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Military

GLOSSARY

SECTION I

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ABFDS - aerial bulk fuel delivery system

ACR - armored cavalry regiment

ADC - area damage control

AFCS - Army Facilities Components System

AIM - armored, infantry, mechanized

API - American Petroleum Institute

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials

AVGAS - aviation gasoline

CIMIC - civil military cooperation

COMMZ - communications zone

CONUS - continental United States

COSCOM - corps support command

DFSC - Defense Fuel Supply Center

DISCOM - division support command

DLA - Defense Logistics Agency

DOD - Department of Defense

DOS - days of supply

DS - direct support

DWT - deadweight tons

EAC - echelons above corps

ENCOM - engineer command

FCU - fuel consumption unit

GS - general support

JP - jet propulsion

JPO - Joint Petroleum Office

LAPES - low altitude parachute extraction system

LOC - lines of communications

LOTS - logistics over the shore

MAC - Military Airlift Command

MBBLS - mike barrels

MMC - materiel management center

MOGAS - motor gasoline

MOPP - mission-oriented protective posture

MRO - materiel release order

MSC - Military Sealift Command

NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC - nuclear, biological, chemical

NICP - national inventory control point

NIGA - neutron induced gamma activity

POL - petroleum, oils, and lubricants

psi - pounds per square inch

RAOC - rear area operations center

RAP - rear area protection

SAPO - subarea petroleum office

SOP - standing operating procedure

STANAG - standardization agreement

STD - standard

TAACOM - theater army area command

TAMMC - theater army materiel management center

TMT - tactical marine terminal

TOE - table of organization and equipment

TRANSCOM - transportation command

USACC - United States Army Communications Command

USAGMPA - United States Army General Materiel and Petroleum Activity

SECTION II

DEFINITIONS

Additive

An agent for improving existing characteristics or for giving new characteristics to petroleum products.

Assault Hoseline System

A fuel transport system composed of hoses, collapsible fuel cells, and portable pumps which can be readily installed to supply fuel to rapidly advancing combat forces.

Aviation Gasoline (AVGAS)

A fuel for reciprocating aircraft engines. AVGAS has a low vapor pressure and distillation range and a high tetraethyllead content. It is obtained by the military under specification MIL-G-5572. Aviation gasoline 115/145 was replaced by 100/130 effective 1 June 1976.

Barrel

A common unit of measurement of liquids in the petroleum industry. It equals 42 US Standard gallons.

Base Terminal

The initial facility for receiving, storing, and distributing fuel entering a theater of operations.

Batch

A quantity of product pumped into a pipeline.

Batch Change

A change or transition from one product to another in a pipeline, shown by a change in product color or gravity or both.

Batching

The sequence in which two or more products are to be pumped that will result in the least waste of interracial material.

Batch Head

The downstream or leading end of a batch.

Batch Tail

The upstream or trailing end of a batch.

Blank Flange

A pipe-connecting flange supplied without bolt holes but otherwise ready for use. The fitting is intended to be drilled to suit the application. The blank flange is not the same as a blind flange.

Blanking Cap

A metal cap used to close a pipe or pipe section.

Blanking Off

Closing the end of a pipe or pipe fitting with a blank cap or a blind flange.

Blending

Mixing refinery products to suit market conditions; mixing on-specification fuel with off-specification fuel to bring the latter to specification or use limits (a method of reclamation); mixing an interface with either or both adjacent products (or with a third product) without degrading any of them beyond use limits.

Blind Flange

A flange used to close the end of a pipe or to close a pipeline to insure that there will be no movement of product.

Blinding Off

See Blanking Off.

Block Valve

Any valve in the main line of a pipeline used to sectionalize a line.

Booster Station

A pump station used to boost the discharge from tanker pumps to base terminal storage, or used along the pipeline for added throughput.

Branch Station

A pump station on a branch or lateral pipeline.

Buffer

A liquid, usually kerosene or solvent, inserted in a pipeline to separate different products with a minimum of product degradation (contamination).

Bulk Petroleum Products

Petroleum products (fuels and lubricants for example) which are normally transported by pipeline, rail tank car, tank vehicle, barge, or tanker and stored in tanks or containers having a capacity of more than 55 gallons. Fuel in 500-gallon collapsible containers is considered to be packaged.

Bulk Reduction

Packaging bulk petroleum products in cans, drums, and 500-gallon collapsible containers.

Bull Plug

A rounded cap or similarly shaped piece of pipe used to close the end of a pipeline section or pipe fitting.

Capacity

See Throughput.

Caustic

A corrosive capable of eating away or destroying matter. The term is applied to the destructive action of powerful alkalies such as hydroxides.

Centrifuge

A whirling instrument for separating liquids or liquids and solids of different specific gravity by use of centrifugal force.

Check Valve

A one-way or nonreturn valve that permits fluids to pass in one direction only. The valve closes when the pressure causing flow stops.

Chronometer

An instrument, also called a calorimeter or tintometer, for determining the color of petroleum products.

Clarifier

Any apparatus or device for removing the color or cloudiness of an oil by separating the foreign material through mechanical or chemical means. It may embody the principle of centrifugal action, filtration, simple heating or treatment with acid or alkali, or several of these principles.

Class III Supplies

Petroleum fuels: lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, preservatives, liquid and compressed gases, chemical products, coolants, deicing and antifreeze compounds, together with components and additives of such products and coal.

Color Change

An alteration in appearance that occurs when two different colored products join or commingle in a pipeline. This change helps determine the location of batch heads in the stream flow.

Commingling Spread

The distance of the stream flow in a pipeline that comprises the extent of mixing at the tail of one batch and the head of the succeeding batch.

Cone-Roof Tank

A tank with a fixed-roof that is slightly higher in the center than at the side walls, best adapted to storage of less volatile fuels such as kerosene and diesel oil.

Contamination

The addition of material not normally present in a petroleum product. Common contaminants are water, dirt, sand, rust, mill scale, and other petroleum products.

Corrosion

The deterioration of a material, usually metal, resulting from chemical or electrochemical action.

Crude

Unrefined petroleum.

Cubic Meter

1,000 liters of fuel at 15 C.

Cut

A fraction obtained by a separation process. Product withdrawn from a pipeline and routed into tankage. Product withdrawn from the middle of a batch is referred to as a heart cut.

Dehydrating

The removal of water by a filtering or settling process. Water in most light petroleum products will settle out if product is allowed to stand undisturbed for 12 to 24 hours. If the light product is in a storage tank, the excess water may be withdrawn through a water drawoff valve. If the product is in a small container, the water may be separated by siphoning or by filtering and decanting the water into another container.

Density

Specific weight or mass of a substance per unit volume (pounds per cubic foot or gallon or grams per cubic centimeter). Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of any volume of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of some standard substance (water in the case of liquids and hydrogen or air in the case of gases) at 40 C.

Developed Theater

An area where petroleum equipment and facilities are established and operating prior to designating the area as the theater of operations.

Discharge Pressure

The pressure at which fluid is discharged from a pumping unit or pumping station.

Dispatcher

The person who coordinates and controls the flow of product through the pipeline system according to schedules and directives.

Dispensing

Transferring fuel to drums, cans, and vehicles.

Downgrading

Assigning a lower grade to an off-specification product if it meets the requirements of the lower grade.

Downstream

The direction of pipeline flow.

Drum

A collapsible or rigid container for fuels. Capacities range from 55 to 500 gallons. Containers less than 55 gallons are usually referred to as cans.

Dye Plug

A dye, insoluble in petroleum products, injected into the stream between two like products with gravities that do not vary more than 2 degrees API. The color change indicates a new batch head.

Explosimeter

An instrument for determining the explosibility of a gas-air mixture.

Feeder Station

A pump station used at tank farms to supply the required suction pressure between tank farm installations and mainline (trunk) pump stations, or to feed fuel through short branch lines to dispensing tankage installations.

Feet of Head

The measure of pressure in terms of the height in feet of a column of a given fluid. This measurement is used in the hydraulic design of pipelines, since it can be applied directly to terrain elevations. It is also called head.

Fittings

Devices that may be attached to pipes to make connections or outlets.

Flange

A protruding rim, edge, rib, or collar, as on a wheel or pipeshaft, used to strengthen an object, hold it in place, or attach it to another object.

Flashpoint

The lowest temperature at which vapors rising from a petroleum product will ignite momentarily (flash) when a flame is applied under specified conditions.

Flexible Joint

Any joint between two pipes that permits one to be deflected without disturbing the other.

Floating Hoselines

Hoselines, buoyed by empty oil drums, used as a standby for pipeline or used in an emergency for short distances in calm water.

Floating-Roof Tank

A tank with a roof that floats on the surface of the liquid contents. The roof, which has a tight seal of synthetic rubber around its perimeter, rises and falls with changes in product level. When the roof falls to a certain distance from the bottom, it rests on supports. Because there is no vapor space between the surface of the product and the roof, breathing and filling losses are almost eliminated.

Flood Station

See Feeder Station.

Flow Meter

A device that measures the quantity of product flowing through a pipeline. It provides data for controlling products in a pipeline and for accounting purposes.

Gage Table

A table prepared to show the contents of a tank for each 1/8 or 1/16 inch of product contained in the tank. After the tank has been gaged with a steel tape or pole and the height of the liquid determined, the contents of the tank can be found by referring to this table.

Gaging

Measuring the contents or capacity, as of a tank.

Gallon

A unit of volume used in liquid measure. A US gallon contains 231 cubic inches or 3.785 liters; it is 0.83268 times the imperial gallon. One US gallon of water weighs 8.3374 pounds at 60 F.

Gasket

Material inserted between metal surfaces and kept under pressure so that the joint remains tight.

Gate Valve

A valve in which the line-closing element is a gate consisting of discs or wedges that are raised or lowered to regulate flow.

Globe Valve

A valve with a rounded chamber containing a beveled valve disc that is pressed against a seat to allow closure used for throttling flow of fuel.

Gravity, API

A scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products in terms of degrees API. The API gravity of any petroleum product corrected to 60 F may be calculated as follows:

The formula for converting degrees API to specific gravity is as follows:

 

Gravity, Specific

The ratio of the weight of any quantity of matter to the weight of an equal quantity of water.

Head Terminal

A bulk facility at the downstream end of the pipeline for receipt, storage, transportation, and issue of petroleum products. The terminal consists of a tank farm or tank farm complex, tank farm manifold, and a central pump station area.

Heart Cut

A narrow-range cut, usually taken near the middle portion of the stock being distilled or treated; a delivery of pure product from the middle of a batch at some intermediate point on the pipeline.

Hoseline

See Assault Hoseline System.

Incremental Pressure

The difference between the suction and discharge pressure of a pump or of a multipump pump station.

Inhibitors

Substances added in small amounts to a petroleum product to prevent or retard undesirable chemical changes from taking place in the product or in the condition of the equipment in which the product is used. In general, the main function of inhibitors is to prevent or retard oxidation or corrosion.

Innage

The height or volume of liquid in a storage tank, measured from the bottom of the tank to the top of the liquid.

Interface

A mixture of adjacent products in a multiproduct pipeline.

Jet Fuel

Fuel that meets the required properties for use in jet engines and aircraft turbine engines. Jet fuels are obtained for the Armed Forces in several grades. The most important grades are JP-4 (low vapor pressure) and JP-5 (high flashpoint). Both grades are produced under specification MIL-T-5624 and are designed for use in aircraft turbine engines. Jet fuel is usually called JP (jet propulsion) fuel.

Joint

The intersection of two pieces of pipe; a standard length of pipe.

Line

The pipe and supporting structures of a pipeline between installations.

Line Pressure

The pressure generated by pump station pumps and transmitted to the line so products will move through the line.

Logistical Pipeline System

A semipermanent or permanent pipeline system that delivers petroleum fuel to the using elements.

Looped Line

A doubled pipeline constructed for the purpose of increasing capacity or reducing pressure losses. An alternate section of pipeline built around a break or a point of potential damage, such as at a river crossing, to restore or maintain operations during repairs.

Manifold

A piping arrangement which permits a stream of liquid or gas to be divided into two or more streams, or which permits several streams to be collected into one.

Midpoint Gravity

The point in the commingling spread where the specific gravity is midway; an average of the specific gravities of the two products concerned.

Motor Gasoline (MOGAS)

A hydrocarbon fuel in the approximate composition range C5 H12 to C9H20 for use in internal combustion engines and procured by the military under three specifications. Federal specification VV-G-76 provides for two grades (regular and premium) and for three classes (A, B, and C). Another specification for leaded and unleaded gasoline is VV-G-001690. Specification MIL-G-3056 specifies combat grade types I and II.

Octane Number

Term used to indicate numerically the relative antiknock value of automotive gasolines and of aviation gasolines having a rating below 100. It is based on a comparison with the reference fuels, iso-octane (100 octane number) and normal heptane (0 octane number). The octane number of an unknown fuel is the volume percent of iso-octane in a blend with normal heptane which matches the unknown fuel in knocking tendencies under a specified set of conditions. Above 100, the octane number of a fuel is based on the engine rating, defined in terms of milliliters of tetraethyllead in iso-octane, which matches that of the unknown fuel.

Outage (Ullage)

The volume of unoccupied space in a storage tank or other container, measured or gaged from a reference point above the product to the surface of the product; the difference between rated capacity and actual contents; some space will always be left unoccupied for expansion of product.

On-Stream

A term indicating that a pump or pumping station is moving the product.

Packed Line

A petroleum pipeline packed with product, under pressure from the pump station, against a closed line valve.

Parallel Connection

Pumps are said to be connected "in parallel" when they receive product directly and simultaneously from the line; contrasted with connected "in series," in which the product goes through first one unit and then the other. Pumps in parallel deliver the cumulative volume of all pumps at the pressure of one pump; pumps in series deliver the volume of one pump at the cumulative pressure of all pumps.

Petroleum

Crude oil. Petroleum is a mixture of gaseous, liquid, and semisolid hydrocarbons varying widely in gravity and complexity. Petroleum can be removed as a liquid from underground reservoirs and can be separated into various fractions by distillation.

Pipehead

The downstream end of the pipeline with facilities for storing, distributing, or forwarding petroleum products.

Pipeline System

One or more pipelines operated by the same controlling headquarters.

Plug Valve

A valve with a revolving plug with an opening to permit passage of liquid when the opening is alined with the bore of the pipe. These valves are characterized by their rapid opening and closing capability (usually by turning a quarter turn with a removable handle), though some models have a control wheel with a worm gear. Most models do not permit passage of scrapers.

POL

Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants, Products included within the meaning of this term are petroleum, fuels, lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, temporary protective, liquid coolants, deicing and antifreeze compounds, and components and additives of such products.

Pressure Gage

An instrument used to measure and indicate pressure in a fluid.

Pressure Head

The pressure produced by a pump or by the weight of a column of liquid.

Product

Refined crude oil, generally restricted to fuels.

Product Color

In pipeline operations, the color artificially imparted to the product or the natural color of the refined product, used as a basis for testing or identification.

Pump

An apparatus for lifting or transferring fluids.

Pumping Station

The combination of two or more pumps used to boost the discharge from tanker pumps to base-terminal storage, or used along the pipeline for added throughput.

Pumps in Series

See Parallel Connection.

Purifying

The procedure by which contaminating agents are removed by filtering, inhibiting, dehydrating, or blending.

Rack, Loading

A structure with one or more risers, loading valves, arms, and drop tubes built along railroad tracks for loading railroad tank cars; a structure built in a tank vehicle loading area for transferring product into tank trucks. It is also known as a fill stand or loading stand.

Rapidly Deployable Pipeline

A pipeline that is grooved at the ends of each section to connect with victolic couplings. It is sometimes referred to as victolic pipeline.

Rate of Flow

The volume of product per unit time passing through a fixed point in the pipeline, usually expressed in barrels per hour or gallons per minute.

Reclamation

Restoring or changing a contaminated or off-specification petroleum product so that it will either meet specifications completely or will be within use limits.

Regulating Tankage

Tankage sometimes built at intervals along the pipeline, in addition to storage tanks, to receive throughput in the event of a downstream linebreak or other emergency and to provide throughput in the event of an upstream linebreak or other emergency.

Sample

A quantity of product taken as prescribed in ASTM D-270 for examination and testing.

Sample Tap

A point in the pipeline, usually at a pump station or terminal, from which a sample may be drawn.

Scheduler

The person who plans the operational activities of the pipeline system in advance so that requirements are met efficiently.

Scraper

A device propelled by the moving stream in a pipeline intended to scrape out or dislodge corrosion, wax, sediment, or other deposits that tend to increase friction loss, reduce throughput, or contaminate product. Scrapers are dispatched from and received in scraper traps. The outgoing trap is on the discharge side of a pump station, and the incoming trap is on the suction side. The sandtrap is intended to catch the material removed by the scraper. Other terms for scraper are "pig" or "go-devil."

Series Connection

See Parallel Connection.

Slack Line

A pipeline that has been shut down under static pressure only.

Slate

A report used by the military services for listing requirements for petroleum. The petroleum products written slate is a stock status and planned requirements report compiled monthly by an oversea commander for requisitioning bulk petroleum products and certain packaged fuels. The petroleum products message slate is an advanced requirements report submitted monthly by electrical transmission horn the Joint Petroleum Office and later confirmed by a written slate.

Submarine Pipeline

A pipeline constructed for use in submerged water crossings. It may consist of weight-coated or concrete-anchored pipe available in various sizes.

Suction Pressure

The pressure at which fluid is delivered to the suction side of a pump or pump station.

Swing Line

An adjustable assembly of piping used to load product into or withdraw product from a tank in such a way that the open end of the assembly is kept at a selected depth below the surface of the product in the tank.

Switching

The operation of valves to change from one storage tank to another when pumping product into or receiving product from the pipeline.

Tactical Marine Terminal

Tactical petroleum storage system used for on-shore storage when fixed petroleum storage facilities are not available. It has a storage capacity of 2,100,000 gallons (50,000 barrels) and consists of forty-two 50,000-gallon collapsible bags, eight 600-gpm pumps, six 600-gpm filter/separators, and related hoses and fittings.

Tactical Pipeline System

A temporary or semipermanent pipeline system constructed of readily coupled pipe or tubing sections and rapidly erected or placed storage tanks to furnish fuel to advancing units in corps and division areas.

Tank Farm

A group of storage tanks connected by pipe and manifold.

Throughput

The rate of flow or the quantity of product transported per unit of time; barrels per day or gallons per minute.

Transmix

See Interface.

Trunk Station

A pumping station on the mainline of a pipeline, required at intervals along the line to maintain throughput.

Ullage

See Outage.

Undeveloped Theater

Geographical area where few, if any, fixed petroleum storage and distribution facilities are available.

Upstream

Opposite to the direction of pipeline flow; contrasted with downstream or the direction of pipeline flow.

Vapor Lock

A condition in a fuel or pumping system that occurs when vaporized fuel or product blocks or retards the flow of fuel to the carburetor or the flow of product through the pump.



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