SUPPLY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
Petroleum Supply in the Communications Zone
In the developed theater, fuel is delivered to tank farms in the COMMZ by pipelines or hoselines operated by a pipeline and terminal operating company under the pipeline and terminal operating battalion. The COMMZ may have more than one TAACOM. Each TAACOM has an MMC and may have a petroleum supply battalion. Requests for petroleum products from the supply and service company (DS) go to the TAACOM MMC. The TAACOM MMC coordinates with the petroleum supply battalion (GS) which, in turn, delivers the fuel. The petroleum supply battalion requests its fuel through the TAACOM MMC. The TAACOM MMC provides its requirements to the TAMMC which, in turn, provides allocation instructions to the petroleum group. The TAMMC provides total Army projected theater requirements to the joint petroleum office and the group. Figure 5-1 shows the flow of status reports and requirements in a developed theater.
Petroleum Supply in the Corps
Bulk fuel supply in the corps differs between the developed and undeveloped theaters. Basic concepts are the same; however, the organizational structure varies.
- Developed Theater. Petroleum requirements are received in the COSCOM MMC from the division MMCS, armored cavalry regiments (ACR) and separate brigades, petroleum supply battalions, other nondivisional units, and nondivisional supply and service companies. The petroleum supply battalion provides general support and the supply and service company provides direct support. See figure 5-1. In some cases, the general support unit will also provide direct support.
- Undeveloped Theater. The undeveloped theater is organized as an independent corps. The petroleum group is part of the COSCOM and commands the operational units that provide petroleum general support. There may be any mix of petroleum-type units required to support the mission. The COSCOM MMC prepares a forecast of army requirements and combines it with other service's and allies' requirements and forwards the total requirement to the JPO. The JPO prepares a petroleum slate. The slate is then transmitted to DFSC. Figure 5-2 shows the petroleum requirement flow in the corps of the undeveloped theater.
Petroleum Supply in Divisions
In both the developed and undeveloped theater, the DISCOM MMC provides requirements to the COSCOM MMC. Fuel is received in armored-infantry-mechanized (AIM) divisions by the supply and service company of the supply and transport battalion. Fuel is furnished to air assault and airborne divisions by the main supply company of the organic supply and service battalion. In the developed theater the general support petroleum supply battalion provides the fuel Normally, supply point distribution is used in the division area with units picking up their fuel in the division support area. Operational necessity may require establishment of class III supply points in brigade support areas operated by the supply and transport battalion. In AIM divisions, both unit and supply point distribution are used to provide fuel to users in divisions and brigade support areas. Packaged class III products are requested through class II and class IV channels, but generally issued at class III supply points. Fuel can be delivered by 5,000-gallon tankers from the division distribution points to the brigade trains area or to designated rendezvous points where product can be transferred to 1,200-gallon tank trucks, trucks equipped with tank and pump units, or to GOER vehicles. The 5,000-gallon tankers may also be required to pick up product at the COSCOM petroleum GS supply point and deliver product to the division distribution point or to forward distribution points. Further discussion of petroleum product supply in divisions is in FM 29-50. See figure 5-3 for petroleum supply in the divisions.
Nondivisional Direct Support Petroleum Supply Organization
The supply and service company, direct support, TOE 29-147, provides fuel support to nondivisional units in the theater. In the corps area, one or more supply and service companies, direct support, may be assigned to the corps support group and further assigned to the headquarters and headquarters company of the supply and service battalion. In the COMMZ, the company and the nondivisional supply and service battalion are usually assigned or attached to the TAACOM area support group. The company establishes operating areas for receipt, storage, and issue of supplies and for service activities for which it is responsible. It receives requests for supplies from supported units, processes them, and issues necessary instructions to the appropriate operating element of the company. The bulk class III supply point is both a storage facility and a distribution point. Organic vehicles may deliver bulk petroleum to using units or they may be used as mobile filling stations, if necessary. Fuel system supply points are used to store fuel for units serviced by the company.
- Supply and Service Operations Office. The supply and service operations office is the mission control element of the company. It receives requests for supplies from supported units, processes them, and issues necessary instructions to the appropriate supply element of the company. This office also maintains stock locator records of supplies.
- Petroleum Platoon. The petroleum platoon is responsible for the receipt, storage, and quality surveillance of bulk and packaged petroleum products and for their distribution to supported units. It also provides local delivery of these products and performs container cleaning and bulk reduction operations as required.
- Platoon headquarters. The platoon headquarters supervises and controls platoon operations. It also reconnoiters and selects operating sites and performs quality surveillance functions.
- Petroleum storage and issue section. This section receives, stores, and issues packaged petroleum products and operates the bulk petroleum transfer and storage facilities. Based on 83 percent availability of storage tanks authorized, this section can provide storage for as much as 100,000 gallons of bulk petroleum. This section also operates the container cleaning machine used in limited decanting operations.
- Distribution section. The distribution section distributes bulk petroleum locally to supported units. Based on 75 percent availability of fuel-servicing vehicles and two trips per vehicle, the section can deliver as much as 81,900 gallons of fuel per day. This section may also establish mobile filling stations when they are justified by the volume of traffic.
FUEL CONSUMPTION ESTIMATES
Fuel consumption estimates or requirements are the key to designing an effective petroleum distribution system to support the theater. At theater level, fuel consumption estimates are the basis for acquiring theater petroleum tankage and for allocating supply levels throughout the theater. At theater army level, fuel consumption estimates are used to establish priorities for distribution and construction. At lower echelons, fuel consumption estimates are the basis for resupply. Theater fuel consumption estimates must be accurately determined to develop realistic plans in support of operational forces. Requirements are needed for operating divisions, Air Force, allies, and other large-volume consumers by location and time period. Determining the requirements allows the planner to determine such specifics as the number and types of tanker unloading facilities and the number of tank cars, tank vehicles, tanker aircraft, barges, and other bulk petroleum distribution equipment needed. Fuel consumption must be estimated as soon as possible so that it can be balanced against known capabilities and coordinated with other supply and transportation support requirements. Troop strengths to be supported and the number of major items of fuel consuming equipment in each phase of the operation are essential in the initial determination of petroleum requirements. The best available fuel consumption estimates should be obtained. These should be based on consumption factors contained in SB 710-2.
Computing Fuel Consumption (STANAG 2115 Method).
The STANAG 2115 method for computing fuel consumption uses the fuel consumption unit (FCU). One FCU is the basic unit for fuel calculations. It represents the quantity of fuel required for the operation of a given fuel consumer under assumed average operating conditions for a given standard performance. The calculation is made separately for each type of fuel. All fuel consuming equipment of the unit should be listed. The quantity of fuel required for each piece of equipment to do a standard performance should be calculated. Fuel consumption data is obtained from SB 710-2. The total of the individual consumption figures for all the equipment of the unit represents the FCU of the unit. An example of a FCU calculation is shown in figure 5-4. For units involved in combat operations or for special terrain or weather conditions other than normal, a series of operational factors are included in the STANAG for use in modifying the standard day to fit the combat day. These operational factors are shown in appendix D.
Actual experience data may be substituted for calculated estimates. Historical data and experienced actual consumption should be used when conditions are similar and data is reliable and has been verified. Requirements of consumer units can be compared with the capabilities of available distribution systems to determine the adequacy of the system. Requirements can also be computed on a scheduled basis, usually weekly or monthly.
All consumers are responsible for estimating their own fuel requirements and submitting them in a timely manner. The theater army petroleum officer and the petroleum group staff review requirements submissions for accuracy.
- Consumers' Responsibilities. Consumers determine their initial requirements and report changes in consumption that warrant an adjustment in the supply distribution pattern. The processing of consumption data is made easier where and when electronic data processing and transmitting equipment is available.
- Theater Army Petroleum Officer's Responsibilities. The petroleum distribution system must provide the capacity to receive, store, maintain, and issue the types and quantities of fuels required. The theater army petroleum officer should, therefore, constantly evaluate and update the long-range petroleum distribution plan as refined requirements data becomes available. The petroleum group is charged with continual review of the total system's capabilities and makes appropriate recommendations to the theater army commander and staff.
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