PETROLEUM SUPPLY SYSTEM
THE UNDEVELOPED THEATER
PLANNING THE SYSTEM
Description of System
Packaged products are received from shipping at dry-cargo beach facilities or from aircraft at air terminals. Packaged products are shipped to general support supply bases for distribution through direct support supply units to consumers throughout the theater. In the undeveloped theater, road nets, rail lines, and easily traversed lines of communication normally will not be available. Bulk fuels are received in the undeveloped theater in over-the-beach operations using tactical marine terminals. Hoselines initially carry the products inland and, where possible, fuels are airlifted by Air Force transport to link up with ground forces. Coastal tankers may be used to move products from deep-draft tankers to moorings in water too shallow for the larger ships. Bulk fuel is transferred by flexible hoselines to tank farms, made up of collapsible storage tanks. The petroleum supply system in an undeveloped theater includes tanker mooring facilities; floating hoselines; submarine pipelines; and inland tank farms and terminals using hoselines, collapsible tanks, and bolted steel tanks. It also includes pump stations, flexible hoselines, coupled pipelines, and tank vehicles. Bulk fuel is moved from base terminals and rear storage locations to the combat zone by flexible hoselines. Coupled pipelines are used when the beachhead is expanded. Tactical air bases are connected to the main hoseline or pipeline and to the appropriate tank farm initially by hoselines. The pipeline and hoseline system extends as far forward as possible, usually into the corps rear area. The system must be established. Hoselines offer the most rapidly and easily deployed system. When the hoseline system exceeds 10 to 15 miles, a more permanent system is required. The initial system will probably consist of the tactical marine terminal, portable 350- and 600-gpm pumps, hoselines, and collapsible storage tanks. As the beachhead is expanded and the theater expands, rigid tactical pipelines, bolted storage tanks, and fixed pumping assemblies will be required. Other means of delivery such as tank vehicle, barge, and aircraft will be incorporated into the system as required. The undeveloped theater will be structured as the developed theater is structured. As soon as practical, the COMMZ, corps support, and division support areas will be formed. In the early stages, the theater may only consist of a division support area, which later expands to add the corps support area. The COMMZ may never be formed depending upon the duration and geographic expansion of the operation. As in the developed theater, general support petroleum units will normally also provide direct support on an area basis.
Planning for Bulk Petroleum Supply
Planning for bulk petroleum supply is the same in the undeveloped theater as it is in the developed theater. See Chapter2, Planning for Bulk Supply for a detailed discussion.
Unified Command Plan
The unified command plan is the basis for all subordinate tactical and logistical support plans for the theater. This plan sets forth broad concepts, establishes objectives, assigns missions, and allocates available resources. The joint petroleum officer is the unified commander's key staff member on petroleum matters. He furnishes supply and distribution data for inclusion in the command plan.
Theater Army Plans
The theater army commander and staff use the unified command plan as them guide in preparing the theater army tactical plan and the theater army logistics support plan. The theater army G4 (assistant chief of staff, logistics) first develops logistics support concept based on the tactical plan. He then prepares the implementing theater army logistics support plan. This type of planning provides the guidance and broad policies upon which operational planning is based. Theater army planning is started before the theater is established. During operations, the job of theater army planners is to revise basic plans for the conduct of the campaign and for developments in the tactical situation.
Theater Army Petroleum Distribution Plan
As a rule, the petroleum group is responsible for theater petroleum planning and the theater army petroleum distribution plan. In peacetime when no petroleum group is available, planning is done by the designated senior theater petroleum staff officer. In the undeveloped theater where personnel assets are limited, the senior petroleum officer is responsible for continued planning. General principles and procedures for development, improvement, and expansion of resources of an area to support operations are discussed in FM 100-10. The theater army distribution plan is prepared and petroleum published as an annex to the theater army logistic support plan. A suggested format for a distribution plan is provided in appendix B.
- Facilities. The petroleum distribution plan specifies the facilities to be used. Shore storage facilities should be large enough to allow tankers to unload in minimum time. However, in an undeveloped theater, facilities initially available are usually limited, and delays in unloading tankers are expected. The plan should give the size of terminals, tank farms, laboratories, and other facilities and where they should be placed on a time-phased basis to support the tactical plan.
- Troop Lists. The distribution plan must specify troop units needed on a time-phased basis to support the tactical plan. Timely arrival of engineer units to construct petroleum facilities and quartermaster and transportation units to distribute petroleum supplies is critical. Time-phased development of a petroleum distribution system is an important part of the overall logistics plan.
- Theater Operational Project. To make sure that petroleum handling and distribution facilities will be available when needed, the theater army petroleum officer prepares a project requirement. All long-range materiel requirements, including facilities, materials, and equipment needed to install and operate the petroleum distribution system, are submitted as a theater operational project requirement. Procedures are prescribed by AR 710-1 and AR 710-3.
- Coordination. The theater army petroleum officer coordinates with other key staff members to insure that the distribution plan is adequate and can be supported. He coordinates with the theater army transportation officer on plans for movement of fuel by means other than pipeline, with the theater army engineer on construction and major repair of the petroleum distribution system, with the G3 (assistant chief of staff, operations) on troop units and security measures, and with the G5 (assistant chief of staff, civil military operations) on matters involving host nation support or coordination. He also coordinates with Air Force representatives to insure that the planned system will support requirements and to program construction of distribution facilities at airbases. In addition, he coordinates with other services, allies, or other agencies affected by the plan.
The Department of the Army prescribes supply levels for the theater army in terms of days of supply. The theater army commander prescribes levels for the combat zone and the COMMZ.
- For planning purposes only, a minimum of a 15-day theater supply level should be established for bulk fuel in the undeveloped theater. In actual practice, this level may vary. The major portion of the theater level is maintained in the COMMZ. See figure 3-1.
- Supply levels must take into account the needs of all users, including Air Force, Navy, days of supply. The theater army commander and allies (when so designated).
DEVELOPING THE SYSTEM
Providing a fuel distribution system to support operations in an undeveloped theater presents many problems not faced in a developed area. In the undeveloped theater, the entire system has to be brought in and installed. Mooring facilities must be built, storage tanks constructed, and pipelines or hoselines laid to move fuel inland to consuming units. In the early stages of an assault, the assaulting force relies on its own equipment and personnel, backed up by combat service support units. As the operation progresses, additional units are brought in, and the system is expanded.
When US forces deploy into an undeveloped theater, a petroleum distribution system is developed in the objective area as soon as practical. Tactical marine terminals and related equipment are set up and operated by supporting petroleum units. Initial fuel storage facilities are expanded as soon as possible so that vulnerable floating storage-tankers, barges, or other craft holding reserve fuel for shore tanks--may be released. As previously stated, the minimum bulk fuel requirement for the undeveloped theater is 15 days of supply. Fuel from beach storage is distributed by hoseline, tank vehicles, helicopters, and whatever other means are needed and available. Figure 3-2 shows an initial petroleum distribution system in an undeveloped theater.
When troop strengths increase and the tactical situation permits, construction of a more permanent distribution system begins. As the system expands to meet increased needs, facilities and equipment are added. These usually include terminals, tactical pipelines (bolted or hasty coupled), pump stations, and tank vehicle loading facilities. Tanker and barge unloading facilities may also be included. This system may or may not begin where a tactical marine terminal is installed, but it follows lines of communication. The exact location depends upon the logistical support plan. Figure 3-3 illustrates a distribution system in an undeveloped theater after D+90.
- In addition to planning for expanding the primary system, consideration is given to constructing more permanent alternate and secondary systems to insure uninterrupted supply to using units. These logistical plans are developed and acted on as the tactical operation progresses.
- The distribution system extends as far forward as practicable. It usually bypasses intermediate supply installations. By reducing multiple handling of product, the system can provide supplies in amounts needed in the shortest time possible.
- The senior petroleum staff officer (normally the COSCOM POL staff officer in an undeveloped theater), in coordination with the petroleum group commander, prepares or revises the petroleum supply system development plan. When doing so, he takes into account the types and amounts of product required by all users as well as when and where it is needed. In addition, he gets necessary priorities for constructing and expanding the system. By being on the commander's staff, he is in a position to monitor construction of the system throughout the theater and take what measures are required to insure that manpower and materials are available to expedite construction.
Tanker Loading and Unloading Facilities
In the undeveloped theater, as in the developed theater, the petroleum distribution system begins at the tanker loading and unloading facilities. As the assault operations begin, offshore facilities must be constructed. These include offshore tanker moorings, jetties, floating lines, and submarine pipelines. As operations progress and time permits, larger and more permanent facilities are constructed. Information on tanker loading and unloading facilities is contained in TMs 5-301-1/2/3 and 4, 5-302-1/2 and 3, and 5-343, and in FMs 10-18, 10-69, and 101-10-1.
- Tanker Mooring Facilities. There are many factors involved in establishing tanker mooring facilities.
- Onshore storage should be located in an area where there is enough space on shore (180 feet wide and 1,500 feet in from the shoreline) for construction operations. This area should ideally not have a slope greater than 5 degrees. In addition, there should be enough space for a booster pump station and storage tanks.
- Offshore moorings should be located in an area suitable for using submarine pipelines. Bottom topography should not have a change in slope greater than 5 degrees in order to prevent pipeline damage. Anchorages should be naturally protected from wind and tides as much as possible.
- Tanker moorings must be safe for the largest tanker that will use the facility. Table 2-1 in chapter 2 gives data on tankers. There must be at least 10 feet of water under the ship's keel for a radius of one-half mile at low tide to allow maneuvering. At the site, the sea bottom must provide satisfactory holding power for anchors. A sandy or other firm, but not rocky bottom is desirable. The effects of tide and currents should be considered.
- When moorings must be located in unprotected waters, the three-, four-, and seven-leg Army Facilities Components System (AFCS) ship mooring system may be used for water depths up to 120 feet. These Navy and Army moorings use standard anchors and heavy riser chain. Also available is a Multi-Leg Tanker Mooring System with four mooring legs that is capable of mooring 25,000 deadweight ton (DWT) tankers in 25- to 150-foot water depths when used with the ships' anchors. This tactical system uses explosive embedment anchors and wire rope risers. Single point moorings consisting of a single mooring buoy and capable of mooring up to 150,000-DWT tankers in adverse sea conditions are commercially available.
- When dock facilities are not available, jetties may be used in unloading tankers. Jetties need only be wide enough to carry the pipeline and provide a walkway from shore to the tanker. They are made mainly horn pilings and lumber. The jetty may extend as far as 1,000 feet from shore and have a 40- by 40-foot working platform at the tanker end. A self-elevating, barge-type pier (De Long Pier) can also be used as a jetty facility. FM 55-50 and TM 55-500 describe the self-elevating pier.
- Consideration must also be given to tankers on site, but not actually engaged in discharge of POL cargo. Sufficient port capacity should be available to allow these vessels to moor in the stream without interference with other ships and to lie in a protected anchorage.
- Submarine Pipelines. A submarine pipeline may be assembled in accordance with the designs provided in any of nine available AFCS facilities (TM 5-301-1). The depth of the water and rate of tanker discharge determine which facility is used. Submarine pipelines may be used to cross rivers, lakes, estuaries, and bays in addition to unloading tankers offshore. The proposed underwater route for the pipeline should be inspected by divers for obstructions, the nature of the sea bottom, and other pertinent information. The pipeline should enter the water from the beach at a gradual slope and rest on a firm foundation not subject to washouts. More specific information on the setting up of the submarine pipeline is included in TM 5-343.
- Floating Hoselines. There is currently only one type of floating hoseline available for use by US Army forces. This hoseline is included in the tactical marine terminal. Small boats operating close to and along the shore should be particularly careful around a floating system so as not to damage the hose or foul the tensioning cable or telephone lines.
In the undeveloped theater, permanent terminals will probably not exist. Equipment used may differ from that in the developed theater.
- Capacity Required. The storage capacity of the bulk fuel distribution system depends on theater needs. As in the developed theater, determining storage requirements involves such factors as phased requirements for fuel, rate of fuel consumption, tanker size, planning for pipeline tanks and terminals, and frequency of delivery.
- Types of Tanks. The basic type of storage tank used in the undeveloped theater is the collapsible tank. When time and the tactical situation allow, semipermanent rigid bolted steel tanks are constructed. Specifications and other information about such tanks are contained in TM 5-343 and FM 10-69.
- Collapsible Tanks. The Army standard 10,000-gallon collapsible tank is the most commonly used collapsible tank in the petroleum distribution system. This tank measures 22 by 22 feet when empty and 20 1/2 by 20 1/2 by 4 feet when filled to capacity. Hose and fitting kits are used to connect any combination of collapsible tanks. Other collapsible tanks are available in capacities of 3,000, 10,000, and 50,000 gallons. A 500-gallon collapsible drum is also available.
- Rigid Tanks. Rigid bolted steel tanks may be used in the petroleum distribution system; however, they require more time to set up and put into operation than collapsible tanks. Bolted steel tanks are available in capacities of 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 3,000, and 10,000 barrels and are usually constructed by the engineer pipeline construction support company (TOE 5-177). Welded tanks of any size can be constructed when it appears that US forces will remain in the theater for a long period of time. Refer to TM 5-343 for details.
- Location and Layout. The general locations for petroleum terminals are given in the petroleum plan. In an undeveloped theater, the location, size, and number of terminals depend on the force to be supported and the availability of time and equipment. Since the petroleum distribution system in an undeveloped theater is composed of hoselines and collapsible tanks and not pipelines and steel tanks, there are limitations on the location and layout of terminals. More information can be found in FM 10-18, FM 10-69, TM 5-302, and TM 5-343.
- Base Terminals. Since the base terminal is the initial fuel storage facility in a theater of operations, it is the first terminal to be constructed. Due to the limited storage capability of collapsible tanks and the time involved to unload a tanker by hoseline, more than one base terminal may be needed. Base terminals are prime military targets, and if more than one is required, they should be dispersed to minimize damage from attack. Base terminals are usually the largest bulk fuel installations of the distribution system. Their locations must provide room for expansion, whether it is with collapsible tanks or with more permanent facilities. Base terminals in an undeveloped theater should provide, if possible--
- Enough storage capacity to unload, within 24 hours, the full cargo of the largest tanker that might be scheduled.
- Reserve storage for each type fuel to be carried by the system.
- Enough reserve operating capacity to receive and dispatch fuels at the same time.
- Enough storage capacity to allow fuel received to settle at least 24 hours before it is pumped through the system.
- Laboratory facilities for quality surveillance operations.
- Intermediate Terminals. Intermediate terminals are used when the distribution system extends over a considerable distance. As the system expands and hoselines are replaced by pipelines, intermediate terminals are needed. These may serve both as reserve storage facilities and as dispensing installations. The size of intermediate terminals depends on the capacity of the distribution system and the nature of pumping operations. Usually, two tanks are used for each product.
- Head Terminals. A head terminal is at the end of the pipeline and the farthest inland of the terminals. It is usually located near the corps rear boundary. Bolted steel or collapsible tanks maybe used at these terminals. The types used depend on the tactical situation.
- Regulating Tank Installations. If regulating tanks are required, their main function is to store products when there is an interruption in the flow. They may be placed at pump stations or anywhere along the line where needed. The number and location of these installations depend on the quantity of product handled and the capability of the distribution system.
Hoselines and Pipelines
In the undeveloped theater, hoselines are an easy and quick way of moving large volumes of fuel from tankers to base terminals and inland storage facilities. An installed hoseline system must have proper surveillance because it is more easily damaged or sabotaged than pipeline. To set up hoselines, engineer support is not needed. When the tactical situation permits, the hoselines should be replaced with rapidly deployable pipeline, which allows a greater volume of product to flow through the system. This pipeline must be constructed by the engineer pipeline construction support company. Information on pipeline design is contained in Chapter 2, Pipelines in this manual and in TM 5-343.
- Hoseline Outfit. The initial petroleum distribution system in an undeveloped theater relies primarily on the 4-inch collapsible assault hoseline outfit to move bulk fuel. This outfit consists of 13,000 feet (about 2.5 miles) of 4-inch collapsible hose packed in flaking boxes, a 350-gpm pumping assembly, a flow-control kit, a regulator assembly kit, a roadway crossing guard, a hoseline suspension kit, a hoseline displacement and evacuation kit, a sling assembly, a hoseline packing kit, and a repair kit. Information on using and retrieving the hose is in TM 5-343, TM 5-3835-217-14, and FM 10-69.
- Packaging. The hose is packed in 13 flaking boxes, 1,000 feet to a box. Each 1,000-foot section consists of two 500-foot lengths joined together with an aluminum grooved coupling. A swivel joint with grooved ends is attached to one end of the assembly. This lets the hose assembly rotate continuously at the swivel connection. Three to five full flaking boxes are usually carrried on a truck, but this depends on the type truck and the terrain the truck must cross to lay the hoseline. The special sling assembly is used for lifting as many as three flaking boxes at a time onto the transporting vehicle.
- Route selection. A direct route free of obstacles should be chosen for the hoseline. The route should be parallel to an existing or planned road to aid in construction, patrol, operations, and security of the line. A route next to a secondary all-weather road is better than one next to a main supply route. All natural cover such as hedgerows, fence lines, and woods should be used. Difficult terrain, such as populated areas, marshes, swamps, and land subject to flooding, should be avoided.
- Pipeline. As the tactical situation permits and as engineer support becomes available, the hoseline system should be replaced with steel pipe. Because of limited time and construction support, a single pipeline may be used to move more than one type of product. Types of pipe used in the undeveloped theater are discussed below. Further information is in TM 5-343 and FM 10-18.
- Standard lightweight steel tubing. This type of tubing makes up most of the low-pressure pipeline system. (Maximum safe working pressure is 600 psi.) It can be assembled quickly and easily because the joints are coupled and not welded. This type of construction also allows damaged pieces of pipe to be replaced easily. Lightweight tubing comes in 20-foot sections in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-inch sizes. Because of its thin wall, the tubing is not buried or used for submerged stream crossings.
- API standard pipe. When lightweight steel tubing is not suitable, commercial pipe made to the specifications of the American Petroleum Institute is used. API standard pipe comes in various lengths and is usually welded; however, it is also available in 20-foot sections grooved for coupling. The pipe comes in diameters of 4, 6, 8, and 12 inches. In a submarine pipeline, heavier weight 6-, 8-, and 12-inch pipe is used. Weight-coated 16-and 20-inch pipe, sometimes used in submarine pipelines, is also available.
The selection of the route for the main pipeline from the port of entry to the supported forces is primarily governed by the direction of the main military effort. In choosing the pipeline route, planners should avoid the main supply route and primary roads, important crossroads, swamps and low areas subject to flooding, populated areas, and installations that could be prime targets in an enemy attack. They try to select a route that is relatively level, parallels secondary roads, and passes near class III supply installations and supported airbases. TM 5-343 gives more data.
The location and spacing of pump stations depend on the hydraulic design of the pipeline, the topographic features of the pipeline route, the type and properties of the design fuel, the operating characteristics of the pumping units selected, and the friction head losses for the selected size of pipe. Maintenance must also be considered when selecting the location and spacing of the stations and type of equipment to be used. Pump station operations are discussed in detail in FM 10-18 and TM 5-343.
- Location. The location of pump stations depends mainly on pipeline design. A pump station in the wrong location cannot pump at the required flow rate or will pump the required rate but at a reduced pressure. Because of rough terrain, a pump station may have to be located either downstream or upstream from the best design location to a better operating site along the pipeline. Detailed information on spacing and location is contained in TM 5-343.
- Layout. Layout plans for each pump station are prepared by the Corps of Engineers and are based on requirements submitted by the petroleum group (or the senior petroleum staff officer if no group is present). These plans give the location of tanks, pumps, and manifolds. Copies are given to the engineer units that construct the pump stations and to the quartermaster units that operate them. The information contained in the plans is essential to the dispatchers, scheduler, and the pump station operators.
- Station fuel storage tanks should be located to provide gravity flow of fuel to the pumps while not allowing heavy vapors to accumulate in operating areas. Pumps and other installation equipment must be readily accessible to maintenance and operating personnel.
- Underground shelter and collective protection should be provided, when possible, to protect the station crew from conventional and nuclear or chemical attack.
- Provision must be made for administrative, feeding, and other housekeeping facilities. A pump station building is not usually required while the pipeline is being constructed. However, the pump stations should be sheltered from the weather when time and materials are available.
- Because its location and mission are critical, the initial pump station needs special attention. This station should be located as close as possible to the base terminal from which it receives fuel. The initial station and the line connecting it to the base terminal must have enough pressure to maintain the required design flow rate under all conditions.
- Pump Units. Pump units are classified as booster, flood (feeder), transfer, mainline, and loading. Pump units used are determined from flow requirements, pipeline characteristics, and pump unit performance curves. Pump units must be compatible with the size of the pipeline. Design information is contained in TM 5-343, and construction information is contained in AFCS manuals (TMs 5-301-1, 5-301-2, 5-301-3, 5-301-4, 5-302-1, 5-302-2, and 5-303).
- Generally, booster pumps are used to pump fuel from tankers to the base terminal storage tanks. Booster station manifold facilities are used to assemble these installations. These pumps are used when there is a long ship-to-shore pipeline, a long line from a dock to storage facilities, or where a terminal storage area is considerably above sea level.
- Flood (or feeder) pumps are installed to supply the required suction pressure between tank farm installations and mainline pump stations. They are also used to feed fuel through short branch lines to dispensing tank installations.
- Transfer pumps are connected with the switching manifold of tank farm installations to move large volumes of petroleum products into, out of, and within the tank farm. Transfer pumps may be used to transfer fuel from damaged or leaking tanks to serviceable ones or to consolidate fuel from partially empty tanks. The pumps may also be used to empty tanks to provide space for new fuel shipments that should not be mixed with existing supplies until they have been tested, to blend different batches of fuel according to uniform specifications, or to transfer fuel to loading racks.
- Mainline pipeline pumps are installed along the pipeline at the pump stations to maintain the pressure and flow of products within the line.
- Loading pumps may be required to move fuel from the storage tanks to dispensing areas when the required rate of flow is not supplied by a gravity system. Loading pumps are used for tank car and tank vehicle filling installations.
Dispensing facilities (bulk distribution installations) are located at points where bulk fuel is transferred from one means of transportation to another or where it is packaged or delivered to using vehicles. Dispensing facilities include tank truck loading facilities, vehicle filling stations, can- and drum-filling points, airfield and fuel supply installations, and tanks and pumping units needed to supply fuel for bulk reduction operations.
- Dispensing tanks and pumping units are set apart from mainline tank farms so they will not interfere with operation of the pipeline. However, it maybe necessary to use mainline tanks as dispensing tanks with truck-filling facilities located next to or in the tank farm. Dispensing tanks and pumping units normally have smaller capacities than those of the main pipeline to carry out the dispensing operations. Filling stations for individual vehicles may be set up near terminals, supply points, bivouac areas, and similar installations. Can- and drum-filling points may be located at terminals or at branch pipeline installations.
- Dispensing facilities maybe either fixed or portable; i.e., they may be disconnected from the feeder line for movement to another location. Although fuel requirements and supply procedures will vary from theater to theater and between various areas within a theater, standard designs are provided for tank truck and can- and drum-filling facilities.
- Bolted steel tanks, collapsible tanks, or tank vehicles may all be used as sources of fuel for dispensing facilities. The base terminal may include can- and drum-filling, tank vehicle loading, barge loading, and vehicle fueling facilities. Similar facilities may exist at intermediate and head terminals. An airfield dispensing installation may be located near a terminal and may be fed from a branch pipeline.
Tank Vehicle Loading and Unloading Facilities
As in the developed theater, facilities for loading and unloading tank vehicles are needed. The number and design of such facilities depend on the size of the military operation and the transport equipment in the theater. If permanent or semipermanent facilities are needed, construction is the responsibility of the engineers.
If plans call for using barges in the theater, engineers are responsible for the construction of unloading facilities. An example of a standard barge and small vessel unloading facility design is drawing 12-04 in TM 5-302-1. Examples of the types of barges that may be used to support operations are in TM 55-500. Coastal tankers and barges, if not available from military sources, can be leased by the Military Sealift Command (MSC).
TACTICAL MARINE TERMINAL
The tactical marine terminal (TMT) is a temporary fuel-handling system designed for the receipt, storage, and issue of bulk petroleum products to support forces deployed to an undeveloped theater. The system may also be employed in other areas where permanent petroleum port facilities are inadequate or have been damaged or destroyed. The TMT has a storage capacity of 2,100,000 gallons (50,000 barrels) and may be arranged for support as required or necessary to fit the terrain, mission, or operational needs. A typical layout is shown in figure 3-4. One of the seven TMT modules is shown in figure 3-5. The TMT consists of--
- Offshore multileg mooring system (for ships up to 25,000 deadweight tons).
- 5,000 feet of 6-inch hoseline with flotation collars.
- 5,000 feet of 6-inch steel threaded pipeline with anchors and markers.
- Forty-two 50,000-gallon collapsible storage tanks.
- Eight 600-gpm pumps.
- Six 600-gpm filter/separators.
- Fire suppression system.
- Hoses, fittings, and dispensing equipment.
The TMT is the initial facility of the petroleum distribution system that will eventually expand as the theater matures. In the early stages, the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company may be responsible for command, control, and operation of the system. Normally, command and control of units operating the TMT will be the responsibility of a quartermaster pipeline and terminal operating battalion. As soon as the situation permits, elements of the petroleum group under the COSCOM assume the role of the senior petroleum logistics operator and planner in the theater, In any case, forces will be tailored to meet the needs of specific missions as determined by the senior operational commander. Other military services may be required to provide additional support and equipment as forces are added to the theater and petroleum consumption increases. Engineer support may be required for site preparation on shore. Installation of the offshore portion is accomplished by the engineer port construction company. (Note: Navy construction battalions (SEABEES) also have the capability to install the offshore portion and are assigned such a mission in support of marine amphibious operations.) In some instances, support from Army transportation units may be required for installation and operation of the TMT. For example, support vessels such as floating cranes, barges, line boats, and patrol boats in excess of those which are assigned to quartermaster and engineer units may be required. Forces will be delegated specific missions by the senior operational commander on site.
Installation and Operation
- Offshore. An engineer port construction company (TOE 5-129) is required to install the offshore portion of the TMT. In most cases, additional support and equipment is required over and above that organic to the port construction company. Higher level engineer support is provided by the engineer group. Additional floating craft, such as tugs and cranes, may also be required. These are requested through channels from appropriate supporting units. A logical source of such support would be transportation units involved in nearby logistics over the shore (LOTS) or port operations.
- Onshore. The onshore portion of the TMT resembles a large fuel system supply point and functions as the base petroleum terminal in the undeveloped theater. A petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company (TOE 10-207) is responsible for installing the onshore portion of the system and is responsible for operating the entire TMT once it is installed. A petroleum wharf platoon (TOE 10-206) is augmented to provide the capability for transporting personnel between ship and shore and to assist in tanker moorings, handling and discharging of hoselines, quality surveillance tasks, and limited operational maintenance. Engineer support is required for other than operational maintenance.
AIR FORCE CAPABILITIES
There is a requirement to support large numbers of personnel and equipment during intense short duration conflicts in Air Lines of Communications (Air LOC) environments with a limited number of aircraft.
The Air Force Military Airlift Command (MAC) provides the needed support with C130, C-141, and C5A aircraft. Requirements are coordinated through channels in agreement with policies established in the theater.
Types of Support
- Packaged Cargo. Five hundred-gallon collapsible drums and 55-gallon drums may be internally loaded in cargo aircraft for delivery to airfields in the vicinity of the units being supported.
- Airdrop. When suitable aircraft loading and unloading areas are not available, fuel may be airdropped or delivered by low altitude parachute extraction systems (LAPES).
- Aerial Bulk Fuel Delivery System (ABFDS). The Air Force has aircraft specially equipped with a collapsible tank and a pump for deliveries of bulk fuels into areas where suitable landing sites are available.
- Wet Wing. The C-130 C-141, and C5A aircraft have internal pumps for defueling. Using Army ground equipment (hoses and nozzles), these aircraft can deliver JP-4 into Army storage containers located at or near suitable landing areas.
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