.

SEA-AIR INTERFACE SITE

  K-28. Figure K-4 provides the notional layout of a Sea-Air Interface Site and shows some of the US organizations that normally would be located at this site. The units located at the facility will accomplish the following functions:
 
  • Receive the materiel.
  • Validate theater air clearance for onward movement.
  • Arrange theater airlift.
  • Coordinate aircraft operations and servicing at the facility.
  • Prepare loads and load them on the aircraft.
  • Prepare the necessary documentation and render reports necessary to maintain visibility of the materiel and personnel moved through the site.

Figure K-4. Notional Sea-Air Interface Site

RECEPTION SEQUENCE AT THE JOINT WATER PORT COMPLEX

  K-29. There can be three sequential events:
 
  • APS ashore.
  • APS afloat.
  • Surge Sealift.
  K-30. Initially, if required, the lodgment may be secured by airborne forces. The heavy brigade that is designated to draw the prepositioned ashore equipment provides a LO to the aerial port, an advance party, and the main body. The LO prepares for the arrival of the advance party and main body by arranging for support to move them to the equipment draw site. The advance party arrives at the aerial port and moves to the prepo ashore facility to draw the unit's equipment. The main body follows closely behind the advance party. (See Figure K-5)
  K-31. APS-3 provides a 2x2 brigade to reinforce the lodgment, to protect the key objectives, to open the port for the surge sealift from CONUS or forward deployed areas, and supports the conduct of military operations in the theater.
  K-32. The APS-3 vessels that carry this force are home ported in Diego Garcia and Saipan, and are moved to the theater of operations as heightened tensions and other indicators foretell its use. The first element of APS-3 is the initial port opening package and could be the only portion of APS-3 committed for humanitarian operations, or it is the opening package for larger operations involving surge sealift. It includes a heavy lift preposition ship or FLO/FLO vessel, a one of a kind self-submergible vessel. The FLO/FLO submerges to discharge the Army watercraft that are on board. These Army watercraft provide the theater the capability to do in-stream off-load to augment the theater reception capability. It also includes a crane ship, to provide crane capability should the port become disabled or have no capability. In addition, the crane ship has Force Provider modules that can be used to establish the TSB. Finally, it includes two RO/RO ships that contain equipment such as RTCH, and other MHE and CSS equipment necessary to open the port.

Figure K-5. APS-3 Reception

  K-33. The remainder of APS-3 includes LASH and RO/RO vessels that contain equipment and supplies necessary to support theater operations for the first 30 days. Stockage levels and equipment listings change as new ships are brought into the APS-3 fleet. The most up to date APS-3 stockage information is available in the APS-3 automated battlebooks published by USAMC. The battlebooks also provide units information from which TAT requirements can be established.
  K-34. Surge sealift begins arriving in theater around C+24. The process used is different from that of the APS-3 (see Figure K-6). The structure in place for APS-3 reception is not capable of supporting the large numbers of soldiers and equipment. The volume of arriving soldier and cargo creates the need for a separate theater staging base.
  K-35. In APS-3 operations the PSA comes from the brigade off-loading. The volume of shipping in surge sealift drives the need for the PSA to be a separate entity. It takes 200 soldiers a day to off-load the 1,100-1,700 vehicles in a LMSR vessel (100 per shift/24-hour operation).
  K-36. Surge sealift could bring up to 19-20 ships simultaneously to berth requiring a PSA of 3,000-4,000 soldiers. The standard is 7 days from the arrival of the ships until the forces are integrated into the ground commander's tactical plan.

Figure K-6. Surge Sealift Reception

 



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