Today's modern military forces consume large amounts of petroleum products in support of combat operations. Special channels of responsibility for the supply of bulk petroleum products, both in the continental United States (CONUS) and in overseas theaters have been established to insure uninterrupted supply of this critical commodity. Integrated management of bulk petroleum is the responsibility of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), which works through the Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC). DFSC procures and, in coordination with the military services and the Military Sealift Command (MSC), arranges for delivery of products to the military services. DFSC coordinates tanker movements of bulk petroleum with the MSC. DFSC contracts with the commercial supplier either in CONUS or overseas and assures that required fuel is shipped to the theater. Responsibilities such as cataloging, standardization, and management of bulk petroleum inventories in other defense fuel support points remain with the military services. Each of the military services has service control points that coordinate on petroleum logistics matters with DFSC and provide technical support to their service. The services play a significant role in requirements computation, submission and delivery plans, and maintenance of contracts and budget programs for oversea areas. The US Army General Materiel and Petroleum Activity (USAGMPA) performs this function for the Army worldwide. The theater army organization for petroleum supply is shown in figure 4-1.
Joint Petroleum Office
The Joint Petroleum Office (JPO), established by the joint chief of staff, provides staff management of petroleum at the theater level on the staff of the unified commander. Subarea Petroleum Offices (SAPOs) may be established at the subunified command level to provide in-country staff responsibilities for all services. Specific responsibilities of the JPO are shown in Section I, Chapter 2, DOD 4140.25-M.
- Personnel assigned to JPOs and SAPOs are qualified in petroleum logistics and subject to assignment approval by the commander concerned. The offices are jointly staffed by personnel from each service (Army, Navy, Air Force) having a mission in the theater. Petroleum requirements for the US Marine Corps are normally included in the Navy's estimates.
- The JPO advises the theater commander and staff on petroleum logistics planning and policy matters. Under emergency conditions, the JPO advises on the allocation of petroleum products and facilities and coordinates with the various military service control points of the services represented in the theater. It coordinates the quality surveillance program within the theater and assists DFSC in fulfilling its responsibilities.
- The JPO is responsible for submitting to DFSC the monthly petroleum slate which includes requirements of all the military services within the theater. Petroleum management for the entire theater is the ultimate responsibility of the JPO. Daily management of theater bulk petroleum is accomplished by the TAMMC in coordination with the other military services, DFSC and their Defense Fuel Region Office, and host nation activities.
Theater army headquarters provides broad planning guidance for Army petroleum support. It supervises current operations and conducts long-range planning. The petroleum group, assigned to the theater army, is the major Army petroleum operator for the theater (fig 4-2). When demand exceeds availability, the theater commander will establish an allocation system, based on priority, to support the theater plan of operations.
Theater Army Materiel Management Center
The theater army materiel management center (TAMMC) is the theater petroleum item manager for both bulk and packaged petroleum products and also collects long-range (annual) petroleum requirements for the theater. The TAMMC is responsible for recording consumption data (issues) and forwarding it to the theater army petroleum staff officer and the petroleum group. Petroleum requirements (long-range) and issue data are provided to the TAMMC by the division MMCS and corps MMCS on a cyclic basis as established by regulations or operational procedures, As a minimum, requirements are submitted annually and issue data is reported monthly. The TAMMC is responsible for providing petroleum management data for the theater. After coordination with the theater army petroleum staff officer and the commander of the petroleum group, the TAMMC submits the annual requirements for the theater to the JPO.
The engineer command (ENCOM) provides construction support for petroleum facilities required to accomplish the theater support mission, The ENCOM plans and supervises construction or renovation of ports, roads, railroads, inland waterways, and bulk petroleum distribution and storage facilities.
The primary mission of the transportation command (TRANSCOM) is to command and control transportation units providing transportation services for the theater. Some major functions are to--
- Supervise transportation interzonal services.
- Advise on transportation services in the theater.
- Recommend transportation policies.
- Recommend the allocation of transportation resources.
- Maintains liaison on transportation operations with other services and allied and host nation staffs.
The principal organization carrying out the bulk fuels distribution mission in the COMMZ is the petroleum group assigned directly to theater army. The petroleum group is responsible for the detailed petroleum distribution planning that is the basis for design, construction, and operation of the distribution system for the theater. The group is responsible for liaison with host nation staffs to include coordination of allied pipeline and distribution systems. The petroleum group and its subordinate units operate the bulk fuel distribution system extending from ports of entry through the COMMZ and as far into the combat zone as practicable. The theater army MMC provides allocation instructions and long term requirements data to the petroleum group and its subordinate units. The petroleum group and its subordinate units perform organizational and limited direct support (DS) maintenance on pipeline systems, while the ENCOM does renovation and new construction. The petroleum group headquarters is responsible for the day-to-day detailed supply operations of the petroleum pipeline distribution system. The headquarters keeps the theater army commander and his staff, to include the TAMMC, informed on all aspects of petroleum handling equipment, distribution, planning, and operations. Figure 4-3 shows the organization of the headquarters and headquarters company, petroleum group.
Petroleum Group Headquarters
The group headquarters plans, controls, and supervises the operation of the fuel distribution system. It also coordinates the efforts of the units employed to operate and maintain the theater petroleum distribution system, primarily interzonal pipelines. This headquarters develops requirements for petroleum handling equipment, facilities, construction, and petroleum units needed to develop, operate, and maintain the system. As operations expand, the group headquarters provides the planning needed to extend the existing distributing system. The group headquarters supervises two or more petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalions, transportation motor transport battalions (POL), and other assigned or attached units when they are required. The headquarters can operate on a 24-hour basis.
Theater Army Area Command
The theater army area command (TAACOM) is a major subordinate element of the theater army given the mission of providing general support (GS) and direct support to all US Army forces passing through or located in its area of the communications zone. It may also be assigned to support allied forces in the theater. Some theaters of operations may have more than one TAACOM. In performing its combat service support mission, the TAACOM staff develops overall plans, policies, priorities, and allocations for subordinate operating commands and coordinates the commands' activities. It reviews the supply portion of theater army support plans. The TAACOM develops broad policies for and issues mission-type orders to subordinate commands. The TAACOM staff uses summary management reports and other data to perform its primary missions of planning and coordinating mid- and long-range combat service support operations. TAACOM headquarters follows established procedures and guidance in communicating with CONUS, corps support command (COSCOM), other services, and allied forces and governments as authorized by the theater army. It prepares detailed combat service support plans, directives, and guidance affecting the theater army as a whole. Regardless of the command structure within the theater army, the TAACOM assists COSCOM in developing and supporting its requirements. Although COSCOM and TAACOM are on the same command level under theater army, COSCOM and TAACOM subordinate commands maintain continuous working relationships through liaison and direct computer-to-computer links.
Theater Army Area Command Materiel Management Center
The TAACOM materiel management center (MMC) is organized with a materiel management center office, unit headquarters section, service support division, and seven materiel management divisions. These seven divisions include aviation, electronics, armament and combat vehicles, missile and munitions, automotive, troop support materiel, and petroleum. The chief of each division is responsible for materiel management of items assigned to his division. Assignment of items depends on CONUS sources of support. Each division is broken down into branches that manage end item supply, maintenance, and repair parts supply. The petroleum division of the TAACOM MMC is responsible for receiving requirements for POL supplies from the supply and service company (DS) in its area. The petroleum supply battalion will provide wholesale petroleum supply to the supply and service company (DS). A relationship exists between the TAACOM MMC and the petroleum supply battalion similar to that between the theater army MMC and the petroleum group. Materiel release orders (MRO) will generally not be cut for petroleum issues and issues will normally be recorded by post-posting. Responsive support to the customer dictates that the day-to-day operational procedures employed provide him the most efficient system possible. Unless the MMC and petroleum issue facility are collocated, requests will be submitted by the customer and the fuel issued to him at the terminal or supply point (that is, at the same location). The petroleum division of the TAACOM MMC also coordinates with the theater army MMC for POL resupply to the petroleum supply battalion in its area.
Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operating Battalion
The petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion operates and maintains petroleum distribution facilities required to support a portion of the theater petroleum support mission. Operating battalions are assigned to the petroleum group as required. Pipeline battalions are responsible for operating ports of entry, pipelines, the tactical marine terminal, and other related facilities/systems.
- Responsibilities. Each petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion supervises the operation and maintenance of a military petroleum distribution system or part of a system as determined by geographic needs. It operates facilities capable of storing 500,000 to 2,500,000 barrels of bulk petroleum products, depending on the size and location of terminal facilities available. A petroleum operating battalion operates a central dispatching and scheduling agency to schedule and direct the flow of bulk petroleum products through the multiproduct military pipeline. It also coordinates the movement of bulk products by means other than pipeline, such as barge, rail, and truck. An operating battalion maintains a prescribed reserve of petroleum products, supervises a program for quality surveillance, and may operate a base petroleum products laboratory. It also provides command and control for up to five petroleum pipeline and terminal operating companies, medium truck (POL) companies, and other units as required.
- Supporting Organizations. One or more of the following organizations may be assigned, attached, or placed in support of an operating battalion.
- TOE 5-129, Engineer Port Construction Company.
- TOE 5-177, Engineer Pipeline Construction Support Company. (This unit normally remains assigned to and under the control of the engineer group or combat heavy engineer battalion.)
- TOE 10-207, Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operating Company.
- TOE 19-97, Military Police Security Company.
- TOE 29-449, Labor Service Company.
- TOE 55-18, Transportation Medium Truck Company (Petroleum).
- Appropriate detachments, as required, organized under the provisions of the 500-series TOES to provide firefighting, utility, and maintenance teams; administrative, general duty, materials handling, and petroleum teams; signal operations, maintenance, and service teams; security guard and dog teams; feeding and automotive teams; and interpreter and translator teams.
Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operating Battalion
The headquarters and headquarters company is organized as shown in figure 4-4. Battalion headquarters is composed of the battalion commander, executive officer, chaplain, communications officer, and sergeant major. The headquarters company consists of a company headquarters and a communications section. The company headquarters performs the normal functions of unit command. The communications section provides signal communications for the headquarters and coordinates with signal units on installation and maintenance of the communications system.
- S1 Section. This section provides the necessary administrative and personnel management support required throughout the battalion.
- S2/S3 Section. This section contains a security, plans, and training branch; a petroleum operations branch; and a petroleum laboratory branch.
- Security, plans, and training branch. The security, plans, and training branch develops, plans, and supervises training of assigned or attached units. It develops and implements training programs for the headquarters and subordinate units and general educational development programs. It plans and supervises intelligence, counterintelligence, and civil affairs programs for the command. The branch develops and coordinates plans for the security and defense of the headquarters and subordinate units. The branch also collects and disseminates intelligence information.
- Petroleum operations branch. This branch directs the dispatching of bulk petroleum through a pipeline system and the movement of bulk products by means other than pipeline. Personnel in this branch provide instructions on the time, quantity, and type of fuel to be received at storage locations under battalion control. The branch also gives instructions on the time, quantity, and type of fuel to be shipped from these storage locations and the mode of transportation to be used.
- Petroleum laboratory branch. The petroleum laboratory branch does routine tests of petroleum products received and stored for use by military units in the theater of operations. It performs investigations and tests and makes recommendations on petroleum products reported to be contaminated or that affect the operation of military equipment. It analyzes, tests, identifies, and recommends what to do with captured petroleum stocks, stocks that have been marked incorrectly, and products whose markings have been destroyed. When organized under TOE 10-206H410, the unit can operate a base petroleum laboratory. When organized under TOE 10-206H420, it can operate a mobile petroleum laboratory.
- S4 Section. The supply and maintenance section is responsible for normal battalion internal supply functions. It consists of the battalion property book officer and other personnel who coordinate and supervise battalion supply matters. The section personnel also advise and assist subordinate units on unit supply matters. The maintenance portion of the section provides staff advice to the commander on maintenance of battalion equipment. It does necessary inspections and gives technical assistance to subordinate units on maintenance of operating equipment. The section may establish and operate a battalion organizational maintenance shop, or the battalion equipment may be supported by a subordinate company, assisted by battalion maintenance personnel.
- Petroleum Wharf Platoon. The petroleum wharf platoon, when authorized, is assigned to petroleum ports of entry to operate petroleum wharf and offshore facilities on a 24-hour basis. The platoon normally works with the company that is assigned to operate the base petroleum terminal or the tactical marine terminal (TMT).
Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operating Company
On a 24-hour basis, the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company operates about 100 km (60 miles) of military multiproduct pipeline and terminal facilities for the storage and distribution of bulk fuels. The terminal facilities normally consist of two tank farms, each having a capacity ranging from 50,000 to 250,000 barrels. When the situation permits, personnel of the company may assist the engineers in the construction of the portion of the system that they are to operate and maintain. If it is required, the company can install and operate an organic collapsible hoseline system. The company operates a tactical marine terminal when permanent or semipermanent facilities are not available. The company also operates loading facilities for shipment of products by coastal tankers, barge, rail tank cars, and tank vehicles. The petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company is normally assigned by the petroleum group to a petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion. It maybe attached to the TAACOM or an independent corps since it is responsible for receipt, storage, and distribution of all bulk fuels shipped to the theater. It may also function as a separate company under specified conditions. The company is normally employed in the COMMZ area of the theater of operations. It may begin its operations at beach heads of base terminals located near theater ports of entry or along any 60 mile section of the pipeline and extend as far forward in the theater as possible. When two or more of these companies are employed on a pipeline, they normally function under the command, control, and operating supervision of a petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion. Figure 4-5 shows the company organization.
- Company Headquarters. The company headquarters performs the normal functions of troop and unit command. It commands the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company, performs unit administration and supply and food service functions, and operates dining facilities on a 24-hour basis. The company headquarters supervises tactical and technical training and internal security activities of the company petroleum terminal, pipeline, hoseline, and distribution operating activities.
- Petroleum Products Control Section. This section receives operating instructions from the system's dispatcher/scheduler or higher headquarters on the time of receipt, type, and quantity of bulk petroleum product received in the tank farms under company control. The section is also advised on the time, type, and quantity of fuel to be shipped by barge, tank car, tank vehicle, and pipeline and the operating pressures to be maintained in the pipeline. Upon receipt of operating instructions, the petroleum products control section prepares detailed schedules and instructions for issue to the terminal and pipeline operating platoons and pipeline sections. These include flow schedules; programs and instructions to pump station operators and tank farms for input and withdrawal of products in the company; and instructions on receipt, storage, and issue of petroleum products, and their delivery by rail, highway, air, and water transportation, The petroleum products control section performs supply control and accounting functions for petroleum products received, stored, and issued by the company and monitors bulk petroleum requests from the petroleum systems dispatcher. The section also receives activity reports from the operating platoons and consolidates and forwards appropriate reports to the battalion headquarters.
- Maintenance Section. The maintenance section provides organizational maintenance on the unit's wheeled vehicles, materials handling equipment, compressors, power generating equipment, radios and teletype equipment, and TOE items of equipment assigned to the company. The section provides an organic direct support maintenance capability only for organizational and direct support maintenance on equipment peculiar to petroleum pipeline distribution systems. The section maintains, in addition to the unit prescribed load list, expanded repair parts in support of direct support maintenance responsibility.
- Terminal Operating Platoon. The terminal operating platoon has a platoon headquarters, two tank farm sections, a storage and issue section, and a distribution section.
- Platoon headquarters. The platoon headquarters directs and supervises platoon operations and personnel. The platoon leader plans, organizes, coordinates, and directs terminal operations.
- Tank farm section. This section operates a tank farm complex consisting of two tank farms with permanent and/or semipermanent bulk storage facilities. The tank farm section has a maximum bulk petroleum storage capacity of 500,000 barrels. It is capable of transferring from 700 to 1,300 barrels per hour to the main pipeline system and of shipping approximately 250,000 gallons by other means. It also has the capability to operate a tactical marine terminal. The assigned personnel operate terminal booster and transfer pumps and manifold systems to receive bulk petroleum products from the main pipeline for storage in the tank farms and for return to main or branch pipelines for shipment forward. The personnel also help perform organizational maintenance on these facilities and operate one or more fixed loading racks for shipment of bulk petroleum by barge, tank car, and tank vehicle. At least four men are required to operate a tank farm per shift. In addition, a supervisor is required on each shift to be responsible for the security, operations, and maintenance. When required, the platoon may be augmented by an additional tank farm section to operate the constructed tank farm complexes consisting of four tank farms. Each tank farm ranges in size from 50,000 to 250,000 barrel capacity for a total of 200,000 to 1,000,000 barrels per complex.
- Storage and issue section. This section operates the fuel system supply point. This is a six-man operation per shift. The section also provides intra-unit movement of petroleum products. This is a one-man operation, but may be assisted by fuel system supply point personnel as required. When required, the section performs limited bulk reduction which requires two to four men.
- Distribution section. Personnel in this section provide local delivery of petroleum products to area direct support units using organic vehicles. This section also operates the collapsible hoseline outfit. This outfit can be used in over-the-beach operations to transfer product from barge or ship to onshore storage facilities or as a temporary system to transport fuel across rolling country.
- Pipeline Operating Platoon. This platoon operates approximately 60 miles of multi-product pipeline 24 hours a day. The pipeline moves large amounts of petroleum product to support the theater distribution system. Four pump stations are located along the pipeline operated by this platoon. The pump stations move the product through the line to storage, to branch lines, to tank farms, or to dispensing facilities. The pipeline operating platoon is made up of the platoon headquarters, a service support section, and four pipeline sections.
- Platoon headquarters. The platoon headquarters supervises and directs the operation of the pipeline and pump stations. It prepares SOPs, directives, and other operating instructions.
- Service support section. This section does organizational and direct support maintenance on the pipeline, pump stations, and all related equipment assigned to the platoon. In normal operations, personnel of the section may work a maximum of 60 miles from the base of operations. Backup support and technical help is given by the company maintenance section. Maintenance functions include repairing and replacing valves, blinds, pressure gages, meters, line strainers, pump units, welded pipelines, coupled lines, hoselines, and related pipeline equipment. .
- Pipeline section. Each of four identical pipeline sections operates a pump station and a portion of the pipeline, which it patrols to detect leaks, fires, sabotage, and pilferage.
Petroleum Supply Battalion
The petroleum supply battalion provides GS and DS petroleum support in the corps and TAACOM. Bulk petroleum is normally delivered to petroleum supply battalions by pipeline, rail, or tank vehicle from terminals operated by the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company.
- Responsibilities. The petroleum supply battalion supports the divisional supply and transport battalion, nondivisional direct support units, and other customers as directed. It may also maintain a prescribed portion of reserve petroleum stocks through its attached units. The battalion provides both general support and direct support for petroleum products.
- Tailoring. The battalion can be tailored rapidly to meet petroleum supply situations that arise. Any petroleum supply battalion can be tailored to meet a storage mission, an issue mission, or a combination of both through the attachment and detachment of units. Such attachment and detachment of units is coordinated with the battalion's higher headquarters. See figure 4-6.
- Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment. The headquarters and headquarters detachment is organized as shown in figure 4-7. It provides command and control and technical and operational supervision over assigned or attached petroleum supply companies and transportation medium truck companies (petroleum). The detachment is usually assigned to the COSCOM or TAACOM, or to the petroleum group for independent corps operations.
- Battalion headquarters. The battalion headquarters provides the necessary command and supervision for the technical operation of the battalion and its assigned and attached units. It is concerned mainly with mission accomplishment, employment and deployment plans, administration, training, and security of the battalion.
- S1 section. This section provides the necessary administrative and personnel management support required throughout the battalion.
- S2/S3 section. This section supervises the security and operation of the battalion's military petroleum supply and distribution system. It plans and supervises a program for quality surveillance of petroleum products within the battalion and its area of operation.
- Security and plans branch. This branch is primarily concerned with the deployment of the battalion, with tactical plans, and with the training of battalion personnel. It is also concerned with planning, coordinating, and supervising security of the petroleum distribution system and with unit perimeter security. The branch also coordinates decontamination operations, if necessary.
- Petroleum operations branch. This branch provides the technical and operational supervision for the storage and distribution of petroleum products within the battalion's supply and distribution system. The petroleum operations branch coordinates with the petroleum supply companies on site location, bulk receipts, and tankage allocation. The branch determines transportation requirements for quantities of bulk petroleum products to be distributed by tank vehicle and by air, rail, or water transportation, if required. The branch also schedules and dispatches transportation medium truck companies (petroleum) that distribute bulk petroleum.
- S4 section. The S4 section provides technical assistance on supply and maintenance to the units in the battalion. It requests, receives, and processes the necessary supplies and equipment for the subordinate units.
- Detachment headquarters. The detachment headquarters provides the necessary command and supervision for the unit. This includes administration, organizational supply, security, and training activities.
- Communications section. The communications section provides teletype and telephone communication support for the battalion and detachment headquarters. It also operates the battalion communications center.
Petroleum Supply Company
The petroleum supply company is assigned to the COSCOM or TAACOM and is normally attached to the headquarters and headquarters company of the petroleum supply battalion. The organization of the petroleum supply company (TOE 10-227) is shown in figure 4-8. The mission of the company is to receive, store, and transfer bulk petroleum to divisional and nondivisional direct support supply and service companies on a 24-hour basis. It also lays, operates, and retrieves petroleum hoseline. This unit can receive and issue a total of 685,000 gallons of bulk petroleum per day and can store as much as 1,480,000 gallons of petroleum in collapsible tanks. This storage capacity also includes a prescribed portion of the command petroleum reserve stock.
- Company Headquarters. The company headquarters provides personnel for command and control of company operations. The headquarters staff establishes company policy and plans and coordinates unit security. It provides internal supply, food service, administration, communications, security, civil affairs, quality control, and organizational maintenance on unit arms.
- Supply Platoons. The petroleum supply company normally has two supply platoons. Each of these is composed of a headquarters and two supply sections.
- Supply platoon headquarters. The platoon headquarters is responsible for control and operation of subordinate supply sections and selection and preparation of operating sites. It also supervises the receipt, storage, issue, and distribution of bulk petroleum products.
- Supply sections. The supply sections provide and operate wholesale bulk petroleum storage facilities in collapsible tanks for transfer operations to direct support division support commands and supply and service companies. These sections can, on a 24-hour basis, install, operate, and retrieve approximately 10 miles of collapsible hoseline; provide limited mobile filling station service; and operate supply points at two locations.
- Supply Control Section. This section coordinates the receipt, storage, and issue of bulk petroleum. Control section personnel establish and maintain unit wire net communications.
- Maintenance Section. The maintenance section provides personnel to supervise and perform organizational maintenance on generators, tracked and wheeled vehicles, construction and engineer equipment, and quartermaster special-purpose equipment. Section personnel may also be tasked with vehicle recovery.
Transportation Medium Truck Company (Petroleum)
The transportation medium truck company (petroleum) (TOE 55-18) can provide transportation for bulk fuel over an average highway system. The company organization is shown in figure 4-9. Operating platoons are manned around the clock. Each company can move 900,000 gallons per day in local hauls or 450,000 gallons per day in line-haul operations. This capacity is based on seventy-five percent availability of vehicles on the average; four round trips daily for local hauls or two round trips daily (one per 10-hour shift) for line hauls; and 5,000 gallons hauled by each fuel transporter on each trip.
- Company Headquarters. The company headquarters provides personnel for command and control of company operation. The headquarters staff plans and coordinates unit security and establishes company policy. It provides internal supply, food service, administration, communications, security, civil affairs, and organizational maintenance on unit arms.
- Truck Platoons. There are three truck platoons in the company. Each platoon has twenty trucks (ten per squad). Each squad has a squad leader and twenty drivers (two per vehicle).
- Maintenance Section. The maintenance section provides personnel to supervise and perform organizational maintenance on organic equipment except communications equipment.
The independent corps normally does not have a communications zone (COMMZ). The corps is force structured (tailored) to be initially self-sufficient. The tailored slice of Echelons above Corps (EAC) support units required to make the corps self-sufficient is attached to and deployed with the corps COSCOM. As the theater matures and additional forces arrive in the theater, a COMMZ may be established.
The petroleum group in the undeveloped theater is at the corps level, but it has the same functions as it has in the developed theater. Figure 4-10 shows the corps organization. This figure does not imply that the petroleum distribution organization is a fixed one not subject to change. The organizations under the petroleum group are tailored to the mission of the corps and the resources required. For example, either the petroleum supply battalion or the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion may consist of a mix of petroleum supply companies, transportation medium truck companies, and pipeline and terminal operating companies. Functions of the units in the COSCOM are covered in section I of this chapter.
The division organization in the undeveloped theater or independent corps is identical to the organization in the developed theater. Figure 4-11 shows this organization.
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