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Section I. Acronyms and Abbreviations


AAFARS-Advance Aviation Forward Area Refueling System
ABFDS-Aerial Bulk Fuel Delivery System
AC-alternating current
ACE-alternate capability equipment
AFDDS-Aerial fuel Delivery and Dispensing System
AFFF-aqueous film forming foam
AH-attack helicopter
ANSI-American National Standards Institute
APU-auxiliary power unit
AR-Army regulation
ATC-air traffic control
AVGAS- aviation gasoline


BFTA-bulk fuel tank assembly
BIU-beach interface unit
BPH-barrels per hour
BS&W-bottom sediment and water
BTU-beach termination unit


C- Celsius
CCR-closed circuit refueling
CH-cargo helicopter
CO2 - carbon dioxide
CONUS-continental United States
CSS-combat service support
CU- conductivity units


d-inside diameter of pipe
DA- Department of the Army
DA PAM-Department of the Army pamphlet
DIEGME- diethylene glycol monomethyl ether
DFSC-Defense Fuel Supply Center
DFSP- Defense Fuel Support Point
DLA- Defense Logistics Agency
DOD- Department of Defense
DOT-Department of Transportation
DRMO-Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office
DWT-deadweight tonnage


ECAS-Environmental Compliance Assessment System
EGME- ethylene glycol monomethyl ether
ERFS-Extended Range Fuel System
EPA-Environmental Protection Agency


FARE- forward area refueling equipment
FLOT- forward line of own troops
FM- field manual
FSII- fuel system icing inhibitor
ft- feet; foot


gal(gl)- gallons
GPH-gallons per hour
GPM-gallons per minute
GPU-ground power unit


HAZCOM-hazardous communications
HAZMAT-hazardous material
HEMTT-heavy expanded mobile tactical truck
hd- head
HM-hazardous material
HMIS-hazardous material information system
HTARS-HEMTT Tanker Aviation Refueling System
HW-hazardous waste


IAW-in accordance with
ID- inside diameter
in- inch
ISCP-Installation Spill Contingency Plan


JLOTS- joint logistics over the shore
JP-jet propulsion
JPO-Joint Petroleum Office


k-viscosity in centistokes


LARC-V-Lighter amphibious resupply cargo vehicle
LIN-line item number
LRB-lay/repair barge


max- maximum
METT-T- mission, equipment, tactics, troops-time
mg- milligram
min- minimum
ml- milliliter
MILSTRIP-military standard requisitioning and issue procedures
MIL HDBK-military handbook
MOGAS- motor gasoline
MOS-military occupation speciality
MPH-miles per hour
MSC-Military Sealift Command
MSDS-material safety data sheet


NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NEPA-National Environmental Policy Act
NSN-national stock number


OCONUS-outside Continental United States
OD- outside diameter
OH-observation helicopter


PDC-Product Discharge Conference
PHIBCB-Navy Amphibious Construction Battalion
PLL-prescribed load list
POL-petroleum, oils, and lubricants
PMCS-preventive maintenance checks and services
PN-part number
PPM-parts per million; also p/m
pS/M- Pico-Siemens/Meter
PSI- pounds per square inch
PSP-perforated steel planking
PSIG-pounds per square inch gauge
PPM- parts per million
PQAR-petroleum quality assurance representative




RAH-reconnaissance attack helicopter
RE-Reynolds number
ROM-refuel on the move
RRF-ready reserve force
RPM-revolutions per minute
RRP-rapid refueling point


SALM-single anchor leg mooring
SAPO-subarea petroleum office
SEE-small emplacement excavator
SDA- static dissipating additive
SLWT-side loadable warping tug
SOP-standard operating procedures
SPCCP-Spill control and countermeasure plan
sp gr-specific gravity
SPM-single point mooring
STANAG- NATO Standardization Agreement
STP-soldier training publication
SWAPDOP-Southwest Asia Petroleum Distribution System


TAU-twin agent unit
TAV- technical advisory visit
TCP- traffic control point
TDA-table(s) of distribution and allowances
TM-technical manual
TOE-table of organization and equipment
TPU-tank and pump unit
TPT-tactical petroleum terminal


UCT-underwater construction team
UH-utility helicopter
ULLS-unit level logistics system
USAPC-United States Army Petroleum Center


v- volume


wt- weight

Section II. Terms

absolute pressure. Pressured measured with respect to, zero pressure, as distinct from pressure measured with respect to some standard pressure, sure as atmospheric pressure Thirty pounds per square inch atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 44.7 pounds per square inch absolute pressure.

absolute viscosity. The force which will move 1 square centimeter of plane surface with a speed of 1 centimeter per second relative to another parallel plane surface from which it is separated by a layer of the liquid 1 centimeter thick.

accelerated gum test. A test to determine the amount of gum and lead precipitate formed in aviation fuels as a result of accelerated oxidation or aging. Potential gum is the amount of residue obtained by evaporating the fuel at the end of the specified aging period.

accountable officer. An individual, either civilian or military, required to ensure that accurate recording of property transactions is accomplished and records pertaining thereto are maintained. (Accountability is concerned primarily with records, while responsibility is concerned primarily with custody, care, and safekeeping.) See Responsible officer.

acid. A chemical compound usually having a sour taste and capable of neutralize alkalis and turning blue litmus paper red.

acidity. The amount of free acid in a substance.

acidizing. A method of increasing production from an oil well. Hydrochloric acid is pumped outward from the well bore into the surrounding formation to dissolve limestone or sandstone. This action makes larger flow channels.

acid treating. A process for removing undesirable elements in oil by contacting it with sulfuric acid. The acid sludge which is formed by the action of the acid on the oil separated from the oil. It takes with it coloring matter, some sulfuric compounds, and unstable bodies. The remaining oil is finished by neutralizing, rerunning, or clay treating and becomes lighter in color and more stable.

adapter. A fitting used to change from one type of coupling to another type.

additive. An agent used for improving existing characteristics or for imparting new characteristics to certain petroleum products.

aft. Near or at the stern (rear) of a vessel.

air-fuel ratio. The ratio of the volume of fuel to volume of air burned in an engine. The ratio in a gasoline engine is about 12 to 15 to 1.

air test. A method used to test a pipeline when a water test is not possible or desirable. The line is sectionalized by block valves and tested in lengths that depend upon the capacity of available compressors. The air and vapor mixture could create a hazardous condition from flammable mixtures in lines that have been used for volatile products.

alkylate. The product obtained in the alkylation process. Chemically, it is a complex molecule of the paraffinic series, formed by the introduction of an alkyl radical into an organic compound.

alkylation. An important synthetic process for the manufacture of components aviation gasoline.

all-levels sample. A sample taken by lowering a closed sampler to the drawoff level of a tank, opening the sampler, and raising it at a uniform rate so that it is between 75 and 85 percent full when it emerges from the liquid.

American Petroleum Institute. The institute represents and is supported by the petroleum industry. It standardizes the tools and equipment used by the industry. It promotes the advancement of research in the petroleum field.

American Society for Testing and Materials. A national scientific technical organization formed for the development of standards or characteristics and performance of materials, products, systems, and services and the promotion of related knowledge.

amidship. An indefinite area of a ship midway between the bow (front) and the (rear).

anchor. A device used to control pipeline movement. An IPDS pipeline anchor is a 2-inch square by 5 foot long steel bar with a screw end. Anchors are in the 5-mile pipeline set and pipeline support assembly.

anchor clamp. A two-piece iron clamp that fits over an IPDS pipeline anchor to hold the pipe in place.

aneroid barometer. A barometer in which the action of the atmospheric pressure bending a metal surface is made to move a pointer.

anhydrous. Free of water, especially water of crystallization.

anode. See electrode.

antieline. Folds of earth layers which are bent upward.

antifoam agent. An additive used in some lubricating oils to control foam.

antiknock. Resistance to detonation or pinging in spark-ignition engines.

antiknock agent. A chemical compound such as tetraethyllead which, when added in small amounts to the fuel charge of an internal-combustion engine, tends to lessen knocking.

antioxidant. A chemical added to gasoline, lubricating oil, and certain other petroleum products to inhibit oxidation.

API gravity. See specific gravity. An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees API. The gravity of any petroleum product is corrected to 60F (16C).

appearance. Refers to the visual examination of fuels. The terms used to describe appearance are clear and bright, hazy, and cloudy.

aromatic (noun). One of a broad class of unsaturated hydrocarbons that is characterized by the ring structure of its molecules.

aromatic (adjective). Derived from, or characterized by, the benzene ring.

ash content. The percent by weight of residue left after combustion of a sample of fuel oil or other petroleum oil.

asphalt. Black to brown solid semisolid cement-like material which gradually liquefies when heated and which has bitumen as its main constituents. Asphalt occurs in nature is obtained as a residue from cracked stocks or from the distillation of certain crude oils

assault hoseline system. A petroleum hoseline system, composed of hose, collapsible storage containers, and portable pumps, which can be readily installed to supply fuel to rapidly advancing combat areas.

astern. Directly behind a vessel.

atmosphere. The mass of air surrounding the earth. The pressure of the air at sea level is used as a unit of measure.

atmospheric pressure. a. The pressure of air, more specifically, the pressure of that sea level. b. As a standard, the pressure at which the mercury barometer stands at 760 millimeters or 29.92 inches (equivalent to approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch).

atmospheric tank. A storage tank, either flat or cone-roofed, designed primarily for the storage of low vapor-pressure products. The tank, which may be of bolted, riveted, welded construction, is not intended to withstand appreciable pressure or vacuum.

atom. The smallest complete particle of an element which can be obtained that retains all physical and chemical properties of the element. According to present theory, the atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons positively charged, surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons.

autoignition. The spontaneous ignition and the resulting very rapid reaction portion of all the air-fuel mixture in an engine. The flame speed is many times great that which follows normal spark ignition. The noise associated with it is called knock.

automotive gasoline (MOGAS). A hydrocarbon fuel for use in internal-combustion engines and procured by the military under two specifications. The specification for leaded and unleaded gasoline is VV-G-001690. Specification MIL-G-3056 specifies combat grade type I and II.

average sample. A sample that consists of proportionate parts from all levels of the product. For example, an average sample from a horizontal, cylindrical tank or from spherical tank should contain more material from the middle of the tank where the diameter is the greatest.

aviation fuels (AVFUELS). Those refined petroleum products specifically formulated and blended for use in aircraft engines, both jet engines and piston (reciprocating) engines. AVGAS (below) is an aviation fuel.

aviation gasoline (AVGAS). A hydrocarbon fuel for use in reciprocating piston-type aircraft engines. AVGAS is characterized by high vapor pressure and distillation range and high tetraethyllead content. It is procured by the military under specification MIL-G-5572.

bacon bomb. A thief-type sampler, also called a tank-car thief, consisting of a special metal cylinder tapered at both ends and fitted internally with a plunger valve that opens automatically when the sampler strikes the bottom of the tank car. A trip cord may be attached to make it possible to open the cylinder at any desired depth. The sampler is used in storage tanks and tank cars to take bottom samples of liquid products of 2 PSI, or less; Reid vapor pressure; and samples of semiliquid products.

ballast. Water, usually saltwater, carried in tanker cargo tanks when the tanks are empty of petroleum products to reduce buoyancy and improve stability and sea-keeping qualities. Ballast may be clean or black, depending on whether it is contaminated with petroleum products.

ball valve. A quick-acting valve that has a rotating ball with a hole through it that lets fuel flow straight through when the valve is open. Fuel flow shuts off when the ball rotates 90 degrees. Most ball valves open and close with 1/4 turn of a valve handle.

barge. A flat-bottomed boat used to carry cargo on inland waters or in lighterage service. Barges are usually towed. A petroleum barge has internal tanks to transport liquid cargo.

barium-base grease. A water-resistant grease with high heat stability made by thickening a petroleum oil with a barium soap.

barometer. See aneroid barometer.

barrel (bbl). A common unit of measurement of liquids in the petroleum industry. It equals 42 US standard gallons.

base terminal. The initial pipeline facility for receiving, storing, and distributing petroleum products which are entering a theater of operations.

basket strainer. A steel mesh sieve that removes large particles from the fuel stream to protect pumps, meters, and gages.

batch. A specific quantity and type of product pumped into a pipeline.

batch change. Change or transition from one product to another in a pipeline, as evidenced by a change in product color or gravity or both.

batching. Determining the sequence in which two or more products are to be pumped and introducing those products into the pipeline in a sequence that results in the least formation of interfacial material.

beach interface assembly. A manifold with tanks and fittings that connects to the Beach Termination Unit. Used to adapt the OPDS to the IPDS and to dispose of seawater and fuel interfaces.

beach termination unit. A manifold at the end of the OPDS flexible pipeline that connects the OPDS to the IPDS.

beaker. A cylindrical glass vessel with straight sides, a flaring rim, and pouring lip used in the laboratory.

bend. A curved length of pipe struck to a larger radius than a pipe elbow or ell. Pipe bends of 45, 90, or 180 are often specified as one-eighth, one-quarter, or one-half bends. A slight bend is often called a spring.

bending machine. A device for bending lengths of pipe to make horizontal or vertical changes in direction of the pipeline.

benzene. Colorless liquid hydrocarbon, with one ring of carbon atoms. Made from coal tar and by catalytic reforming of naphthenes, it is used in the manufacture of various products, as a solvent, and as a component of high-octane gasoline.

benzol. The general term which refers to commercial or technical benzene.

bitumen. A mixture of hydrocarbons of natural or pyrogenous origin, or both, which are frequently accompanied by their nonmetallic derivatives and which are completely soluble in carbon disulfide.

black cargoes (dirty cargoes). A general term used to refer to liquid cargoes of crude oil.

black oil. A general term applied to crude oil and the heavier and darker colored petroleum products such as residual fuel oils.

bladder bird. A C-130 transport aircraft carrying petroleum to a forward unit or staging field in one or two 3,000-gallon collapsible tanks equipped with a 4-inch hose system. The bladder bird can pump out 1,200 to 6,000 gallons of fuel in 6 to 15 minutes of ground time.

blank. See figure-eight blank.

blank flange. A pipe-connecting flange supplied without bolt holes but otherwise ready for use. The fitting is intended to be drilled to suit the application. The blank flange is not the same as a blind flange.

bleeding. Separation of liquid lubricant from a lubricating grease.

blending. a. Mixing refinery products to suit market conditions. b. Mixing on-specification fuel with off-specification fuel to bring the latter to specification or use limits (a method of reclamation). c. Mixing an interface with either or both adjacent products, or with a third product, without degrading any of them beyond use limits.

blind flange. A flange used to close the end of a pipe or to close a pipeline to produce a dead end. It is used to ensure that there will be no movement of product. The blind flange is not the same as a blank flange.

block valve. Any valve in the main line of a pipeline used to section a line.

boiling point. The temperature at which a substance boils or is converted into vapor by bubbles forming within the liquid. The temperature varies with atmospheric pressure.

boiling range. The range of temperature, usually determined at atmospheric pressure in standard laboratory apparatus, over which the boiling or distillation of an oil commences, proceeds, and finishes.

bolted tank. A semipermanent, prefabricated storage tank. The plates of the tank shell are bolted together rather than welded or riveted. Military bolted tanks have capacities of 100; 250; 500; 1,000; 3,000; or 10,000 barrels.

bonding. Electrically connecting units or containers before operations begin in order to equalize any static potential that might exist and to provide a continuous path for any static potential that might be generated after operations begin. See grounding.

booster station. A pump station used to boost the discharge from tanker pumps to base-terminal storage or used along the pipeline for added throughput.

bottled gas. Ordinarily, butane or propane, or butane-propane mixtures, liquefied and bottled under pressure. See liquefied petroleum gas.

bottoms. In a distilling operation, the portion of the charge remaining in the still or flask at the end of a run; in pipe stilling or distillation, the portion which does not vaporize.

bottom loading. Refers to the loading of a railway tank car or tank vehicle through the bottom outlet. Bottom loading reduces loss through vapor formation.

bottom sample. A sample taken with a Bacon bomb or thief sampler from material at the bottom of a tank. See Bacon bomb.

bottom sediment and water. Amount of sediment and water measured in the bottom of a tank.

branch station. a. A pump station on a branch or lateral pipeline. b. The movement of gas (product vapors of air) in and out of the vent lines of storage tanks to alternate heating and cooling.

bright. See clear and bright.

bright stocks Pressure distillate bottoms which have had petrolatum wax removed and which have been filtered so that the stock has a low cold test and a good color (dark red by transmitted light and green by reflected light). Bright stock constitute the body of lubricants manufactured for internal-combustion engines.

british thermal unit (BTU). The quantity of heat required to raise by 1 degree Fahrenheit the temperature of 1 pound of water at its maximum density (39F or 4C).

bulk petroleum products. Those petroleum products (fuels, lubricants) which are normally transported by pipeline, rail tank car, tank truck, barge, or tanker and stored in tanks or containers having a capacity of more than 55 gallons, except fuels in 500-gallon collapsible containers, which are considered to be packaged. See packaged petroleum products.

bulk reduction. Packaging bulk petroleum products in cans, drums, and 500-gallon collapsible containers.

bunkering fuel A fuel oil carried by ships for their own use.

burner fuel oil. A fuel oil used under boilers and in furnaces to generate power or heat. Under Federal Specification VV-F-815, it is produced in six grades: FS Number 1, FS Number 2, FS No 4, FS Number 5 (Light) FS Number 5 (Heavy), and FS Number 6. Under specification MIL-F-859, one grade, Navy special, is produced.

bushing. A hollow pipe fitting with both internal and external threads used to connect pipes or pipes and fittings of different diameters.

butane. Either of two isomeric, flammable, gaseous hydrocarbons, of the paraffin series, n-butane or isobutane. Bottled butane is referred to as LPG and is used for domestic and laboratory purposes and for general brazing.

Butterworth. A commercially developed method of cleaning and gas-freeing cargo tanks of tankers by spraying hot water from a special machine.

butt weld. A weld between two abutting ends or edges without overlapping.

bypass. A means of diverting flow of fluid in a system past some part of the system through which the fluid normally flows, as in conducting the stream around a pump station.

cable toot drilling. A method of drilling in which a steel bit is alternately raised and lowered to strike the formation.

calcium-base grease. A grease composed of a mineral oil thickened with calcium (lime) soaps and suitable for slow-moving machine parts. It does not retain consistency at high temperatures.

calibration. a. The graduation of a measuring instrument. b. The determination of accuracy of graduation in a measuring instrument.

calk. To seal the seams between adjacent plates or planks, generally by driving some expansive or impervious material between them.

calorie (cal). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade, at or near the temperature of maximum density. This unit is called a small calorie or gram calorie.

calorific value. The heat liberated by the combustion of a unit quantity of fuel.

calorimeter. An apparatus for measuring quantities of heat, such as the bomb calorimeter, which is used to determine the heat of combustion or the thermal value of a fuel in calories or British thermal units.

cam-locking coupling A type of low-pressure, quick-disconnect hose fitting that opens and closes with two levers on the female coupling half. Hoses with cam-locking fittings are used in the terminals and the day tank assembly in the pipeline pump station.

capacity table. A table indicating capacity of bulk storage tanks.

carbon dioxide. A heavy, colorless gas, CO2, that will not support combustion (therefore, useful as a fire-extinguishing agent).

carbon monoxide. A colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas, CO, resulting from the incomplete combustion of carbon.

carbon residue. The carbonaceous residue formed after evaporation and pyrolysis of petroleum product. The residue is not entirely composed of carbon, but is a coke which can be further changed by pyrolysis (ASTM Method D 189).

carbon tetrachloride. A colorless, nonflammable liquid, used as a solvent detergent, and drying agent for electrical parts. It is no longer used as an extinguishing agent because of its toxic qualities.

cargo deadweight tons. The number of tons (2,240 pounds per ton) which remains after deducting the weights of fuel, water, stores, and other such items.

casing head. A fitting at the top of the casing (or outer pipe) of an oil or gas well, which permits cleaning, pumping, and separating of oil or gas.

catalyst. A substance that promotes chemical action without the substance undergoing chemical change.

cathode. See electrode.

cathodic protection. An electrolytic method of protecting a buried pipeline or other metal structure against corrosion by surrounding it with an electrical field strong enough to overpower the currents seeking to leave the metal to go into the soil. The method involves putting electrical current into the soil so that it flows to and into the line or structure. The protective current may be obtained by the galvanic action between magnesium anodes and the steel of the pipeline or structure or by a rectifier to convert alternating current to direct current. The current is put into the soil through a scrap metal graphite ground-bed.

cavitation. Formation of a cavity or partial vacuum around a fan, propeller, or impeller that is revolving above a certain critical speed causing a loss of efficiency.

centigrade scale. A thermometer scale on which the interval between the freezing point and boiling point of water is divided into 100 parts or degrees centigrade, 0° C corresponding to 32° F, and 100° C to 212° F. Also called Celsius after Anders Celsius who first described it.

centistoke. A unit of kinematic viscosity; 0.01 stoke. See kineinatic viscosity.

centrifugal pump. An apparatus that builds up pressure head using centrifugal force as the principal means and angular velocity as the secondary means. See pump, centrifugal (volute type.

cetane number. The percentage by volume of normal cetane (100 cetane number), in a blend with heptamethylnonane (0 cetane number), which matches the ignition quality of the diesel fuel under test when compared by the procedure specified in ASTM Method D 613. The determination of the cetane number of diesel fuel is similar to the determination of the octane number of gasoline.

change of product. Change of service; refers to transporting or storing a product in vessel, tank car or vehicle, storage tank, or other container after having transported or stored a different product in it. The difference between the two products governs the nature and extent of preparations (draining, flushing, cleaning) needed before the change can be made.

check valve. A one-way or nonreturn valve that permits fluids to pass in one direction only. The valve closes when the pressure causing flow stops

chime. Edge or rim of drum or stave of storage tank.

clamp, leak repair. A clamp supplied in one of three types of temporary repair of leaking pipe or couplings: a. Split leak clamp consisting of a saddle, stirrups, and a gasket to be fitted around the pipe at a split; b. Pit leak clamp used to stop a small hole caused by corrosion or other damage; c. An overcoupling clamp in two halves, used to enclose a leaking coupling.

Class III (POL). Petroleum fuels: lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, preservatives, liquid and compressed gases, chemical products, coolants, deicing and antifreeze compounds, together with components and additives of such products and coal.

For Class III (POL), the following subclasses also apply:

  • Air, Bulk Fuels (includes jet fuels and aviation gasolines, normally transported by pipeline, rail tank car, tank vehicle, barge and coastal or ocean-tankers and stored in a tank or container having a fill capacity greater than 500 gallons).
  • Air, Packaged Bulk Fuels (includes fuels in subclass 1 which, because of operational necessity, are generally packaged and supplied in container 5- to 55-gallon capacity, except fuels in military collapsible containers of 500 or less which also will be considered as packaged fuels).
  • Air, Packaged Petroleum Products (includes aircraft unique petroleum and chemical products consisting generally of lubricating oils, greases, and specialty items normally packaged by the manufacturer and procured, stored, transported, and issued in containers or packages of 55-gallon capacity or less).
  • Ground, Bulk Fuels (includes MOGAS, diesel, kerosene, and heating oil normally transported by pipeline, rail tank car, tank truck, barge, and coastal ocean-going tankers and stored in a tank or container having a fill capacity greater than 500 gallons).
  • Ground, Packaged Bulk Fuels (includes ground bulk fuels which, because of operations necessity, are generally packaged and supplied in containers of 5- to 55-gallon capacity, except fuels in military collapsible containers of 500 gallons or less which also will be considered as packaged fuels).
  • Ground, Packaged Petroleum (includes petroleum and chemical products generally lubricating oils, greases, and specialty items normally packaged by the manufacturer and procured, stored, transported, and issued in containers of 55-gallon capacity or less).

Class III A (air). Petroleum and chemical products used in support of aircraft.

Class III W (ground) Petroleum and chemical products and solid fuels used in support of ground and marine equipment.

class of fires. Class A--fires of ordinary combustibles, such as paper, wood, textiles, or rubbish and extinguished by water. Class B--fires of flammable liquids like gasoline, oil, or grease and extinguished by smothering. Class C--fires involving electrical equipment and extinguished by nonconducting agents. Class D--fires involving burning metal.

clean cargoes. Cargoes such as aviation and motor gasoline, diesel oils, jet fuel, kerosenes, and lubricating oils.

clean product. Products such as aviation and motor gasolines, jet fuel, diesel fuel, kerosene, and lubricating oil; contrasted with black oil.

clear and bright. Clear is the absence of visible solids, a cloud, a haze, an emulsion, or free water in the product. Bright is the sparkle of clean, dry product in transmitted light.

closed circuit refueling. A system of refueling in which the nozzle mates with a lock into the fuel tank, eliminating spillage.

closing gage. A volume measurement of product taken after a delivery or receipt of product and after at least a 30-minute settling time (and at close of business at terminals and supply points).

coalescing. a. Drawing together, combining, or uniting to form one body. b. A method of separating finely divided or suspended water from a petroleum product by passing the product through filter media of a filter/separator.

collapsible fabric tank. A collapsible fabric container designed to store liquid fuels. The tank is made of single ply nylon cloth coated on both sides with an elastomer.

combustion. Burning or rapid oxidation caused by the union of oxygen and any material capable of being ignited.

commingling. The intentional or unintentional mixing of two or more products.

compatibility. Refers to the ability of additives or of lubricating oils of different composition or from different sources to mix together without separation or reaction.

composite sample. A mixture of individual samples representing the bulk from which they were taken. A composite sample is not the same as a mixed sample.

compound. A substance formed by combining two or more ingredients in definite proportions by weight. A compound possesses physical and chemical properties entirely different from those of the combining ingredients if used separately.

compounding. The addition of fatty oils and similar materials to lubricants to impart special properties. Lubricating oils to which such materials have been added are know as compounded oils.

compression ignition. Ignition in a diesel engine, in which the heat of compression ignites the fuel, in contrast to the spark ignition in a gasoline engine.

compression ratio. The ratio of the volume enclosed in an engine cylinder at beginning of the compression stroke to the volume at the end of the compression stroke. The higher the compression ratio, the higher the efficiency and output of the engine, the greater the tendency to knock, and the greater the need for high-octane fuel.

conduit. A duct for moving fluids. Synonymous with conduit, hoseline, as used with the OPDS.

consistency. The degree to which a material, such as a lubricating grease, resists deformation under the application of force. It is, therefore, a characteristic of plasticity, as viscosity is a characteristic of fluidity. Consistency is indicated by apparent viscosity; or as in the case of grease, is measured by the penetration of a special cone into the grease under prescribed conditions of temperature, load, and time, as described in ASTM Method D 217.

contaminated fuel module. A 100,000-gallon storage set used to store off-specification fuel until it is blended or loaded into tanker trucks for disposal.

contaminant. A foreign substance in a product.

contaminated product. A product in which one or more grades or types of products have been inadvertently mixed, or a product containing foreign matter, such as dust, dirt, rust water, or emulsions.

Contamination. The addition to a petroleum product of some material not normally present. Common contaminants are water, dirt, sand, rust, mill scale, and other petroleum products.

continuous sample. A sample taken from a flowing pipeline in such a manner that the sample is a representative average of the stream during the period of sampling.

copper beaker. See weighted beaker.

copper strip corrosion. A qualitative method of determining the corrosiveness of a product by its effects on a small strip of polished copper suspended or placed in the product (ASTM Method D 130).

corrosion. Rusting; a gradual eating away or oxidation such as the action of moist air on steel and the more rapid chemical action of acid on metal or steel.

cracking. A phenomenon by which large oil molecules are decomposed into smaller, lower boiling molecules. At the same time, certain of these molecules, which are reactive, combine with one another to give even larger molecules than those in the original stock The more stable molecules leave the system as cracked gasoline, but the reactive ones polymerize, forming tar and even coke. Cracking may be either catalytic or thermal.

critical velocity. That zone of velocities between laminar flow and turbulent flow, where the exact nature of flow is unpredictable. Flow is considered laminar when the Reynolds number is less than 2,000, turbulent when the Reynolds number is greater than 4,000, and critical or indeterminate in between those values.

crude. In a natural state; not altered, refined, or prepared for use by any process, as crude oil or crude petroleum.

crude oil (petroleum). See petroleum,

cup-case thermometer. An instrument, consisting of a thermometer attached to a hardwood or plastic back, with the base of the thermometer enclosed by a metal cup, used to measure the temperature of products in storage tanks. The thermometer is lowered to the desired level, allowed to remain for a prescribed time, withdrawn immediately, and read. The liquid-filled cup prevents a change in the height of the mercury before it can be read.

cut. a. A fraction obtained by a separation process. b. Product withdrawn from a pipeline and routed into tankage. Product withdrawn from the middle of a batch is referred to as a heart cut. c. In gaging bulk fuel, the mark made by a petroleum product in contact with the gaging instrument. The cut shows the level of the product.

datum plate. A level metal plate attached to the tank bottom directly under the reference point to provide a smooth surface on which the innage bob can rest.

deadweight pressure tester. A portable tester used to calibrate gages and verify settings on pressure relief valves.

deadweight tons. The carrying capacity of a tanker in tons of 2,240 pounds. To get deadweight tons, the light displacement weight is subtracted from the loaded displacement weight. The difference is the weight in deadweight tons.

deadwood. Internal fittings and fixtures such as boltheads, channels, ladders, roof supports, and poles which occupy space within the tank and reduce storage capacity. Any tank feature projecting outside the tank that adds to tank capacity, such as cleanout doors and pipe connections.

decanting. a. Transferring liquid from one container to another without disturbing the sediment. b. In military operations, transferring bulk product to containers with capacities of 55 gallons or less (normally, 5-gallon cans and 55-gallon drums).

Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC). An activity under the DLA with responsibility as the IMM for wholesale bulk petroleum products until their delivery to the point of sale. This responsibility includes contract administration in oversea areas.

Defense Fuel Supply Center Contract Bulletin. A publication distributed by DFSC to disseminate information concerning all contracts awarded for direct support of installations. A separate contract bulletin is published for each of several selected purchase programs; for example, East and West Coast Marine, Regions I through 8, Alaska.

defense fuel supply point. Any military or commercial bulk fuel terminal storing product owned by DLA.

Defense General Supply Center (DGSC). An activity, under DLA, responsible for management of packaged petroleum products, exclusive of packaged fuels. See packaged petroleum products.

Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). The agency, at the Department of Defense level, charged with providing the most effective and economical support of common supplies and services to the military departments and other designated Department of Defense components. It is the agency under which the DFSC operates.

density. Specific weight or mass of a substance per unit volume (pounds per cubic foot or gallon or grams per cubic centimeter). Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of any volume of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of some standard substance (water in the case of liquids and hydrogen or air in the case of gases) at 40C (104F).

DOD activity address code (DODAAC). A distinctive six-position alphanumeric code assigned to identify specific units, activities, or organizations. This code is used for the first six positions of a MILSTRIP document number. The codes are published in DOD 4000.25-D, DOD Activity Address Directory.

design fuel. The heaviest fuel making up 24 percent or more of the total requirement. Fuels most likely to be transported by military pipeline are aviation fuels, motor gasoline, and diesel fuel.

detergency. The ability of a substance to clean and to wash away undesirable substances. Detergents may be either oil soluble or water soluble. Soap and synthetic detergents help to wet, disperse, and deflocculate solid particles. Oil-soluble detergents are used in motor oils to disperse, loosen, and remove carbon, dirt, and other undesirable materials from interior surfaces of internal-combustion engines.

detergent oil. A lubricating oil possessing special sludge-dispersing properties for use in internal-combustion engines. These properties are usually the result of the incorporation in the oil of special additives. Detergent oils hold sludge particles in suspension and thus promote engine cleanliness.

deterioration. Any undesirable chemical or physical change that takes place in a product during storage or use. Some of the more common forms of deterioration are weathering, gum formation, weakening of additives, and change in color.

detonation. Sharp explosion. The term is used to describe the knock-producing type of combustion in spark-ignition, internal-combustion engines.

diesel engine. An internal-combustion engine in which air drawn in by the suction stroke is so highly compressed that the heat generated ignites the fuel, which is automatically sprayed into the cylinder under high pressure.

diesel fuel. A hydrocarbon fuel used in diesel engines. Diesel fuels used by the Armed Forces are manufactured under two specifications: VV-F-800, which provides for three grades (DF-1, -2, and -A); and MIL-F-16884, which provides for one grade (Marine).

diesel fuel additive. Material added to diesel fuel to improve the ignition quality. Examples are amyl nitrate and ethyl nitrate.

differential pressure. The difference between suction pressure and discharge pressure of a pump; increment of pressure added by each pump operating in series in a pump station; pressure drop or loss between the inlet and outlet of a filter, meter, or other accessory offering resistance to flow.

dike. An embankment or firewall erected around a storage tank to contain the product if tank leaks or ruptures.

discharge side. Downstream side of pump having the discharge pressure of the product.

dissolved water. See water, dissolved.

dispensing. Transfer of fuel into tanker trucks, rail tank cars and collapsible fuel drums from storage.

distillate. That portion of a liquid which is removed as a vapor and condensed during a distillation process.

distillate fuel oils. Fuel oils which are distillates derived directly or indirectly from crude petroleum (chiefly from the gas oil fraction).

distillation. a. Vaporization of a liquid and its subsequent condensation in a different chamber. In refining, it refers to the separation of one group of petroleum constituents from another by means of volatilization in some form of closed apparatus, such as a still, by the aid of heat. b. ASTM distillation. Any distillation made according to an ASTM distillation procedure, especially a distillation test made on such products as gasolines, jet or turbine fuels, and kerosene to determine the initial and final boiling points and the boiling range (ASTM Method D 86).

dome innage. The height of liquid in the dome of a railway tank car, measured from the underside of the tank car shell at its highest point.

double groove fitting. A low-pressure fitting with two grooves. The lands of the double groove coupling lock into the grooves.

downgrading. Assigning a lower grade to an off-specification product, provided it meets the requirements of the lower grade.

downstream. The direction of fuel flow in a pipeline. The discharge side of a pump station or terminal.

draft The depth to which the bow and stern are immersed. Draft marks are painted on both sides of the bow and stern of a tanker to show the depth to which the bow and stern are immersed. Used with an immersion scale, the draft marks show how many tons of cargo are required to immerse the tanker 1 inch at any draft according to the deadweight scale on the tanker's plan.

drain assembly. A pipe nipple with a 2-inch take-off and ball valve used to drain fuel from pipeline sections.

dry-break coupling. A coupling that locks into the receiver of a fuel tank. Also a type of low-pressure, quick-disconnect hose fitting. These couplings close automatically when the connection is broken. Dry-break couplings are used in closed circuit refueling operations to prevent fuel spills.

duel product swivel. The heart of the SALM in that it provides isolated, independent paths for products flow from the tanker through the mooring base regardless of orientation.

draw off valve. A connection on a tank shell (near bottom) or tank bottom through which water may flow or be drawn from a tank or vessel or from a sump in the bottom of a tank or vessel.

drum. A 16- or 18-gage steel cylindrical container (generally, 55-gallon size) for petroleum products.

drum, collapsible. A 500-gallon collapsible fabric drum. (All other sizes of liquid fuel collapsible containers are considered tanks, not drums.)

drum thief. A metal or plastic tube, 1 1/2 inches in diameter and 30 inches long, used to withdraw samples from drums.

dynamic head. A measure of pressure in liquids in motion; a measure of potential energy or energy of position; the static head required to accelerate the stream to its flowing velocity; the elevation to which a pump can push a column of liquid.

effluent. Outflowing or outflow; a term applied to a stream that has passed through a process or apparatus and has been altered in some way; product flowing out of a filter/separator, for example, or past a device that adds an inhibitor.

elastomer. A rubber-like, synthetic long-chain ploymer used as the base for the UM/USA float/sink conduit.

elbow. An ell-shaped pipe fitting, struck to a smaller radius than a bend, used to form an angle between adjacent pipes. The angles are 11 1/4, 22 1/2, 45, and 90.

electrode. The positive or negative terminal of an electric circuit. The positive electrode is called the anode; the negative electrode, the cathode.

electrolysis. Chemical decomposition by the action of an electric current. This process is both the cause of external corrosion of buried pipelines and the basis for providing protection against such corrosion.

electromotive series. A listing of metals and alloys arranged in such order that any metal in the list is anodic to (corroded by) any metal following it and cathodic to (protected by) any metal preceding it.

end point. The point indicating the end of some operation or at which a certain definite change is observed. In titration, this change is frequently a change in the color of an indicator which has been added to the solution or the disappearance or excess of one of the reactants which is colored. In the distillation of liquids, such as gasoline, the end point is the maximum temperature which occurs during the test.

end protector. A plastic cap that fits over the ends of IPDS pipe joints, hoses, valves and fittings to protect the grooves and keep dirt and trash out.

engine oil.. A term applied to oils used for the bearing lubrication of all types of engines, machines, and shafting and for cylinder lubrication in other than steam engines.

entrained water. See water, entrained

ethylene glycol. A colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting dihydric alcohol, HOCH2 CH2 OH, used as an antifreeze.

evaporation. The conversion of a liquid into vapor, usually by means of heat.

evaporation loss. The loss of a liquid volume or weight due to the free evaporation of the liquid usually in a storage tank at atmospheric pressure. It varies with the temperature, the amount of liquid surface exposed, the temperature of vaporization of the lightest components of the liquid, the velocity of air currents over the surface exposed, and the degree of vapor tightness of the tank roof. Since petroleum products are not homogeneous liquids, the rate of evaporation is not constant. The rate of evaporation is greatest at the beginning when the largest percentage of light-volatile hydrocarbons are present and slowest when evaporation has proceeded so far that only heavy residues are left.

existent gum test. See gum test.

expansion joint. A joint or coupling designed to permit an end wise movement of its parts to compensate for expansion or contraction.

explosimeter. See gas detector.

explosive limits. The limits, in percentages, at which a mixture of gases and air will explode when the mixture is ignited. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum amount of combustible gas and the upper limit refers to the maximum amount of combustible gas that will make the mixture flammable. (Also referred to as flammable limits and explosive range.)

explosion-proof lights. See lights.

Fahrenheit scale. A thermometer scale on which the freezing point of water is 32° and the boiling point is 212° (at sea level atmospheric pressure).

fault. A geological term for a structural closure caused by the fracturing of the crustal rocks during earth movements.

feeder (flood) pumps. Pumps generally installed to supply the required suction pressure between tank farm installations and mainline (trunk) pump stations or to feed fuel through short branch lines to dispensing tankage installations.

feet of head. The measure of pressure in terms of the height in feet of a column of a given fuel. This measurement is convenient for use in hydraulic design of pipelines, since it can be applied directly to terrain elevations.

figure-eight blank. A pipe blank, or blind, in the form of a figure eight. One circle of the eight is solid to form a blank, and the other circle is open. It is used in locations where a line must be periodically blanked off and a visible indication is, required to show whether the line is blind or open.

fill stand. See loading rack.

filter (noun). A porous material on which solid particles are caught and retained when a mixture is passed through it.

filter (verb ). To remove mechanically the solids or free water from a petroleum product.

filter/separator. A device used to separate both solid contaminants and water from a petroleum fuel.

fire-suppression equipment. A standard set of fire-fighting and safety equipment that includes a trailer-mounted fire extinguisher, portable dry chemical fire extinguishers, fire-fighting suits and boots, and a supply of fire-fighting chemicals.

firewall. See dike.

five-mile pipeline set. A set that contains all the pipe, valves, couplings, pipeline anchors, and elbows needed to construct 5 miles of IPDS pipeline.

flacking. To pack hose by folding it and storing it horizontally.

flame arrester. An assembly of perforated plates or screens enclosed in a case and attached to the breather vent on a petroleum storage tank. The device prevents a flame from entering the tank through the vent.

flammable. A term describing any combustible material which can be ignited easily and which will burn rapidly. Petroleum products which have flash points of 100° F (37.8° C) or lower are classed as flammable.

flammable limits. See explosive limits.

flash point. The lowest temperature at which a liquid petroleum product gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite (that is, flash) on application of a flame under specified conditions.

flexible coupling. A coupler that connects the speed increaser on the engine to the drive shaft on the pump unit of the 800-GPM main line pumping assembly.

floating hose. The sections of hose that connect the submarine hose string to the tanker rail hose. Also called floated and floater hoses.

floating-roof tank. A tank with a roof that floats on the surface of the liquid contents. The roof, which has a tight seal of synthetic rubber around its perimeter, rises and falls with the changes in product level. When the roof falls to a certain distance from the bottom, it comes to rest on supports. Because there is no vapor space between the surface of the product and the roof, breathing and filling losses are practically eliminated.

flood pump. See feeder (flood) pumps.

flow rate. The amount of fuel passing through a point along a pipeline or hoseline over time. Flow rate is usually stated in gallons per minute or gallons per hour.

flying crane. A CH-54A helicopter.

foaming. The formation of froth or foam on lubricating oils or other oils as a result of aeration or release of gas dissolved in the oil. Foaming characteristics of lubricating oils are determined by ASTM Method D 892.

fog oil. A petroleum oil used in smoke generators produced according to specification MIL-F-12070 in type SFG-1 (for temperatures above 40° F (4° C)) and type SFG-2 (for temperatures of 40° F (4° C) or lower).

foot valve. Special-purpose check valve. See priming.

four-point mooring. The rigid mooring using four legs of chain or wire attached to anchors on the seafloor. In the case of OPDS, the tanker uses its two bower anchors and two quarter anchors for the four-point moor.

fractionation The separation of petroleum by distillation or crystallization into portions which have different properties.

freeboard. a. The distance measured downward at the side of a tanker, amidships, from the upper edge of the deck line to the upper edge of the load line. b The height that a firewall exceeds the maximum fill from a tank.

free water. See Water, free.

friction loss. Loss of pressure, in terms of feet of head per unit of pipe length, from internal resistance to flow in the product itself (viscosity) and from resistance offered by pipe walls, pipe fittings, and reductions in pipe diameter.

fuel-air ratio. See air-fuel ratio.

fuel oil Any liquid petroleum product burned for the generation of heat in a furnace or firebox or for the generation of power in an engine, exclusive of oils with a flash point below 100F (38C) (tag closed-cup tester) and oils burned in cotton- or wool-wick burners.

fuel system icing inhibitor. An agent to be used only as an anti-icing additive for jet turbine engine fuels.

gage (noun). An object used as a standard of measurement or comparison; that is, an instrument for measuring, indicating, or regulating the capacity, quantity, amount, or other properties.

gage (verb). To measure the contents or capacity, as of a tank. See innage and outage.

gage pressure. The pressure as shown by a pressure-registering instrument (gage).

gage sheet. A form used to record gage readings.

gage table. A table prepared to show the contents of a tank for each one-eighth or one-sixteenth inch of product in the tank. After the tank has been gaged with a steel tape or pole and the height of the liquid determined, the contents of the tank can be found by referring to this table. The table is compiled either through an ordinary calibration of the tank or by a mathematical computation of the cylindrical volume for each inch of altitude, deducting the volume occupied by "deadwood." A table of temperature corrections is often made available for use in reducing the measured contents of the tank to a standard volume at 60° F (16° C). The volume calculation and correction table is identified in ASTM Method D 1250.

gaging for water. Obtaining the depth of water bottom by taking a water cut. This is usually done by coating a plumb bob, tape, or gaging stick with water-finding paste.

gallon (gal). A unit of measure of volume. A US gallon contains 231 cubic inches or 3.785 liters; it is 0.83268 times the imperial gallon. One US gallon of water weighs 8.3374 pounds at 60F (16° C).

gas detector. An instrument for determining the explosibility of a gas and air mixture (explosimeter).

gas oil. A term originally used to refer to an oil suitable for cracking to make illuminating gas. The term is now used to designate an overhead product in between refined oils and low-viscosity lubricating oils, used primarily as thermal or catalytic cracking feed stock, diesel fuel, furnace oil, and the like.

gasoline. See automotive gasoline and aviation gasoline.

gas turbine. An engine in which vapor (other than steam) is directed, under pressure, against a series of turbine blades. The energy contained in the rapidly expanding vapors is converted into rotary motion.

gate valve. An on-off valve used to start or stop fuel flow. The gate valve is closed by a flat face vertical disc or gate that slides down the valve to stop flow. Gate valves open and close with handwheels.

gravitometer. Permanently installed hydrometer that gives a continuous reading of the API or specific gravity of the product passing through the pipeline. See hydrometer.

gravity. See API gravity and specific gravity.

grease. A mixture of petroleum oil, soap (or other thickeners), and sometimes an additive used for lubricating under conditions where an oil cannot meet all requirements. (See specific greases under alphabetical listing.)

groove-type coupling. A coupling consisting of two segments, bolts for fastening the segments together, and a self-sealing gasket. Each segment engages a groove around the end of each pipe, and the gasket fits over the ends of both pipes. When the bolts are tightened, the segments center and compress the gasket to form a tight joint.

gross tank capacity. Tank capacity to maximum fill level; includes nonrecoverable tank bottoms. "Gross tank capacity" is synonymous with "storage capacity."

gross tons. The entire internal cubic capacity of a tanker, expressed in units of 100 cubic feet to the ton, less certain exempted spaces such as tanks for water ballast.

gross weight. The total weight of a container, its cargo, and packing material. The gross weight is stated in pounds.

grounding. Connecting single or bonded units to a ground rod so that any static potential will be discharged into the earth. If two or more units are bonded and one is grounded, the whole system is effectively grounded. (See Bonding.)

ground products. Refined petroleum products normally intended for use in administrative, combat, and tactical vehicles, materials-handling equipment, special-purpose vehicles, and stationary power and heating equipment.

gum. Varnish-like, tacky, noncombustible insoluble deposits formed during the deterioration of petroleum and its products, particularly gasoline. The amount of gummy material in gasoline is known as its gum content, which is determined by ASTM Methods D 381 and D 873. See gum test.

gum test. An analytical method for determining the amount of existing gum in gasoline by evaporating a sample from a glass dish on an elevated-temperature bath with the aid of circulating air.

handy-size tanker. A tanker with 225,000-barrel capacity designed to provide service to military terminals.

head. An expression of pressure, usually stated in terms of inches or feet. See Dynamic head, static pressure, and hydrostatic head.

head terminal. The last terminal in a pipeline system.

header. A common manifold in which a number of pipelines are united.

heart cut. a. A narrow-range cut, usually taken near the middle portion of the stock being distilled or treated. b A delivery of pure product from the middle of a batch at some intermediate point on the pipeline.

heavy product. A liquid in stored drums which gives off flammable vapors above the temperature of 80° F (27° C).

high water mark. The point on the beach where the OPDS conduit and BTU terminate.

hogging. A condition in which the bow and stern are lower than the midship section. Usually caused by improper loading of the tanker or by overtrim.

hot spot. An area in the combustion of an engine which remains at a higher temperature than the surrounding metal, which can cause detonation or preignition.

hydraulic drivehead. A hydraulic drill motor used to drive IPDS pipeline anchors into the ground. It is also used to remove the anchors.

hydraulic fluid. A fluid of petroleum or nonpetroleum origin used in hydraulic systems. Low viscosity, low rate of change of viscosity with temperature, and low pour point are desirable characteristics.

hydraulic gradient. The progressive and continuous drop in pressure in a pipeline resulting from resistance to flow.

hydraulic gradient triangle. A right triangle so constructed that the slope of it hypotenuse represents the rate of pressure loss due to friction of a given fluid flowing through the pipeline of a given size at a given initial pressure. Altitude of the triangle represents the initial pressure; base of the triangle represents the total length of pipe through which the fluid can be moved against friction alone by the initial pressure. When applied to the profile of the pipeline route drawn to the same scale, this triangle locates the point where pressure losses due to both friction and elevation require the location of another pump station.

hydraulic profile. A schematic map of changes in elevation along a pipeline route. The hydraulic profile is used to plot pump stations along the trace.

hydrocarbon. A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest hydrocarbons are gases at ordinary temperatures; with increasing molecular weight, they change to the liquid form and, finally to the solid state. Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum.

hydroforming. A special catalatic reforming process used to upgrade straight-run gasoline.

hydrometer. A graduated instrument for determining the gravity of liquids. It is usually made of hollow glass and weighted at one end so as to float upright. The depth to which the instrument sinks when immersed in a liquid is determined by the density of that liquid the lighter the liquid, the lower the instrument sinks. Some hydrometers are marked so that the percentage of each constituent of the product in them can be read. Hydrometers used to measure petroleum are usually marked with degrees API or specific gravity.

hydrostatic head. That portion of the indicated pressure at a point in a piping system or pipeline, which is due to the superimposed height of the liquid head acting at that point.

icing. The solidification of particles of moisture in the fuel system, especially the carburetor, of an aircraft or ground vehicle. The moisture may either be contained in the fuel or it may enter the system through the air intake. Icing may cause either partial or complete loss of power.

identification tests. Selected tests applied to a sample to identify quickly the type or grade of material represented or to determine that the quality has not been altered by time or handling.

ignition. See compression ignition.

ignition quality. The ability of a fuel to ignite upon injection into the engine cylinder.

impeller. A device which impels or pushes forward, such as the rotor of a centrifugal pump or air compressor.

intermediate terminal. Any fuel terminal connected to the pipeline and located between the base terminal and the head terminal.

inhibitor. A substance added in small amounts to a petroleum product to prevent or retard undesirable chemical changes from taking place in the product or in the condition of the equipment in which the product is used. The essential function of inhibitors is to prevent or retard oxidation or corrosion.

Inland Petroleum Distribution System. A rapid-deployment, general support bulk fuel terminal and pipeline system. The IPDS is made up of tactical petroleum terminals, 5-mile pipeline sets and pipeline pump stations.

innage. The height or volume of liquid in a storage tank as measured or gaged from the bottom of the tank to the top of the liquid.

innage tape and bob. A steel measuring tape connected by a harness snap to the eye of cone-tipped bob. Used to measure the distance from the bottom of the tank to the liquid level of product in a tank or gage pipe.

inorganic compound. A compound (such as clay or glass) containing no carbon, hence composed of matter other than animal or vegetable.

insulating oil. An oil used in circuit breakers, switches, transformers, and certain other electrical devices for insulating, cooling, or both. In general, such oils are well-refined petroleum distillates of low volatility and high resistance to oxidation and sludging.

interface. A mixture, or commingling, between adjacent products in a multiproduct pipeline; interfacial mixture.

internal-combustion engine. An engine which operates by means of combustion of a fuel within its cylinders.

into-plane The requirement and procurement of fuel and lubricating oils for delivery into government-owned aircraft normally at nonmilitary air facilities. Charges for this include the cost of fuel, lubricating oils, and related services.

inventory. Bulk tankage contents measured to current product level; includes tank bottoms and associated pipeline fill.

Jacob's ladder. A portable rope or wire ladder that is hung over the side of a tanker to permit boarding.

jet engine. An engine which converts air and fuel into a fast-moving stream of hot gases that propel the item on which it is mounted.

jet fuel. Fuel meeting the required properties for use in jet engines and aircraft turbine engines. Jet fuels are procured for the Armed Forces in several grades. The most important grades are JP-4 (low vapor pressure) JP-5 (high flash point), and JP-8.

joint logistics over the shore. A LOTS operation involving operations support from two or more services.

Joint Petroleum Office (JPO). An office established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff with petroleum logistics responsibilities in a unified command in oversea areas.

kedging. Moving a ship along by means of anchors that have been hauled out the same distance from the ship by a boat.

kerosene. A refined petroleum distillate used in space heating units, in wick-fed lamps, bomb-type flares, for cleaning certain machinery and tools, and as a base for liquid insecticide sprays. A single multiple-use type is procured under Federal Specification VV-K-211. A deodorized type, which is used as a base for insecticide sprays, is procured under Specification VV-K-220.

kinematic viscosity. The ratio of the absolute viscosity to the density at the temperature of the viscosity measurement. The metric units of kinematic viscosity are the stoke and centistoke, which correspond to the poise and centipoise of absolute viscosity.

knock. Noise, also called ping, associated with internal-combustion engines. After the spark ignites the charge, the charge burns smoothly until part of it is burned; then if either the fuel or engine operating conditions are unsuitable, the remaining portion burns suddenly, which makes a knock or ping.

knot. A unit of speed of 1 nautical mile an hour.

laminar flow. A smooth, streamline flow in which product in a pipeline is said to flow in concentric layers. When the velocity of flow increases beyond a certain point (critical velocity), the layers disintegrate and the flow becomes chaotic, or turbulent. See turbulent flow.

lead. A general term used to denote tetraethyllead or other organometallic lead antiknock compounds used as gasoline additives.

lead poisoning. Poisoning caused by tetraethyllead or another of the organometallic lead antiknock compounds used as additives in gasoline. It may result from ingestion, absorption through the skin, or inhalation of fumes.

light ends. a. The most volatile portions of a carbon and hydrogen mixture, the low boiling components that boil off first in distillation. b. Opposite of heavy ends.

lighterage. The act of unloading all or part of a tanker's cargo by smaller tankers or barges to make the tanker lighter.

lighter, amphibious resupply cargo. A five-ton capacity vehicle, wheeled with propeller drive for water use.

light product. A light product is any liquid which gives off flammable vapors at or below 80° F (27C).

lights. Only explosionproof lights, motors, switches, or other electrical fixtures approved by the Underwriters Laboratories for class 1, group D hazardous areas may be used where there are concentrations of flammable gases or vapors. Class 1, group D hazardous areas include those in which JP-4, gasoline, petroleum naphtha, alcohol, acetone, lacquer solvent, and natural gas are used.

lines of communication. All land, water and air routes that connect an operating military force with one or more bases of operations and along which supplies and reinforcements move.

liquefied petroleum gas. Light hydrocarbon material which exists as a gas under normal conditions but which has been converted to a liquid by pressure. Commercial liquefied gas consists of propane, butane, or a mixture of the two.

liter (l). A metric unit of capacity equal to 0.9081 dry quart (US) or 1.0567 liquid quarts (US).

loaded displacement. The weight of a tanker, including cargo, passengers, fuel, water, and stores, which brings the tanker down to the load draft.

loading rack. a. A structure with one or more risers, loading valves, arms, and drop tubes built alongside railroad tracks for the purpose of loading railroad tank cars. b. A structure built in a tank vehicle loading area for the purpose of transferring the product into tank vehicles. c. Fill stand. d. Loading stand.

load line. The line defining the maximum mean draft to which a tanker may be lawfully submerged. It is the lower limit of the freeboard for various conditions and seasons. The six load line used on tankers are the Summer load line; Winter load line; Winter, North Atlantic line; Tropical load line; Fresh water load line; and Tropical fresh water load line.

looped line. a. A doubled pipeline constructed for the purpose of increasing capacity or reducing pressure losses. b. An alternate section of pipeline built around a break or a point of potential damage, such as at a river crossing, to restore or maintain operations during repairs.

lower sample. A sample with a bottle or beaker sampler from the middle of the bottom third of a tank's contents.

lubricant. A substance, especially oil, grease, and graphite, which may be interposed between moving surfaces to reduce friction and wear.

manhole (manhead). An access opening in a tank or other structure to allow someone to enter to inspect, clean, or repair.

manifold. A piping arrangement which permits a stream of liquid or gas to be divided into two or more streams or which permits several streams to be collected into one. See header.

maximum working pressure. The highest pressure that equipment is designed to operate safely.

maximum fill level. The highest level to which a container may be filled.

meniscus. The curved surface of the top of a column of liquid in a narrow tube; the curve is concave when the containing walls are wet with the liquid and convex when they are not wet.

meter skid assembly. An 800-GPM skid-mounted fuel flow meter. Used to measure the amount of fuel flowing in and out of a fuel unit to or from the pipeline.

methane. a. A light, odorless, flammable gas, CH4. b. The first member of the paraffin series. It is the principal constituent of natural gas.

micron. One micron is a thousandth part of 1 millimeter (approximately 25,400 microns equal 1 inch). The average human hair is about 100 microns in diameter.

middle sample. A sample taken from the middle of a tank's contents.

mike. A term used to denote measurement of bulk petroleum products in thousands of gallons or barrels. For example, 10 mike barrels = 10,000 barrels.

Military Sealift Command. The US Navy command responsible for providing ocean transportation for the military services and for other governmental agencies and departments, as directed.

mill scale. A magnetic product formed on iron and some steel surfaces during the manufacturing process.

mixed sample. A sample taken by mixing or stirring the original sample and then drawing off the desired quantity for testing.

molecule. Unit of matter; the smallest particle of an element or compound that retains chemical identity with the substance in mass.

motor fuel. See automotive gasoline, aviation gasoline, and jet fuel.

motor method. A test for determining the knock rating, in terms of ASTM motor octane numbers, of fuels for use in spark-ignition engines. The knocking tendency of the fuel under test is compared with knocking tendencies of reference fuels of known octane number (ASTM Method D 2700).

multigrade oil. A multiviscosity number oil which acts as a high-viscosity oil in high temperatures but as a low-viscosity oil in low temperatures.

multistage pump. See pump, multistage.

naphtha. A general term applied to refined, partly refined, and unrefined petroleum products and liquid products deriving from natural gas which distill between 347F (175C) and 460F (238C).

natural gas. Naturally occurring mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors, the more important of which are methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and hexane.

net tonnage. The payload spaces remaining after space for the crew, power plant, fuel, and operation of the vessel are deducted from the gross tonnage. Each net ton represents a capacity of 100 cubic feet.

nonrecoverable tank bottom. That quantity of liquid that is below the suction manifold or drawoff line of a storage tank and is not available in normal day-to-day operations.

normal head capacity. The total head against which a pumping unit will pump at the most efficient operating point.

normal pressure. Mean atmospheric pressure at sea level; taken to be equal to that of a column of mercury 760 millimeters high; about 14.7 pounds per square inch. See atmospheric pressure.

ocean terminal. A terminal capable of discharging and loading ocean-going tankers.

octane number. Term used to show numerically the relative antiknock value of automotive gasolines and of aviation gasolines having a rating below 100. It is based on a comparison with the reference fuels, isooctane (100 octane number) and normal heptane (0 octane number). The octane number of an unknown fuel is the volume percent of isooctane in a blend with normal heptane which matches the unknown fuel in knocking tendencies under a specified set of conditions. Above 100, the octane number of a fuel is based on the engine rating, defined in terms of milliliters of tetraethyllead in isooctane, which matches that of the unknown fuel.

officer-in-charge (OIC). The senior officer, or the officer designated, in charge of an operation in the military organization.

off-line. A pipeline or terminal that is operating. Also, the process of stopping operations to go off-line.

Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS). The US Navy fleet of several special fuel tanker ships. Each ship carries a cargo of fuel, its own mooring buoy and 4 miles of flexible pipe. The mission of the system is to deliver fuel to the beach head in a theater of operations.

off-specification product. A product which fails to meet one or more of the physical, chemical, or performance requirements of the specification.

olefin. One of a major series of hydrocarbons that appear chiefly in refinery operations. They have the general formula of naphthenes and the chain structures of paraffins, but they are unsaturated. Molecular structure and nomenclature correspond to paraffins having the same amount of carbon. Ethylene, or ethene, is the lowest, member of the olefins, and the series is sometimes called the ethylene series.

opening gage. A gage of a product taken immediately before delivery or receipt of product.

outage. a. The volume of unoccupied space in a storage tank or other container, measured or gaged from a reference point above the product to the surface of the product. b. The difference between rated capacity and actual contents. (Some space will always be left unoccupied for expansion of product.) See ullage.

outage tape and bob. A steel measuring tape connected by a harness snap to the eye of the rectangular bob. The outage tape and bob is used to measure the distance from a reference point above the product to the surface of the product in the tank.

overcoupling clamp. A type of repair clamp installed over a pipe coupling joint to stop leaks. Usually called an overcoupling.

oxidation. The process of combining with oxygen, a process which all hydrocarbons are capable of doing.

packaged petroleum products. Those petroleum products other than fuels (generally lubricants, greases, and specialty items) that are stored, transported, and issued in containers with a capacity of 55 gallons or less. See bulk petroleum products.

packed line. A petroleum pipeline filled with product under pressure.

packing. A general term for a yielding material used to make a tight joint or connection. Packing may be sheet rubber, asbestos, cork, or metal for gaskets or braided and graphited hemp or asbestos material in strips or rings for stuffing boxes.

paraffin. Any of the white, tasteless, odorless, and chemically inert waxy substances composed of saturated hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum.

parallel connection. Pumps are said to be connected "in parallel" when they receive product directly from the line simultaneously. This is in contrast to those connected "in series," in which the product goes through first one unit and then the other. Pumps in parallel deliver the cumulative volume of all pumps at the pressure of one pump; pumps in series deliver the volume of one pump at the cumulative pressure of all pumps.

patrolling. Routine surveillance of the pipeline to detect leaks or potential leaks and breaks and to discourage pilferage and sabotage. Patrollers may travel on foot or ride in motor vehicles or aircraft.

penetrating oil. A thin, nonviscous oil used to loosen rusted or frozen metal parts such as nuts, screws, bolts, or pins. Penetrating oil is not intended for use as a lubricant. It is produced to specification VV-P-216.

performance number (PN). An indication of relative engine performance, the relative knock-free power or output a supercharged aircraft engine can develop. For example, Avgrade 115/145 indicates a rating of 115 at lean mixture and a rating of 145 at rich mixture. The rating of 145 indicates that the engine can develop 145 percent as much knock-free power with the fuel at rich mixture as it could under the same conditions with a fuel having a performance number of 100.

petrochemical. Derived from the words petroleum and chemical and originally coined to designate chemicals of petroleum origin. At present, petrochemical covers a wide variety of products.

petroleum. Crude oil. Petroleum is a mixture of gaseous, liquid, and semisolid hydrocarbons varying widely in gravity and complexity. Petroleum can be removed as a liquid from underground reservoirs, and it can be separated into various fractions by distillation and recovery. Petroleum is a general term that includes all petroleum fuels, lubricants. and specialties.

petroleum measurement tables. ASTM-IP tables provided for the calculation of quantities of petroleum and its products under the required conditions in any of three systems of measurements. Tables are provided for the reduction of gravity and volume to standard states over normal operating ranges, for calculation of weight-volume relationship, and for interconversion of a wide variety of commercially useful units (ASTM Method D 1250).

POL. Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricants. Included are petroleum fuels, lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, temporary protectives, liquid and compressed gases, chemical products, liquid coolants, deicing and antifreeze compounds, together with components and additives of such products.

petroleum testing kit. A kit provided for limited quality surveillance testing under field conditions.

pigtail hose. The hose sections leading from the base of the SALM and connecting to the sea floor conduit. Also called the jumper hose.

pinging. Detonation or knocking. Pinging is another term for the too rapid combustion of the air and vapor mixture in an internal-combustion engine.

pipe cutting and beveling machine. Used for pipeline construction. A portable pipe cutting machine set that can cut either aluminum or steel pipe. It also cuts coupling grooves or bevels during the cutting operation.

pipehead. The downstream end of the pipeline with facilities for storing, distributing, or forwarding petroleum products.

pipeline. A line of pipe with pump stations, storage tanks, and accessory equipment to move petroleum products.

pipeline batch. See batch.

pipeline fill. The volume (quantity) of product required to fill a pipeline completely.

pipeline pump station. A standard set that contains all the equipment needed for an IPDS mainline pump station. It also contains most of the tools, supplies and repair parts needed to operate and maintain a pump station for 18 months.

pipeline suspension bridge. A bridge used to breach wide, deep obstacles. There are 100-foot, 200-foot and 400-foot suspension bridges in the IPDS. They are constructed from sets of towers, cable, hangers, and guys.

pipeline tender. A quantity of product offered or designated for pipeline shipment. It may be moved in one or more batches.

pipe wrapping. The process of cleaning, treating, and wrapping tile pipeline with a protective coating of treated tape before burying it to keep it from corroding.

plasticizer. A substance added to a plastic or rubber material to maintain elasticity.

plug valve. A valve in which the part that closes the line is a revolving plug with an opening to permit liquid to pass when the opening is aligned with the bore of the pipe. The valve is characterized by its rapid opening and closing capability, usually by turning a quarter turn with a removable handle. Some models have a control wheel with a worm gear. Most models do not permit passage of scrapers.

polymerization. Changing a substance of a given molecular weight to another substance with chemical ingredients in the same proportions as in the first but with a new molecular weight that is a multiple of the first, depending upon how many molecules of the first have been combined. It is a method of changing hydrocarbon gases into high-octane gasoline.

port. a. A term for either a suction or discharge opening of petroleum-handling equipment or accessories. b. The left side of a vessel.

positive displacement pump. A pump that lifts or transfers fluid by positive or direct displacement without any transformation of energy. This pump differs from the centrifugal pump, in which the rotating impeller first creates kinetic energy in the moving fluid and then transforms it into pressure.

post-discharge tests. Tests prescribed by MIL-HDBK-200 for product after it is received into storage tanks. These tests are the ones most likely to detect contamination that might have occurred during off-loading.

pour point. The lowest temperature at which an oil can be poured (ASTM Method D 97.)

predischarge tests. Tests MIL-HDBK-200 prescribes for samples of product from a ship. They are the tests most likely to show any contamination that might have occurred in transit.

preignition. Premature ignition of the air and fuel mixture in a spark-ignition engine by some means other than the spark. Preignition is often caused by overheated plugs or valves or by carbon deposits glowing with heat.

preissue tests. Tests prescribed by MIL-HDBK-200 before issue or shipment of products to ensure that satisfactory quality has been maintained.

premium grade. Refers to automotive gasoline, specification VV-G- 1690, for use in motor vehicle and other engines where the manufacturer specifies use of a fuel of higher octane rating than regular grade gasoline.

preservative. A petroleum product designed to prevent corrosion of ferrous and nonferrous metals. General-purpose lubricating oils produced to specifications VV-L-800, MIL-L-7870, and MIL-L-3150 have preservative qualities.

pressure. A force or impulse. Pressure differential is incremental pressure, or the difference between suction and discharge of a pump. Pressure gage is an instrument used to measure and indicate pressure in a fluid.

pressure conrol valve. A valve used to maintain positive discharge pressure at the fuel loading points in the fuel dispensing assembly.

pressure drop. The decrease of pressure in pounds per square inch, or head in feet, of fluid flowing in a piping system from one point to another point downstream from the first point. Pressure drop may be caused by friction, increase of elevation, or increase of velocity.

priming. Displacement of air on the suction side of a centrifugal pump between the source of supply and the point of intake in the pump. Pump can be primed by filling the pump casing with product to be pumped or by removing the air with a vacuum pump. A foot valve or check valve can be installed on the suction line to hold product when pumping stops.

procurement quality assurance. That program by which the government determines if contractors have fulfilled their contract obligations for quality and quantity of products and related services.

profile. A vertical section through the route of a pipeline or other surveyed line on the earth's surface, showing distances out from a starting point and elevations above or below a datum plane. A profile is used with the hydraulic gradient triangle in modular design of the pipeline.

prover tank. A volumetric tank used to prove or calibrate a flow meter. It may be the open type for measuring a delivery to another container or the closed type when control vapor losses are important. The tank may have a narrow neck with gage glass at top and bottom for added accuracy.

pump. An apparatus for lifting or transferring fluids. The following are principal types of pumps:

  • Centrifugal (Volute Type). Consists of one or more impellers mounted on a rapidly rotating shaft. The liquid enters the impeller at the center, or "eye," and is impelled outward from the center by centrifugal force at high velocity into the volute of the pump casing. The function of the volute is to catch the impeller discharge and convert peripheral (tangential) velocity head into pressure head while conducting the liquid at a reducing rate of flow to the discharge nozzle of the pump casing.
  • Duplex. A reciprocating pump which has two liquid cylinders. Duplex pumps have a more steady discharge flow and pressure than do simplex pumps.
  • Gear. A positive-displacement pump of the rotary type that moves liquid meshing gears rotating in opposite directions. Liquid enters on the suction side under atmospheric pressure and is carried to the discharge side in the spaces between the gear teeth and the wall of the pump chamber.
  • Multistage. A centrifugal pump which has two or more impellers mounted on the same shaft. The discharge from one impeller is conducted to the suction eye of the next impeller, and so forth. Petroleum product pumps with up to 14 stages and developing over 3,000 PSI discharge pressure are in use.
  • Power. A reciprocating pump in which the liquid pistons are usually driven by a crankshaft driven through gears or a speed reducer by an automotive engine or electric motor, rather than by rods connected to direct acting steam pistons.
  • Reciprocating. Consists of one or more cylinders into which liquid is sucked on the intake stroke of a piston and from which it is discharged on the discharge stroke. It is usually driven by a direct connected steam piston, although belt, gear, or chain drive by steam turbine, diesel engine, or electric motor may be used. It may commonly be of simplex, duplex, or triplex (one-, two-, or three-pump cylinders) and be single acting (one working stroke per revolution using one side of piston) or double-acting (two working strokes per revolution using both sides of piston). This is essentially a low-speed, low-capacity pump best suited to the handling of small quantities of viscous liquids at high heads and variable discharge pressures.
  • Rotary. A positive-displacement pump used mainly to pump liquids that are either too viscous or too volatile to pick up readily from a lower level with a centrifugal pump. There are many types of rotary pump designs. The types used most often are the gear-type and lobe-type, in which two gears or lobes mesh and therefore rotate in opposite directions. The liquid is trapped between the gear teeth or lobes and the casing and is carried around the discharge side of the pump.
  • Simplex. A reciprocating pump that has one liquid cylinder on a direct rod drive or a single crank or rocker arm.
  • Single acting. A reciprocating pump that discharges when the piston is moving in one direction only; contrasted with a double acting pump in which liquid continuously enters and leaves the cylinder from one end or the other.

pump, booster. Used to add energy to fluid when the pressure of fluid flowing in a pipe is nearly expended and approaches zero. The energy can be used to increase flow rate.

pump station. See booster station.

pup joints. Short pieces of pipe or nipples with grooved ends, which are shorter than standard lengths of pipe, used to close gaps in the line.

purple K. Potassium bicarbonate. A dry chemical used in the trailer-mounted fire extinguisher that puts out fires by smothering them.

qualified products list. A list prepared by the procuring service of civilian-type or off-the-shelf items that comply with specifications and have been found to be acceptable to the government.

quality surveillance. The measures taken to ensure that petroleum products which have been accepted by the government as being of the required quality are still of the required quality when delivered to the user. Quality surveillance includes watching over and caring for products during all storage and handling operations, adhering to handling methods and procedures designed to protect quality, and examining and testing of products in storage and on change of custody.

rack. See loading rack.

reaction. Chemical change that takes place when two or more substances are brought together. Reaction is accompanied by exchange of molecules and formation of other substances.

ready reserve force. Cargo ships designated for rapid activation that serve the Strategic sealift program.

receiving tests. Tests prescribed by MIL-HDBK-200 to supply information quickly on the quality of products received so their disposition can be planned.

reciprocating. Moving alternately back and forth. A reciprocating engine or pump (positive displacement) is one in which pistons move back and forth in cylinders.

reciprocating pump. See pump (reciprocating).

reclamation. Restoring or changing a contaminated or off-specification petroleum product so that it will either meet specifications or will be within use limits. See blending.

reducer. A coupling of a size larger on one end than on the other. It is used to connect pipe or pipe and other fittings of different diameters.

reference depth. The distance from the reference point to the bottom of the tank (gaging height).

Reid vapor pressure (RVP). The measure of pressure exerted by a product on the interior of a special container due to its tendency to vaporize.

repeatability. The allowable difference between two results on the same sample by the same operator using the same equipment.

reproducibility. The allowable difference between two results on the same sample by different operators in different locations.

residual fuel oils. Fuel oils which are either topped crude petroleum or viscous cracked residuum.

responsible officer. An individual, either civilian or military, responsible for the proper custody, care, and safekeeping of property entrusted to him or under his supervision, to include pecuniary liability for any loss which might occur because of failure to exercise this obligation. See also accountable officer.

Reynolds number (RE) A dimensionless value equal to velocity in feet per second times diameter in feet times kinematic viscosity in square feet per second. The formula for obtaining the Reynolds number is:

    Reynolds number =


      Where Q = gallons per minute,

      d = inside diameter of pipe, in inches, and

      k = viscosity, in centistokes.

rich mixture. An air and vapor mixture with enough air for good combustion.

ring. In a storage tank, the circular arrangement of staves to form the tank wall. Bolted military storage tanks have from one to three rings.

rising stem. Refers to one type of gate valve in which only the valve stem and disk rise together when the valve is opened. This contrasts with the nonrising stem valve on which the handwheel, valve stem, and disk rise together when the valve is opened.

riveted construction. Refers to metal storage tanks with plates or sheets fastened together with rivets.

rotary drilling. The process of drilling by rotating a drill bit on the end of a string of pipe.

rotary pump See pump, rotary and pump, gear.

rust preventive. A preservative oil used to provide a waterproof film over iron or steel surfaces exposed to oxidation.

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Numbers of Lubricants. A classification of lubricating oils for crankcases and transmissions in terms of viscosity, standardized by SAE.

safe refueling rates. Maximum rates for safely refueling the different types of wheeled and tracked vehicles.

safety equipment set. A standard item provided for the safe cleaning of storage tanks, tank cars and trucks, and tank trailers. The set contains fresh air respirators, centrifugal air blower, rubber boots and gloves, and an explosimeter or gas detector.

safety valve. Relief valve. An automatic valve used to release pressure above a given setting.

sagging. A condition in which the middle part of a ship's structure sinks below the bow and stern. It is usually caused by the improper distribution of the cargo.

salt dome. A geological formation resulting from intrusion of rock salt into overlying sedimentary beds.

sample. A quantity of product taken as prescribed in ASTM Method D 270 for examination and testing. See specific kind of sample.

sampler. A device used to obtain samples of various petroleum products. Another term for sampler is thief. See Bacon bomb.

sand trap. An arrangement of piping between the incoming scraper station and the suction side of the first pump, intended to collect floating debris, dirt, scale, or sludge pumped through the line or dislodged by the scraper.

saturated hydrocarbon. A hydrocarbon of such composition that the valence, or combining power, of all carbon atoms present is fully satisfied. Such a hydrocarbon is a stable substance and does not oxidize readily. The degree of unsaturation is a measure of instability.

scale. A formation of oxide in a flaky film or in thin layers.

schedule. A monthly, weekly, or daily plan of dates product is required and sizes of batches to be delivered from a pipeline at intermediate and pipehead terminals. Schedules must be translated into daily pumping orders for control of pipeline operations.

scraper. A device propelled by the moving stream in a pipeline intended to scrape out or dislodge corrosion, wax, sediment, or other deposits that tend to increase friction loss, reduce throughput, or lead to contamination of product. Scrapers are dispatched from and received in scraper traps. The outgoing barrel is on the discharge side of a pump station, and the incoming barrel is on the suction side. The sand trap is intended to catch the material removed by the scraper. Other terms for scraper are pig or go-devil.

screen. A filter, sieve, or barrier made of meshed wire or perforated metal, intended to remove solid matter from a flowing stream or to segregate sizes of solid matter. The size of matter removed or segregated depends upon the size of mesh or perforations.

scupper plugs. Plugs of various types, tightly fitted or cemented in all scupper holes on the weather deck of tankers, and used while loading, discharging, or shifting cargo in port. In the case of an oil spill, the plugs usually prevent harbor pollution by retaining the spill on deck.

secondary recovery. A method used in drilling to force oil to flow into the well bore after natural forces fail. Water, gas, or air is usually used.

sediment. Foreign matter other than water that settles to the bottom of a container.

sediment and water. Solids and aqueous solutions which may be present in an oil and which may be left to settle or which may be separated more rapidly by a centrifuge.

segregator. Filter/separator or water separator. A device for removing water from a stream of product.

series connection. Pumps are said to be connected "in series" when the product goes first through one unit and then the next. Pumps in series deliver the volume of one pump at the cumulative pressure of all pumps connected, as in contrast with parallel connection in which all units connected receive product simultaneously. A pump manifolded for series operation might deliver 200 barrels per hour at 200 pounds per square inch, while the same unit manifold for parallel operation might deliver 400 barrels per hour at 100 pounds per square inch. See stage.

settling time. The elapsed time that a product remains undisturbed or unagitated between receipt of product into and discharge from storage.

shale. A sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of mud or clay.

shale oil. Crude oil derived from shale.

shell. The tank of a railway tank car or tank truck. Shell capacity refers to the amount of product a tank car holds when the shell is full; that is, it is full when product just touches the underside of the top of the shell. Additional product in a tank car then becomes dome innage. Shell innage refers to the depth of product in a tank car. Shell outage refers to the distance from the underside of the top of the shell to the level of product. Dome innage and shell outage are not applied to tank trucks. The capacity of a tank truck refers to the amount of product in the vehicle when the level of product reaches one of two markers usually installed beneath the dome of each compartment. The higher marker is for highway travel, and the lower marker is for cross-country travel.

side loadable warping tug. A self-propelled pontoon barge section outfitted with winch, anchor and A-frame used in the deployment of the OPDS.

simplex pump. See pump, simplex.

single acting pump. See pump, single acting.

single anchor leg mooring. The submersible barge carried by the host tanker, deployed, and used as a mooring and fuel node by the OPDS.

slack line. A pipeline that has been shut down under static pressure or static pressure in the product because of differences in elevation along the profile.

slate. A report used by the military service for listing requirements of petroleum. The petroleum products written slate is a stock status and planned requirements report compiled monthly by a commander of an oversea area to requisition bulk petroleum products and certain packaged fuels. The petroleum products message slate is an advanced requirements report submitted monthly by electrical transmission by Joint Petroleum Offices (JPOs) and later confirmed by a written slate. The two types are as follows:

    Overseas Bulk Petroleum Products Slate (OCONUS Slate). The planned 5-month delivery requirements for oversea ports or ocean terminals. It is submitted by the JPO via AUTODIN to DFSC.

    CONUS Bulk Petroleum Products Slate (CONUS Slate). The planned four-month delivery requirements for CONUS tanker discharge ports or ocean terminals. It is prepared by DFSC field offices and is usually developed from data submitted by service activities within the area of responsibility of the individual field offices.

slated items. High-usage petroleum products, either bulk products or packaged petroleum fuels, which are slated (requisitioned) for use in oversea areas only through JPO channels.

slop. Any liquid petroleum product known to be off specification. Storage tanks may be reserved for such products until the products can be analyzed, reclaimed, or disposed of. Interfaces not disposed of in the adjacent products or not fit for such disposition should be taken off in slop tanks until they can be disposed of.

slop tanks. Tanks regularly containing products which are not up to quality, or products which are to be treated or downgraded and transferred to selected tanks.

sludge. A heavy sedimentation or deposit on the bottom of storage tanks consisting of water, dirt, and other settings; gunk. Crude oils and residuals form the heaviest sludges, and light products form lightest sludges. Engine sludge is a particular kind of sludge containing products of combustion deposited in internal-combustion engines.

soluble cutting oil. An industrial term used to describe a mineral oil containing an emulsifier, making it capable of mixing with water to form a coolant for metal-cutting tools.

solution. A uniform mixture of a solute in a solvent from which the solute can be separated by crystallization or other physical means. Called a physical solution when no chemical changes take place; otherwise called a chemical solution.

sorbent. A material that absorbs fuel and oil but does not absorb water. Sorbent is used to soak up fuel spills in the system.

sour crude. Crude oil which contains so much sulfur and sulfur compounds that they must be removed by chemical treatment. This oil has an objectionable odor.

Source Identification and Ordering Authorization Form (SIOATH). The SIOATH is a form used to advise the supply source (contractor or terminal) of the activities authorized to order or requisition product from that source and the target quantity to be withdrawn by each. It also advises the ordering activities of all the supply data necessary to schedule product and place a correct order.

spark ignition engine. An internal-combustion engine in which the air and vapor mixture is ignited by a timed spark from a spark plug. In contrast with compression ignition engine (diesel).

specific gravity (sp gr). The ratio of the weight of any quantity of matter, a petroleum product for example, to the weight of an equal quantity of water; usually determined by use of a hydrometer. See API gravity.

specification. Prescribed limits of control tests used to maintain uniformity of a specific product.

spectrometric oil analysis. The detection, by spectrometer, of wear metals in regularly taken samples of used oils from oil-wetted mechanical systems. By examining the wear metals, the rate of friction wear of the various metal parts of the mechanical system can be determined. See wear metal.

split loading. Carrying more than one product in a compartmented tanker.

spontaneous combustion. Self-ignition of combustible materials caused by accumulation of heat through slow oxidation; cannot take place if the heat is dissipated as fast as it is generated.

spontaneous ignition temperature. The temperature of a metal bath just adequate enough to cause ignition of a mixture of petroleum or similar vapor and air when tested in accordance with the provisions of ASTM Method D 2155-66.

stage. Grade, level, or step, as in the case of liquid passing through an impeller of a pumping unit having more than one impeller. Standard military pumping units are single-stage, two-stage, and four-stage. Four-stage pumping units can be operated with stages in series only; but two-stage pumping units can be operated with stages in parallel or in series.

standby. A term for equipment used only in emergencies or, as in the case of pumping units in a pump station, used on a rotational basis for uniformity of wear and for maintenance purposes.

standpipe. A high, vertical pipe used as a reservoir and as a means of maintaining a uniform pressure in a supply system.

starboard. The right side of a ship.

starting ease. Refers to the initial volatility of a gasoline; how readily it vaporizes and ignites for easy starting of equipment or an engine.

static electricity. Electricity generated by friction between unlike substances and in the atmosphere; contrasted with voltaic or current electricity.

static pressure. Hydrostatic pressure produced with a column of liquid because of weight alone; measured by feet of head.

still. An apparatus in which a substance is changed by heat, with or without chemical decomposition, into a vapor. The vapor is then liquefied in a condenser and collected in another part of the apparatus.

stoddard solvent. A petroleum distillate, water-white or not darker than 21, maximum end point of 410° F (210° C) and minimum flash point 100° F (38° C), used for dry cleaning (ASTM Method D 484).

storage capacity. Total of existing bulk tankage assigned for product storage. Capacity is measured to maximum fill level for each tank and includes nonrecoverable tank bottoms.

strainer. A screen, sieve, or filter.

strapping. Determining the volume of storage tanks at regular intervals of depth by carefully measuring it and allowing for lost volume from deadwood; the more accurate the strapping of a tank, the more accurate gaging can be.

stratification. The condition that may occur in a tank in which batches of product of different gravities are stored. The heavier product settles to a layer on the bottom instead of mixing with the lighter product.

stripping. The process of drawing off a part of the total capacity of the pipeline into regulating tanks. Some tankers are equipped with a stripping system which is used for stripping the tanks dry of ballast.

Subarea Petroleum Office (SAPO). A suboffice of a JPO established by the JPO to fulfill petroleum logistics responsibilities in a section of the geographical area for which the JPO is responsible. See joint petroleum office.

suction pressure. Pressure on the suction side of the pump.

sump. A depression or low place on the floor of a storage tank or in a piece of equipment intended to aid removal of sediment and water.

supercharge method. A method for determining the knock-limited power, under supercharge rich-mixture conditions, of fuels for use in spark-ignition aircraft engines.

surfactant. A surface active agent which enhances fuel and water emulsification and can interfere with removal of entrained water from fuels.

suspension. Dispersion in a liquid or in a gas of small particles of a solid substance or of small droplets of a liquid. Smoke is a suspension of particles of carbon in gases of combustion. Fumes are a suspension of solid particles in air. Fog is a dense suspension of water droplets in air. Mist is a less dense suspension of water droplets in air. An emulsion is a suspension of oil droplets in water or of water droplets in oil.

sweet crude. Crude oil that contains so little sulfur that chemical treatment to remove sulfur or sulfur compounds is not needed.

switching manifold. A standard set of hoses, ball and gate valves, a pressure regulating valve, and flow meters and fittings used to direct fuel into and out of the pipeline from a terminal. It is also used to direct fuel between fuel units and from tanker truck receipt points.

switching tanks. Changing from one tank to another when pumping or receiving product.

synthetic detergent. The term synthetic is used to distinguish the newer chemical cleansers from the older ones, such as soaps.

synthetic fuels. The term commonly used to refer to fuels manufactured from sources other than crude petroleum, such as shale or coal.

tactical petroleum terminal. An IPDS general support fuel terminal made up of any number of fuel units. Can be connected to a pipeline with a Pipeline Connection Assembly.

tag line. A rope tied to the bottom or sides of a suspended skid, box, or crate used to keep it from swinging and position it for loading or grounding. Tag lines are used to safely spot sling-loaded equipment.

tank. A storage container for liquid products. Tankage refers to tanks collectively. Tank car is a cylindrical metal tank mounted on a frame and on railway freight car trucks. Tank bottoms are the contents below the suction or draw offline. Tank or tank car heater is a stream coil on the tank bottom used to reduce viscosity for easy handling of product. Tank farm is a group of storage tanks connected by pipe and manifold. Tank gaging is measurement of innage or outage and observation of temperature and specific gravity to determine volume of contents at 60° F. Tank truck (or semitrailer) is a tank shell mounted on a chassis for highway travel. Tank and pump unit is an assemblage of small tanks and a dispenser assembly suitable for mounting in a cargo truck. Also see Gross tank capacity, Innage, Inventory, Maximum fill level, nonrecoverable tank bottom, Outage, Shell (shell capacity), Storage capacity, Ullage, Usable inventory, Usable storage capacity, and Variable vapor space.)

tanker. A seagoing vessel for transporting liquids. Coastal tankers have less draft (depth of a ship below the waterline) than oceangoing tankers.

tank farm. A general term for a fuel storage facility usually smaller and less equipped than a terminal.

tank farm assembly. An IPDS fuel storage set made up of two 5,000-barrel collapsible fuel tanks, a 600-GPM hoseline pump and valves, hoses and fittings. This assembly is the basic fuel storage set in the IPDS.

teletype. A form of telegraph using a teletypewriter (a device like a typewriter) to send messages. Often used as a means of communication between the chief dispatcher and district dispatchers and pump stations.

tender. A quantity of product offered to a carrier for shipment. A tender may be moved in one or more batches. See batch.

terminal. A bulk facility for receipt, storage, transportation, and issue of petroleum products. The facility may be a base terminal for receipt and shipment of product by tanker, a pipehead terminal (head terminal) at the downstream end of the pipeline, or an intermediate terminal on the pipeline. The terminal consists of a tank farm or tank farm complex, tank farm manifold, and central pump station area.

tetraethylead (TEL). A volatile lead compound developed to improve octane rating of gasoline.

thermal jet engine. A power unit in which air is taken in from the atmosphere, heated by combustion of a hydrocarbon, and then exhausted at a velocity greater than that at which it was taken in. See turbojet engine.

thermal stability. Resistance of a petroleum product to breakdown of its properties as a result of heat.

thermocouple. An electrical device for measuring temperature. The device consists of two wires of different metals joined together. When the junction is heated, a current is generated and the amount is proportioned to the temperature. A thermopile is the same kind of device, but it is more sensitive, consisting of several dissimilar metals arranged alternately.

thermometer. A device for measuring temperature or degrees of heat or cold; may depend upon the expansion of mercury or liquids or change in electrical conductivity. See ASTM Standard El and E77 for specifications.)

thermostat. An automatic device for regulating temperature.

thief. See bacon bomb and sampler.

thiefing. Taking a sample from a specified point in a container.

throttling valve. A valve used to regulate flow, to permit passage of any desired part of the full stream. A globe or needle valve is the most satisfactory type of throttling valve because there is no unbalanced pressure acting on the disk or needle point when either valve is open, hence no uneven wear or erosion. Needle valves are used for more delicate throttling than globe valves. A gate valve, intended to be fully closed or fully open, is unsatisfactory as a throttling valve because the face of the disk is exposed to uneven wear or erosion when the valve is partly open.

throughput. Capacity; quantity transported per unit of time: barrels per day or gallons per minute.

tie-in. To connect two sections of pipeline. To connect a loop, bypass, or take-off to a pipeline or hoseline.

top sample. A sample taken about 6 inches below the surface of the tank contents.

topped crude. Crude oil from which some of the lighter parts have been removed by distillation.

trace An amount large enough to be detected but not to be measured.

Transfer Hoseline Assembly. A standard set of six-inch hoses and coupling sets used to move fuel between tanks, and the receipt and dispensing areas in a terminal.

transformer oil. See insulating oil.

transmission oil. Gear oil grade 75, 80, 90, and 140 made to specification MIL-L-2105 and gear oil made to specification MIL-L-10324 for subzero use.

trim. The longitudinal deviation of a tanker from the designated waterline at a given draft. The captain of a tanker trims it by arranging the weights so that the desired immersion at the bow and stern is obtained.

turbine oil. Lubricating oil for steam turbines, military symbol 2190TEP, made to specification MIL-L-17331.

turbojet engine. An engine in which air is compressed by a rotating compressor, heated by fuel combustion at compressor pressure, released through a gas turbine which drives the compressor, and finally ejected at high velocity through the rear exhaust nozzle.

turbulent flow. The state of flow in which the streamline or forward motion of fluid is broken up into eddies, swirls, and cross motions; the state in which flow can be described as chaotic; said to exist when the Reynolds number is greater than 4,000.

turnaround. The length of time between arrival at a point and departure from that point. Turnaround refers to the time required for a highway vehicle, railroad car, or waterborne vessel to load or discharge cargo. The turnaround time or cycle includes time for loading; traveling to destination; unloading; reloading (if any); returning to home port, terminal, or installation; and unloading (if any).

ullage. The amount a tank, or container, lacks of being full. See outage.

U-loop. An expansion loop made up of three pipe joints and four 90 degree corners. The loop relieves expansion and contraction stresses in a pipeline section to keep the line from breaking at the coupling joints.

underwater construction team. A Navy unit specializing in offshore facilities installation and maintenance.

unsaturated hydrocarbon. An unsaturate; a hydrocarbon with a molecular structure containing one or more double or triple links between adjacent carbon members. Olefins and aromatics are the principal groups of such substances. In addition to being unsaturated, these substances are also unstable and are more capable of undergoing change than the saturates (paraffins and naphthenes). Oxidation is an example of undesirable change in a product.

upgrade. a. A grade that slopes upward in the direction of pipeline flow. b. To change service from a dark or heavy product to a light or volatile product; refers to the nature of a product stored in a tank or transported in a tanker, tank car, or tank truck. c. To blend a higher grade gasoline interface into tankage containing a lower grade gasoline.

upper sample. A sample taken from the middle of the upper third of the tank contents.

upstream. Opposite to the direction of pipeline flow; in contrast with downstream or the direction of pipeline flow.

usable inventory. Inventory contained between nonrecoverable tank bottom and current product level (excluding pipeline fill).

usable storage capacity. That part of storage capacity from fill level to, but not including nonrecoverable tank bottoms.

use limits. Tolerances established by MIL-HDBK-200 to permit use, under certain conditions, of products that do not fully meet specifications.

valve. A device used to control flow of fluids.

vapor. The gas-like form of a substance that is normally a solid or a liquid; any gaseous substance that can be condensed by cooling or compression. Vapor density is the relative weight of a gas or vapor compared with the weight of an equal volume of a standard substance like air or hydrogen. Vapor lock is a condition in a fuel or pumping system, in which vaporized fuel or product is blocking or retarding flow of fuel to the carburetor or flow of product through the pump. Vapor pressure is the pressure in a closed vessel exerted by the vapors released from any volatile product at a given temperature (ASTM Method D 323). Vapor space is the free area in a container above the level of the product. Vapor testing is a means of detecting the presence of flammable gas or vapor and measuring its concentration by means of a gas detector. Vaporization is the conversion of a liquid to vapor.

variable vapor space. Refers to the vapor space in tanks specially constructed for storage of volatile products. (These tanks usually have a balloon roof, a breather roof, or a lifter roof (gasometer).) The vapor space is described as variable because the tank roof moves up or down with the expansion or contraction of the confined vapors.

velocity of flow. Rate of flow usually measured in feet per second equal to volume of flow in cubic feet per second divided by the cross-sectional area of the pipe in square feet. Velocity head is the head in feet equivalent to the velocity in feet per second; equal to the square of the velocity divided by twice the acceleration of gravity in feet per second (64.3).

vent. An opening in a tank or other container that allows air to escape when pressure builds up or allows air to come in when a partial vacuum develops.

viscosity. Internal resistance to flow; usually measured as time in seconds for a given quantity of sample to flow through a standard capillary tube. Viscosity index is a means of rating resistance to change in viscosity with change in temperature. Oils of high viscosity index are more resistant to change; oils of low viscosity index thicken quickly when chilled and thin too much when hot.

viscous. Heavy, thick-bodied, gluey, or slow in motion.

volatile. Tending to evaporate or vaporize readily; volatility is the extent to which a liquid vaporizes or the ease with which it turns to vapor.

volume correction. The correction of measured quantity of product, determined by gaging at observed temperature and gravity and reference to a gage table, to net quantity of product at 60° F (16° C) after deducting bottom water and sediment.

water. An odorless, colorless, transparent liquid compound. Water in fuels is described as follows:

    a. Dissolved. Percent can only be determined by a laboratory test such as the Aqua-Glo analysis. All fuel will contain water in solution, but the amount will vary considerably as the temperature of the fuel varies. This water cannot be separated from fuel by filtration or by mechanical means.

    b. Entrained. Free water which is suspended throughout a fuel sample and has not settled to the bottom of the container. This water can be removed by a filter/separator.

    c. Free. All water present in the fuel which has not been dissolved by the fuel. This water should be separated from fuel by normal settling.

water bottom. Water put in a tank bottom to keep product from leaking.

water contamination. Water present in a fuel in any form; includes dissolved water similar to moisture in the air, entrained water suspended in the form of minute droplets, and free water.

water drawoff. A sump and drain line or a drain line with valve used to draw off water from a tank without disturbing the product.

water indicating paste. A preparation which changes color on contact with water and is applied to the innage bob or gaging tape. Helps measure quantity of water.

water separator. Segregator; a filtering device that separates or segregates water from a flowing stream by coalescence.

water test. A method of testing a newly completed pipeline. The line should be blocked off in sections and clean, fresh water pumped until 1 1/2 times the working pressure is reached. Pressure is observed for a period of 24 hours when possible.

wear metal. Traces of metals worn off metal mechanical parts by friction. See spectrometric oil analysis.

weathering. Loss of the most volatile components of crude oils and light products during storage and handling and the formation of products of oxidation.

weekly tanker terminal status report. A message report which provides DFSC with pertinent data on present and projected bulk POL terminal status.

weighted beaker (copper cylinder) (NSN 6640-00-946-3600). Consists of a copper bottle permanently attached to a lead base. A drop cord is attached to the handle through a ring in the stopper so that a short, quick pull on the cord opens the beaker at any desired point beneath the surface of the liquid. This sampler is used to take upper, middle, lower, or all-level samples of liquid products of 16 PSI or less, Reid vapor pressure. It is used in tanker or barge compartments, shore tanks, tank cars, and tank trucks.

wet-wing. Technique for delivery of petroleum by air. The aircraft (usually a C-130) uses its fuel tanks as containers to move fuel to a forward area. At the forward area, all fuel in the aircraft's tanks, except that required for the return trip, is pumped out into storage tanks.

white oils. A term applied to substantially colorless, tasteless, and odorless oils with various viscosities.

wick feed lubrication. Lubricating oil supplied to a bearing by feeding it through a wick of twisted fibers. Retention of siphoning power in an oil is determined by FTM No 2001.2.

WOG pipe fitting. A pipe fitting suitable for water, oil, or gas.

worked penetration. A test method of determining penetration (consistency) of lubricating grease after mechanical working (FTM No 313.2).

Y-boat. A self-propelled, barge-type boat used to transport liquids. The large Y-boat (capacity: 11,079.8 US barrels) has nine tanks for liquid cargo and one dry-cargo hatch; the small Y-boat (capacity: 6,711.3 US barrels) has six tanks for liquid cargo and one dry-cargo hatch.

Z-offset. An expansion device made of one pipe joint with two 90-degree corners. It relieves expansion and contraction stresses in a pipeline section to keep the line from breaking at the coupling joints. The Z-Offset can also be used to make changes of direction in the pipeline.

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