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CHAPTER 6

DISTRIBUTION
OPERATIONS

Section I

PRODUCT MOVEMENT AND CONTROL

Fundamentals

Product movement and product control are so closely related that they must be discussed together. Product control, which includes centralized accountability, is a management function. Product movement by whatever means (pipeline, tank car, tank truck, barge, or air) is a supervisory and an operating function. Scheduling and related functions pertaining to pipeline operations are the responsibility of the petroleum group. Establishing the pipeline is the responsibility of the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion. The actual operation of the pipeline and associated facilities is the responsibility of the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating companies.

Scheduling

Scheduling is the programed movement of products through the pipeline. It is a function of the petroleum operations section at the petroleum group headquarters. Scheduling is based upon estimated requirements, availability of products, transportation, and consumer needs for various types and grades of products. These factors are translated into movement schedules to get the requested product to the consumer. Schedules are prepared on a regularly established basis (monthly and/or weekly). The schedules are transmitted to all dispatchers so that they can plan their operations well in advance. The schedules serve as a basis for the daily dispatching directives (or pumping instructions) by which products are actually moved through the system. More information on monthly pipeline and daily pumping schedules is found in FM 10-18. When products are to be moved by means other than pipeline, the petroleum requirements distribution officer at petroleum group headquarters coordinates with the transportation movements officer and movements specialists organic to the group headquarters. Similar coordination is done by the petroleum distribution officer and movements control personnel at subordinate operating battalion headquarters.

Dispatching (Pipelines)

Dispatching is the process for controlling the movement of products through the pipeline by regulating pump stations and line pressures. Such control may be exercised, in the initial stage of operation (immature theater), by the dispatcher of the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company operating the receiving or base terminal. As the system expands and requires a pipeline and terminal operating battalion headquarters, pipeline control is then assigned to the petroleum operations officer in the battalion headquarters. The petroleum operations officer of that battalion becomes scheduler and dispatcher for the system. Personnel chief from petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion headquarters are normally pooled at a convenient location to provide centralized dispatching control. Effective dispatching is a matter of precision and timing. It involves the use of certain common control aids, such as a dispatching board, a streamer tape, or a graphic progress chart. Detailed technical instructions on the use of these aids are contained in FM 10-18.

Fuel Accounting in Pipeline Operations

It is the responsibility of the chief dispatcher to keep records of fuel received by the system, fuel delivered to installations along the line, fuel remaining in the system, and fuel lost. Such reporting is required since accurate scheduling is impossible unless the actual daily consumption rate of petroleum is known. Base terminals make hourly reports of fuel pumped into the line; other terminals make hourly reports of fuel received from or pumped into the line. Differences between fuel pumped and fuel received constitute gains or losses. Losses are of major concern to the dispatcher because they may represent breaks in the line, poor maintenance, or inefficient operation. These loss factors are of equal concern to stock controllers. Certain data are required to record the flow of petroleum through a pump station on a 24-hour basis: suction and discharge pressures; revolutions per minute of pumps; operating temperature for each pump at the station; leakage reports; and reports of flow of petroleum from the dock area to the storage tank area. This information is recorded on forms or in reports such as those listed below.

  • DA Form 4193. DA Form 4193 (Petroleum Products--Pump Station Hourly Operations Record) is used for tabulating the flow of petroleum products that pass through a pump station on a 24-hour basis.
  • DA Form 4818. DA Form 4818 (Petroleum Products--Pump Station Operations Log) is used by each shift in recording suction and discharge pressures, pump revolutions per minute, and water temperatures for each pump at a pump station.
  • *DA Form 5464-R. DA Form 5464-R (Petroleum Products--Pipeline Leakage Report) is used to report a leak discovered in a line or at a terminal. A blank, reproducible copy of this form appears in appendix G.
  • DA Form 5038. DA Form 5038 (Petroleum Products--Package Area Inventory) is used at supply points when packaged products are handled.
  • *DA Form 4786. DA Form 4786 (Petroleum Products--Tank Farm Intake Record) is used to record the flow of products from the dock area to the sotrage tank area. Along with this form, a petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company will also be required to prepare DA Form 5463-R (Petroleum Products--Tank Farm Outturn Record); DA Form 3644 (Monthly Abstract of Issues of Petroleum Products and Operating Supplies); and an informal storage tank gage record as described in FM 10-18. A blank reproducible copy of DA Form 5463-R appears in appendix G.
  • Status Report. Figure 6-1 shows a suggested format for a status report that may be used for stock control purposes. Such a format can be reproduced. Columns may be deleted or added, as required, for the specific information desired. These reports are readily convertible for machine processing.
  • Petroleum Accounting Procedures. Detailed procedures for accounting for petroleum products are discussed in AR 703-1.

Transportation Control

In addition to controlling the flow of product through the pipeline, the petroleum distribution officers at petroleum group and at petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion headquarters decide which products are to be transported by rail, highway, air, and water. Movement by means other than pipeline must be closely coordinated with movement programs, directives, and policies of higher commands. TAACOM may assign or attach to the petroleum group transport units which are regularly engaged in the line haul movement of petroleum products. When this is done, rigid adherence to the following Department of the Army policies must be insured.

  • Any highway transport units assigned or attached to the petroleum group will primarily be used for wholesale movement of products. So double handling will not occur, moving supplies from the source directly to the consumer is standing operating procedure (SOP).
  • The assigned or attached highway transport units are not divided up by assigning them different functions; they are kept together. When the total capability is not needed for petroleum transportation, transport elements are used for other transportation tasks. Detailed information on the operation of highway units is contained in FM 55-30 and FM 55-60. Various records and reports that may be prepared by the transportation movements officer and his assistants are discussed in FM 55-10.
  • Rail tank cars, as required, are placed in petroleum terminal distribution areas to resupply established consumers. Rail transportation units are discussed in FM 55-20.

Section II

PIPELINE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE

Unit Responsibilities

Operating units do organizational and limited higher-echelon maintenance on pipelines, bulk storage equipment, off-vessel discharging hoses, and fixed and field dispensing equipment. Detailed instructions for pipeline maintenance are contained in FM 10-20. Unit pipeline maintenance consists mainly of:

  • Minor repair work, cleaning, preservation, lubrication, scheduled preventive maintenance, and minor adjustments; external and internal cleaning, caulking, and peening of bolted tanks; and maintenance of camouflage.
  • Replacement of exposed sections of grooved-type pipeline and couplings; replacement of valves and flanges; repair of small leaks with bolted clamps; and other repair not involving renovation or special equipment.
  • Repairs or replacements that do not require movement of basic equipment and that can be done with handtools or small power tools.

Command Responsibilities

The petroleum group determines and places requirements on the engineer command for maintenance of pipeline systems and storage facilities. The engineer command provides engineer pipeline construction support companies to assist in making specialized repairs to pipeline systems and storage facilities.

  • Detailed information for maintenance, repair, and renovation of pipeline and related facilities is contained in TM 5-343. The services performed include--

    • Repair or maintenance that requires moving the equipment from the site.
    • Repair or maintenance that requires special tools or welding equipment.
    • Overhaul of the pump unit that requires removal of the pump cover or removal of the engine.
    • Renovation, reconstruction, and repair that requires the use of special construction equipment and techniques such as laying looped lines to bypass major breaks in the line.

  • Maintenance support companies (situated in the COMMZ) attached to the area support group provide direct support maintenance for other items of equipment used by pipeline operating units. These items include automotive items, generators, electronic equipment, instruments, and materials-handling equipment.

Section III

PIPELINE COMMUNICATIONS

General

When possible, the pipeline communications requirements are supported by the area communications system. When this is not possible, the United States Army Communications Command (USACC), in coordination with the petroleum group signal officer, gives required communications support as outlined in TB SIG 322-43. The equipment needed for such a system is provided on a project basis and is not authorized by TOE. This section discusses the pipeline communications system that is normally used.

Signal Officer

The signal officer at each area petroleum headquarters coordinates system requirements with signal agencies to insure maximum use of available facilities and services. The signal officer assigned to the petroleum group headquarters aids in the planning for support of the petroleum distribution system. This may involve preparing signal plans and policies for the headquarters and its subordinate operating units; designating circuits and frequencies to be used; and preparing plans for emergency communications. The signal officer may also be involved in designating other means of communications to be used when existing systems may be damaged or destroyed. He supervises internal communications support activities for the headquarters and inspects subordinate units to insure that the equipment is properly maintained and operated. The signal officer may aid the group commander in getting communications support from USACC that is not supplied by organic units.

Equipment

The pipeline communications system normally uses teletypewriters and telephones as the chief means of communication. Radios are used to link the chief dispatcher with district dispatchers and to link district dispatchers with pump stations, maintenance camps, and mobile air and land patrols. In undeveloped theaters, radios are used for communications until telephone lines can be established. Since continuous communication is vital, backup communications systems are necessary.

  • The communications system begins at the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company level. Each of these companies uses teletypewriters, radios, and telephones to control operating elements. Company elements and battalion and group headquarters use telephones for adminstration purposes.
  • The petroleum distribution officer uses the communications system to control the flow of product through the pipeline.

Chief Dispatcher

The chief dispatcher is normally at a separate location from the first district dispatcher. However, the chief dispatcher control station may be combined with that of the first district dispatcher. The first district dispatcher is located at the base terminal end of the pipeline system. The chief dispatcher has a tape printing and transmitting teletypewriter, a telephone, and radio equipment. The teletypewriter is normally used as the primary method of communication, and the telephone system as the secondary.

  • The chief dispatcher has a direct teletypewriter channel to the district dispatcher at each subcontrol station. This channel is provided on a party line basis as long as there are no more than nine subcontrol stations in the pipeline system. The chief dispatcher has a teletypewriter switchboard that is connected to the district dispatchers. The switchboard enables the chief dispatcher to contact any or all district dispatchers separately or in any combination. It also allows the district dispatchers to contact adjacent district dispatchers.
  • The chief dispatcher can communicate with subcontrol stations 1 and 2 by telephone.
  • Mobile, high-frequency radio equipment is used for communications backup. These facilities are available to the chief dispatcher and to each subcontrol station. The backup system may be used with the regular system at the chief dispatcher or subcontrol station. The backup radio provides a radio-teletypewriter and voice capability. This allows the chief dispatcher an alternate means of contacting district dispatchers on a net operation basis. This system can be operated by remote control from the office of the chief dispatcher and each district dispatcher.
  • If the chief dispatcher wants to notify all pump stations of a shipment, he has the message punched on a teletypewriter tape and transmitted to all the district dispatchers at the same time. Upon receipt of the message, the district dispatchers acknowledge receipt of the message and notify, through their communication circuits, the pump stations involved.

District Dispatcher (Subcontrol Station)

All district dispatcher subcontrol stations have teletypewriters and telephone capabilities. The teletypewriter is normally used as the primary system of communication and the telephone as the secondary.

  • Each subcontrol station has a direct teletypewriter channel to the chief dispatcher. This channel is a private line unless otherwise directed by the chief dispatcher.
  • Subcontrol stations 1 and 2 have direct contact with the chief dispatcher by telephone.
  • Each subcontrol station has teletypewriter and telephone communications with adjacent subcontrol stations in either direction on a private-line basis. Each district station has a small telegraph and telephone switchboard that connects circuits coming into and within the district. This arrangement allows each district dispatcher to function as the chief dispatcher in an emergency.
  • All pump stations and tank farms located in a single district communicate through a party line telephone channel with manual code-signaling and a party line teletypewriter channel. These circuits stop in the subcontrol stations at either end of the pump stations and tank farms. The teletypewriter circuit at each district station connects to a teletypewriter that can receive and transmit both tape and page copy.
  • Permanent and temporary relay services are provided by the subcontrol station. Permanent services are mostly the relay of the chief dispatcher channels to more distant subcontrol stations. Temporary services are furnished other stations on the pipeline system on a request-as-needed basis.
  • Each subcontrol station uses mobile radio communications equipment for backup communications. The equipment also allows the subcontrol station to contact the chief dispatcher and any other subcontrol station, if necessary.
  • Each subcontrol station has the necessary communications equipment to function as the chief dispatcher control station if needed.

Pump Station and Tank Farm

Normally, all pump stations and tank farms have identical teletypewriter and telephone communications capabilities. Standby radio communications are also provided between adjacent pump stations.

  • Teletypewriter service is furnished on a party line basis to all pump stations and tank farms in each district. This party line includes the subcontrol stations at both ends of the district. The circuit at each pump station is connected to a page-printing teletypewriter.
  • Party-line telephone communication is provided to all pump stations and tank farms in the district and to the subcontrol station at each end of the district. Manual code signaling is used whereby each station on the party line is assigned an identifying code ring.



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