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Appendix B

Joint/Multinational Distribution

The Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, under their departmental secretaries, and the Coast Guard, under the Department of Transportation in peacetime and the Department of the Navy in wartime, are responsible for the functions enumerated in DoD Directive 5100.1. They provide support for Service forces including procurement, distribution, supply, equipment, and maintenance, unless otherwise directed by the secretary of defense.

Nevertheless, recent operations in the Persian Gulf, Somalia, Rwanda, and elsewhere demonstrated that insufficient coordination may occur among the Services to plan and supervise CSS operations. The results may include a redundancy of materiel, duplication of effort, and competition for scarce in-country assets.

JOINT SUPPORT

 

B-1. The JFC is responsible for theater distribution. JP 4-01.4 will detail distribution in a joint context. Joint theater distribution managers often operate in an environment with special challenges and circumstances, and where deficiencies in asset visibility can have serious consequences-cost inefficiencies in peacetime and loss of additional lives in wartime. They may also operate in austere conditions without the support of an extensive base infrastructure. The lack of assured, continuous, high-quality communications adds further complications.

B-2. High quality management and support are essential to coordinate the buildup of CSS to support a contingency. It is highly unlikely that US forces will ever again have the time they were afforded to prepare for operations in Southwest Asia. Future contingencies will likely permit very limited time for the buildup before combatant operations begin.

B-3. Historically, providing CSS was predominately a Service responsibility. The Army can expect JFCs to ask Service component commanders to take on CSS missions supporting other Services. JFCs must capitalize on the unique strengths of individual Services that can best provide specific support to deploying forces. For further information see FM 100-10, FM 100-8, and JP 4-0.

B-4. JP 4-0 is the basis for joint logistics doctrine. It suggests that for a given area and mission, a single command authority should be responsible for logistics. In addition, it recommends that chains of command and staffs be organized in such a way during peacetime that reorganization is unnecessary during wartime.

B-5. JFCs ensure that the concept of CSS supports the concept of operations. The CSS concept of the campaign plan does this by establishing a base of operations, opening and maintaining LOCs, providing intermediate bases of operations to support phasing, and establishing priorities for support for each phase of a campaign. The CSS concept also uses available HNS and contracted support.

SUPPORT TO OTHER SERVICES

 

B-6. Even though CSS is a Service responsibility, the Army provides certain support to other Services though several types of authorities. Though the Army has other responsibilities, this discussion deals only with support provided to forces of other Services in a theater during operations. Such support falls into two basic categories. It is either support that the Army provides to other Services in all theaters and for all types of operations, or it is support associated with a specific theater, OPLAN, or situation.

B-7. Executive agency is only one facet of Army support to other Services. DA Memo 10-1lists all the executive agency responsibilities of the Army. It defines an executive agent as a "DoD component which has been designated by the President, DoD, or Congress as the sole agency to perform a function or service for others." However, whether the term "executive agent" is used or not, the Army is responsible for certain support functions in all theaters. For example, the Army provides management of overland petroleum support to US land-based forces of all DoD components. To ensure wartime support, the Army funds and maintains tactical storage and distribution systems to supplement existing fixed facilities. The Army is responsible for inland distribution during wartime to include providing the necessary force structure to construct, operate, and maintain an inland petroleum distribution system. In an undeveloped theater, this also includes providing a system that transports bulk petroleum inland from the high-water mark of the designated ocean beach. Some key responsibilities related to theater distribution that are assigned to the Army on a permanent basis are listed in Figure B-1.

 

Figure B-1. Army Responsibilities for Support to Other Services

TASKING DOCUMENT

SUPPORT RESPONSIBILITY

AR 40-656

Veterinary Service Support

AR 40-905

Single Integrated Medical Logistics Management (SIMLM)

DSD Memo, 13/3/91

Controlled Disposal of Waste, Explosives, and Munitions

DSD Memo, 15/3/91,
and JP 4-06

Mortuary Affairs

DoDD 1315.06

Military Troop Construction Support to OCONUS USAF

DoDD 2310.01

Executive Agency for DoD Enemy Prisoner of War Detainee Program

DoDD 4500.09

Common-User Land Transportation in Overseas Areas

DoDD 4500.09

Intermodal Container Management

DoDD 4500.09

Overseas Ocean Terminal Operations

DoDD 4525.06

Management of Military Postal Services

DoDD 4705.01

Executive Agency for Land-Based Water Resources

DoDD 5030.49

Executive Agency for the DoD Customs Inspection Program

DoDDs 5160.65
and 5160.68

Management of Conventional Ammunition

DoDD 5515.08

Executive Agency for Processing Claims (in Selected Countries)

DoDD 5515.09

Executive Agency for Settlement of Tort Claims by DoD Employees

DoDI 4140.50

Locomotive Management

JP 4-01.5

Single Manager for Military Traffic Management

JP 4-02

Food Safety Service

JP 4-03

Overland Petroleum Support Management

OSD Memo 27

Inland Logistics Support to US Marine Corps

USD (Log) Memo, 6/11/95

Executive Agency for Automatic Information Technology (AIT)

 

B-8. In addition to these general responsibilities that apply in all theaters and for all Services (unless specifically limited to a single Service), a JFC may designate a Service, usually the dominant user or most capable Service, to provide common item/service support for the entire theater, areas within a theater, or specific operations. The JFC frequently tasks the Army component of a joint force to provide CSS to other Service components, and he may task it to provide specific support to allied commands or other agencies. Responsibilities may include-

  • Wartime Class I, II, III(B), IV, and IX in-theater receipt, storage, and issue.
  • Medical evacuation on the battlefield.
  • Transportation engineering for highway movements.
  • Finance, banking, and currency support.
  • Chemical ammunition.
  • Airdrop equipment and systems.
  • Billeting, medical, and food service support for transient personnel during other than unit moves.

B-9. CSS planners must identify joint and multinational CSS responsibilities as soon as possible so that adequate distribution assets are available to meet the JFC's requirements.

MULTINATIONAL SUPPORT

 

B-10. Although each country is responsible for providing sustainment for the forces it deploys, varying degrees of mutual CSS are expected in order to achieve economy of effort. Just as for US Services, responsibilities for allied countries can be delineated based on theater requirements and the ability of each country to provide materiel and services. Duplication of effort again should be avoided. Unity of effort among multinational CSS partners is essential. Limited centralized C2 is possible for some CSS functions, such as bulk fuel supply, contracting, movement control, and some services. This relationship is formed on a case-by-case basis consistent with METT-TC and the force command structure.

B-11. Multinational distribution is a major challenge. Potential problem areas include differences in doctrine, stockage levels, CSS mobility, interoperability, infrastructure, competition among Services and alliance and/or coalition members for common support, and national resource limitations. Nonetheless, force commanders must coordinate the use of facilities such as highways, rail lines, ports, and airfields in a manner that supports mission accomplishment. The notion that CSS is primarily a national responsibility cannot supplant detailed CSS planning in the operational area. CINCs typically form multinational CSS staff sections early to facilitate CSS coordination and support multinational operations.

B-12. Standardization of CSS systems and procedures can ease the CSS challenges. Interoperability of equipment, especially in adjacent or subordinate multinational units, is desirable and is considered by operational planners during concept development. Significant CSS operations include acquisition and distribution of food stuffs, fuels, ammunition, and spare parts; transportation; field services; and combat health support. JP 4-08 will detail multinational support considerations.

 



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