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Chapter 7



This chapter provides an overview of current and future training trends, concepts, and policies applicable to the Total Army.


The purpose of the Army is to fight and win the nation's wars. Soldiers and units train to fight or support the fighting. Each soldier is trained to perform a job. The unit is trained to accomplish its mission. The commander uses limited resources efficiently to train soldiers to perform their peacetime and wartime missions and also to train them in environmental protection, worker safety, and health issues. The Army's challenge as it enters the twenty-first century is to prepare for both war and stability and support operations. Training is a never ending task. Soldiers must be constantly challenged to do their best in peacetime as well as in combat.

Leader Responsibilities

All leaders must require their subordinates to understand and perform their roles in training. The commander assigns primary responsibility to officers for collective training and to NCOs for soldier training. NCOs also have the responsibility to train sections, squads, teams, and crews. The commander is responsible for integrating leader and soldier training requirements into collective training events using multiechelon techniques.

Types of Training

Different types of training are defined below.

  • Individual. Individual training is the training soldiers receive, either in institutions or units, that prepares them to do specified duties and tasks related to their assigned MOS and duty position.
  • Collective. Collective training is the training of a group of soldiers (crew, team, squad, platoon) to do tasks required of the group as a whole.
  • Institutional. Institutional training is conducted in schools (Army service school, USAR school, NCO academy, unit school) or Army training centers. This training may be individual or collective.
  • Unit. Unit training is training conducted in the unit. It may be individual or collective.
  • On-the-Job. OJT is given during working hours under the supervision of designated members of the company. Trainees are expected to follow a training schedule that covers all aspects of their assigned duties.
  • Distance. Distance learning is the delivery of standardized individual, collective, and self-development training to soldiers and units through the application of multiple delivery means and technologies. It may involve student-instructor interaction in real time, or it may involve self-paced student instruction without the benefit of instructor access.

Principles of Training

Leaders must know and understand the principles of training to effectively train their units. These principles provide direction but are sufficiently flexible to accommodate local conditions and the judgment of commanders and other leaders. The nine principles of training are--

  • Train as a combined arms and service team.
  • Train as you fight.
  • Use appropriate doctrine.
  • Use performance-oriented training.
  • Train to challenge.
  • Train to sustain proficiency.
  • Train using multiechelon techniques.
  • Train to maintain.
  • Make commanders the primary trainers.


Since constraints are placed on training, not all tasks can be allocated the same amount of training time. Therefore, battalion and company commanders must compile the collective mission-essential tasks that must be successfully performed for the organization to accomplish its wartime mission. This compilation is referred to as the unit's METL. The METL is developed and revised periodically. When the unit receives a new wartime mission, it will need to adjust the METL or develop a new one. Procedures for METL development are described in FM 25-101.


Individual training is the training of individual soldiers in institutions or units to prepare them to accomplish their missions. Unit commanders select and train the individual tasks that support the collective tasks of their unit METL. Individual training should be task-based, as realistic as possible, and performance-oriented, that is, it should concentrate on the actual performance of a specified task. Some of the products and materials available to leaders to train soldiers are correspondence courses, soldier training publications (STPs), graphic training aids (GTAs), resident training, interactive courseware (ICW), video-teletraining, audiovisual training products, and on-the-job training (OJT).

Correspondence Courses

The Institute for Professional Development, Army Training Support Center, administers the Army Correspondence Course Program. Certain individual proponents administer their own programs. Correspondence courses and subcourses are self-contained, self-paced, and portable. They are distributed worldwide through the US Postal Service. They help bridge the training gap between resident courses, make soldiers more proficient, and prepare them for additional duties or assignments. Correspondence courses currently earn promotion points for specialists (E4) and sergeants (E5). The courses, phases, subcourses, and enrollment instructions are described in DA Pam 351-20. Soldiers enroll by completing DA Form 145.

Soldier Training Publications

STPs include soldier's manuals, training guides, and officer foundation standards manuals. STPs contain critical tasks and other training information used to train soldiers and standardize individual training. They provide information and guidance on conducting individual training in the unit. These publications aid the trainer, trainee, and commander.

Graphic Training Aids

GTAs include printed texts, job aids, recognition cards, simulations, instructional charts, simple devices, and battlefield simulation games. An index of graphic training aids is in DA Pam 25-37.

Resident Training

Resident training includes the courses conducted at fully accredited and integrated active component (AC), Army National Guard (ARNG), and US Army Reserve (USAR) schools that provide standard institutional training and education to the Total Army. This training through the Total Army School System (TASS) is costly and takes the soldier away from the unit. At times, it is the only way to teach complicated tasks. DA Pam 351-4 lists and describes courses offered by TASS.

Interactive Courseware

ICW is the term used to describe any form of instruction in which a computer is used to enhance, deliver, or develop instruction. This is an interservice term synonymous with computer based instruction (CBI). The Army Training Support Center will develop the distribution plan for ICW products. Examples of ICW are--

  • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), which is used to actually present the instruction. It involves interaction between the student and the computer. Text, graphics, and some low-level computer audio are primarily used. CAI may be delivered on a videodisk, floppy disk, hard disk, or CD-ROM.
  • Computer-managed instruction (CMI), which manages instruction by computer, including registration, pretesting, diagnostic counseling, progress testing, post test, and disenrollment.
  • Multimedia, which uses text, graphics, digital audio, animation, and full-motion digital video. It is delivered on a multimedia workstation or personal computer by hard disk, floppy disk, or CD-ROM.

Video-Teletraining (VTT)

Video-teletraining is delivered via communications links such as satellite or cable. VTT is a user-funded capability for all Army trainers. It takes the training to the students, expands the training base, and connects with other service, federal, and state networks for joint and multiservice training. VTT capability requires the installation of equipment. When the capability exists, a course begins with a unit's request to receive training. Virtually any course that can be taught in a classroom can be taught over VTT.

Audiovisual Training Products

The Training and Audiovisual Support Center (TASC) provides centralized audiovisual support to all authorized users within a geographical area. Trainers can find a listing of audiovisual training products and worldwide support center locations in DA Pam 350-100.

On-the-Job Training

OJT is conducted in the unit while the soldier performs the duties that are being trained, under supervision of unit personnel.


Collective training prepares cohesive teams and units to accomplish their mission on the battlefield and in SASO. Collective tasks are derived from unit missions, and they require group participation for their accomplishment. Collective tasks describe the exact performance a unit must perform in the field under actual operational conditions. A unit's critical collective tasks are the essence of the unit's METL. Mission training plans (MTPs), drills, exercises, training support packages (TSPs), and combat training centers (CTCs) are available to assist the commander and leaders to train collective tasks.

Mission Training Plans

MTPs are training documents that provide a clear description of "what and how" to train critical collective tasks. They are designed to identify and elaborate on critical wartime missions in the form of training and evaluation outlines (T&EOs). They are part of the Armywide Doctrinal and Training Literature Program (ADTLP). The MTP for the petroleum supply battalion is ARTEP 10-426-MTP; for the HHD of the petroleum supply battalion, ARTEP 10-426-30-MTP; for the petroleum supply company, ARTEP 10-427-30-MTP. MTPs consist of the following chapters:

  • 1. Unit Training.
  • 2. Training Matrixes.
  • 3. Mission Outline.
  • 4. Training Exercises.
  • 5. Training and Evaluation Outlines.
  • 6. External Evaluation.


Drills are disciplined, repetitious exercises that teach and perfect a skill or procedure. They are linked to MTPs as a method for executing a collective task or task step. There are two types of drills that are standard throughout the Army, both of which require minimal leader's orders.

  • Battle. Battle drills are collective actions executed by a platoon or smaller element. The action is vital to success in combat or critical to preserving life. The drill is executed on a cue, such as an enemy action or a leader's order, and is a trained response.
  • Crew. Crew drills are collective actions that the crew of a weapon or piece of equipment must perform. The action is a trained response to a leader's order or to the status of the weapon or equipment.


Exercises are collective task training designed to develop proficiency and crew teamwork in performing the task to standard. They also provide practice for performing supporting individual critical tasks. Following are types of exercises.

  • Command Field Exercise. A CFX is a field training exercise with reduced troop and vehicle density, but with full command and control and combat service support elements.
  • Command Post Exercise. A CPX is an exercise in which the forces are simulated. It may be conducted from garrison locations or between participating headquarters in the unit.
  • Field Training Exercise. An FTX is a scenario-driven tactical exercise used to train and evaluate critical collective and supporting individual tasks in a collective environment, which simulates the stress and sounds of wartime conditions. It is conducted in an austere field environment through all weather conditions during both night and day. An FTX should guide soldiers through a series of events exposing them to the rigors of duty performance during wartime operations.
  • Live-Fire Exercise. An LFX is an exercise designed to allow a unit or team to engage targets with its organic weapons and support.
  • Situational Training Exercise. An STX is a short, scenario-driven, mission-oriented, tactical exercise that trains closely related collective tasks and drills together. Situational training exercises provide sustainment training for tactical mission proficiency.

Training Support Packages

TSPs are complete, exportable packages integrating training products, materials, and the information necessary to train one or more critical tasks. A TSP can be very simple or very complex. A TSP for collective training is a package that is used to train critical collective tasks in the unit.

Combat Training Centers

The Army combat training center program provides realistic joint service and combined arms training in accordance with Army doctrine. It is designed to provide training units with opportunities to increase their collective proficiency on the most realistic battlefield available in peacetime. The four components of the CTC are--

  • The National Training Center.
  • The Combat Maneuver Training Center.
  • The Joint Readiness Training Center.
  • The Battle Command Training Program.


Soldiers who assist in training the company must also be trained themselves. Training the trainers is one of the most important aspects of training. An untrained or ill prepared trainer will destroy the best training plan.

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