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CHAPTER 2

HELICOPTER GUNNERY TRAINING STRATEGY

This chapter provides a framework for developing a helicopter gunnery training program in four phases. To make helicopter crews and units work together as a team, the commander must execute a well-planned, realistic, and consistent training program. This chapter describes a strategy structured for training that progresses from basic through intermediate and advanced gunnery tables to combined arms exercises, focusing on the warfighting skills of individuals, crews, and units.

Section I. Training Assessment and Planning

2-1. THE COMMANDER'S ASSESSMENT

    a. The unit commander's training assessment and planning are essential to the success of unit level gunnery training programs. It is the first phase and will continue throughout the program. Commanders may repeat phases on different levels of training throughout the training year to sustain the helicopter gunnery training program. They may compress the phases into an intensified gunnery training program when necessary--for example, to meet mobilization requirements. The goal of this training is to maximize combat ready crews. The commander determines the unit's current proficiency level in helicopter gunnery by--

      (1) Analyzing the experience level of the helicopter crews in the unit. For example, how much experience do the crews have in the aircraft? Are the crews crew- coordination trained? How many crews are in the unit?

      (2) Analyzing the results of previous helicopter gunnery ranges. For example, were any trends noted during the last qualification range (low rocket qualification rates, excessive engagement times, etc.)?

      (3) Analyzing the total training level of the unit and its personnel assignment stability. This analysis includes the number of RL1 aviators, nonrated crew members, maintenance personnel, and other key personnel.

      (4) Conducting diagnostic testing to determine the unit's current proficiency. These tests may include a diagnostic HGST, a no-notice Table VI for randomly selected crews, or past results of the unit no-notice program.

      (5) Determining the maintenance status of aircraft weapon systems. This determination may include performing Table VI on a regular basis.

    b. By using the standards in this FM, TC 1-210, and DA PAM 350-38, the commander will decide what training is necessary to meet required training standards. The commander will chart the course to his desired training end state by--

      (1) Comparing results of the analysis of the unit's current level of proficiency with the required training standard.

      (2) Placing the unit, or individuals, into the appropriate level of the training program.

    c. The amount of time available for training crews and units to standard will vary. The commander determines how much time is available to achieve the required training standards by--

      (1) Examining the unit's mission requirements and other obligations from the unit training calendars.

      (2) Deciding whether a sustaining program or an intensified program is required. The primary difference between a sustaining and intensified program is the time required to execute it.

NOTE: For planning purposes, an average attack helicopter battalion requires a gunnery period of 2 weeks on the range to complete the live-fire helicopter gunnery tables.

    d. The commander determines what resources are required to conduct training by--

      (1) Referring to the logistic and administrative requirements in this document.

      (2) Reviewing previous training experiences of the unit, as documented in the required detailed after-action review.

    e. The commander determines what resources are available to conduct training by--

      (1) Inventorying unit personnel and equipment.

      (2) Determining what assistance is available from supporting units and higher headquarters.

      (3) Examining training facilities.

      (4) Determining the number of flight hours and ammunition available for basic, intermediate, and advanced gunnery tables.

      (5) Determining the availability of the aerial weapons scoring system.

    f. The commander reconciles all considerations. For example, differences between resources required and resources available will affect both the times required to conduct the training and the unit's ability to meet the required standards. The commander should adjust differences to meet the goal of producing the maximum number of combat ready crews.

2-2. PLANNING THE TRAINING

In the assessment process, the commander begins outlining his helicopter gunnery training program. To construct a detailed plan for implementing the program, the commander may follow these steps:

    a. Develop a unit program of instruction for pregunnery training. Use the S3 and master gunner.

      (1) Plan the conduct of academic training.

      (2) Plan the conduct of hands-on training, based on the commander's assessment.

      (3) Plan the conduct of nonaircrew training (FARP personnel, armament personnel, etc.)

    b. Plan the conduct of Table V. Emphasize the importance of assessment prior to the gunnery range.

    c. Plan the conduct of the intermediate table live-fire.

    d. Plan the conduct of advanced table training.

2-3. EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENT AND TRAINING

An effective program for unit level helicopter gunnery is the result of good assessment and planning. To ensure successful training use the following principles:

    a. Set Standards. Set and enforce tough, but achievable standards. Tough standards will generate tough training. Crews must know when they do well. Insist on repetition to achieve a high level of proficiency in required tasks.

    b. Start Early. All aspects of the training program must be thoroughly coordinated. Forecast and request resources and maintenance assistance long before they are needed.

    c. Be Thorough. Avoid wasting resources and training opportunities. Give leaders at all levels the guidance and assets needed to train. Focus the unit on accomplishing the commander's desired end state.

    d. Be Flexible. Be prepared to adjust the training program to the changing needs of the unit. Once assessment, training, and planning stop, the training program stagnates and loses its effectiveness.

    e. Train Continually. Train at every opportunity, not just during an intensified program to get ready for helicopter gunnery qualification tables. Intensified programs should be used only to bring a unit up to a desired proficiency level. Once accomplished, train continually to maintain that level.

Section II. Pregunnery Training

Pregunnery training prepares members of the unit to perform all tasks required by the helicopter gunnery tables. To ensure that desired levels of proficiency are reached at the time they are required, units must carefully integrate pregunnery training into the overall training program. Some areas that should be part of pregunnery training and suggestions for their implementation are discussed below. Other subjects requiring special attention may be discovered during the commander's training assessment and planning.

2-4. SUBJECT AREAS AND TECHNIQUES

    a. Flight Proficiency. Normally conducted at the company, platoon, and crew levels, flight proficiency training is critical for gunnery training. The battalion or squadron standardization officer must advise the commander on the unit's level of proficiency.

    b. Map Reading, Navigation, and Terrain Analysis. Navigating and proper terrain flight techniques are critical to mission accomplishment and aircrew survival. In the classroom, the instructor may use 35mm slides of terrain and terrain boards or sand tables to link map reading to terrain analysis and utilization. Terrain walks and ground vehicle navigation courses are a technique for training crews. Competitive navigation exercises are used to increase awareness and interest in navigation. The training program should include--

      Basic map reading and operational graphics.

      Map reconnaissance.

      Terrain utilization.

      Low altitude navigation, including Doppler navigation.

    c. Armament. Knowledge and skill in operating and working with helicopter armament systems are important factors in gunnery performance. Pilots should participate regularly in armament maintenance operations. To establish and maintain proficiency, aircrews must conduct armament preflight and operational checks during every flight, to include boresighting. Armament training should include--

      Operation of armament controls.

      Preflight inspection of armament subsystems.

      Operational checks of armament subsystems.

      Aircrew level maintenance of armament subsystems.

      Correction of armament subsystem malfunctions.

      Loading and unloading armament subsystems.

      Clearing armament subsystems.

      Capabilities and limitations of armament subsystems.

    d. Ammunition. Ammunition training goes hand-in-hand with armament training. Conduct practical exercises in garrison using dummy ammunition. Conduct concurrent training exercises on ranges and simulation exercises in the classroom. This training should include--

      Identification and inspection of ammunition.

      Care and handling of ammunition.

      Target effects of ammunition, including selection of ammunition for various targets.

      Ballistic characteristics of ammunition.

      Selection of ammunition for various targets.

    e. Crew Duties. The crew duties training program must include all pilot skills required to attack and destroy a target. Refer to the crew warfighting chapter and the ATM for standard phraseology. Crew duties training includes--

      Principles of helicopter gunnery.

      Target handover procedures.

      Unit fire commands.

      Crew fire commands.

      Fire distribution and target attack techniques.

    Training exercises should include as much audiovisual simulation as possible. Record target handovers and fire commands on audio tape. Target attacks can be recorded on audio tape and videotape, and can be simulated on terrain boards. Cockpit drills can be dry run on the ground using a portable tape recorder to present a realistic scenario. Complete and train dry-fire crew and team or company scenarios regularly.

    f. Target Acquisition And Identification. The ability to acquire and identify battlefield targets is one of the most difficult and most often neglected skill areas of helicopter gunnery training. Classroom training with slides and photographs of vehicles in various terrain is the first step in target acquisition. Do not confuse this training with vehicle identification training. The purpose of this training is to help crews acquire targets and to prevent fratricide. Units may use the six-step technique in the vehicle identification in Chapter 6 to train crews to systematically identify targets. This training must include--

      Observation techniques.

      Target acquisition.

      Target identification.

      Threat capabilities and limitations.

    g. Mission Planning. Every pilot must be able to plan and conduct a complete mission. Mission planning training teaches the pilot to receive and assimilate all the information he will need to conduct a mission successfully and relate the results of that mission to other pilots and ground personnel. This training must include--

      Operations and intelligence briefings.

      Mission planning and rehearsals.

      Mission debriefing.

    Beyond basic classroom instruction, extensive practice, integrated with other areas of training such as target acquisition and land navigation courses, is required. Every training exercise presents an opportunity for briefing, planning, and debriefing.

    h. Range Operation And Safety. The complexity of a realistically run helicopter gunnery range requires that every participating crew member has a comprehensive understanding of the operational and safety procedures required. Training must include--

      Range safety.

      Administrative procedures.

      Conduct of helicopter gunnery tables.

    Terrain boards and models should be used to simulate the conduct of the range and to train pilots in range operations before beginning range firing. A visit to the range, or videotapes of the range recorded by the unit, will aid in range orientation and identify operational and safety issues.

2-5. TABLE V

Pregunnery training prepares aircrews for range training. Table V tests their proficiency level to ensure they are ready to advance to range training. Table V is the commander's assessment tool to ensure crews are ready for live-fire gunnery tables.

Section III. Helicopter Gunnery Range Training

2-6. QUALIFICATION GATES

A helicopter gunnery gate is a task or tasks grouped in a training event that a soldier or unit must perform to standard before progressing to more complex tasks or events. Gates allow commanders to evaluate the effectiveness of training and assess whether the unit is ready for more complex training. The gunnery gates are listed in the Table 2-1.

Table 2-1. Helicopter Gunnery Training Gates

 

GATE

#

 

INDIVIDUAL

 

CREW

UNIT

TABLES

REMARKS

1

X

I,II

APPROVED POI FOR AQC OR INITIAL QUALIFICATION

2

X

III,IV

COMMANDER'S EVAL, UNIT

3

X

V

HGST, ANNUAL REQUIREMENT

4

X

VI

AIRCRAFT MUST BE CERTIFIED ON TABLE PRIOR TO USE ON INTERMEDIATE TABLES

5

X

VIII

CREW MUST QUALIFY TO PROGRESS TO ADVANCED TABLES

6

X

X

PLATOONS MUST PASS TABLE X PRIOR TO TABLE XII

(See appendix A for specific requirements for door gunners.)

2-7. INDIVIDUAL GATES

    a. Gate 1: Tables I and II. Tables I and II are conducted during the aircraft qualification course. They are individual gunnery tables and represent individual gunnery qualification for the aviator.

    b. Gate 2: Tables III and IV. Table III and IV are conducted with RL progression by the unit commander. These tables evaluate a crew member's proficiency in the duties associated with each crew position and give the commander the means and flexibility to make effective crew assignments.

    c. Aircraft Survivability Equipment Trainer. Before proceeding to Table V, the aviator will be integrated into the ASET II program if assigned to the pilot's crew station. The intent is for the crew to complete and pass ASET II testing before proceeding to the advanced table gunnery.

    d. TADS Selected Task Trainer. Complete TSTT testing if assigned to the front seat crew station (AH-64 units only). The exercise is based on a 100-point system, with 70 points the minimum for passing. Exercises for testing are found in the TSTT "ATAC Situations" menu. Conduct the test as follows:

      (1) Advanced switchology. Use the advanced switchology (No LDNS) quiz (20 percent).

      (2) Hover situations. Select hover situations from the menu. Four similar variations are available in the software. Any of the variations are acceptable for testing (20 percent).

      (3) Fly-to situations. Select the built-in fly-to exercise. Four similar variations are available in the software. Any of the variations are acceptable for testing (20 percent).

      (4) Multiple targets, rapid fire. This test has two exercises--the close formation exercise and the spread formation exercise. The two exercises are worth 10 points each. These exercises are located under the multiple target menus (20 percent).

      (5) Multiple targets, ripple fire. Use the built-in ripple fire target engagement exercise found in the ATAC Situations "More Situations" menu. Three similar variations are available in the software. Any of the variations are acceptable for testing (20 percent).

      (6) Bonus--thumb force tracking test. Award 5 points for 8,000 points or more on this exercise.

2-8. CREW SIMULATOR/GROUND TRAINING GATES

    a. Gate 3: Table V. Table V is used to allow the commander to assess his unit's gunnery readiness before starting the live-fire gunnery tables. To complete Table V, crews will, at a minimum--

      (1) Score 70 percent on the Helicopter Gunnery Skills Test. The skills test is a written examination with at least 50 gunnery-specific questions. Crews must complete the test no earlier than 180 days prior to the range.

      (2) Complete crew conduct of fire training in their compatible simulator.

    b. C-COFT. The CMS/FWS-based C-COFT is a standard, objectively scored training event for AH-64 and AH-1 attack helicopter crews. The master gunner will implement the C-COFT. The C-COFT will evaluate the crew's ability to engage targets and work as a team. This training is critical to assess the attack helicopter crew's skills before progressing to live-fire tables. The C-COFT setup will include--

      (1) Short, medium, and long engagements for all weapons systems. Ranges are defined in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2. Engagement ranges in kilometers

Short

Medium

Long

Hellfire

<2

2 to 4

>4

Rockets

<3

3 to 4

>4

Cannon

<1

1 to 1.5

>1.5

TOW

1.5

1.5 to 3

>3

      (2) Tactical scenarios for both day and night exercises.

      (3) Multiple, progressively more difficult training levels.

NOTE: The C-COFT is part of Table V. It will not replace live-fire gunnery training.

    c. Not all units have access to a compatible simulator. For those units, the master gunner may, with the concurrence of the battalion or squadron commander, develop a C-COFT type exercise for use in the aircraft. The intent is to evaluate the crew's skills in a progressive manner.

    d. When a crew satisfactorily meets all requirements for the individual and crew simulator/ground training gates, they will progress to live-fire tables.

    e. The commander may make Table V more rigorous. He should determine the level of detail required to assess aircrew readiness.

2-9. CREW LIVE-FIRE GATES

Tables VI and VII are live-fire training tables. Commanders must decide whether a crew can progress to the next table based on their demonstrated performance. Commanders retain the ability to deny crews further live-fire training if they fail to meet training standards.

    a. Live-Fire Rules. Some rules applying to live-fire ranges are discussed below.

      (1) If a crew fails to qualify on Table VIII because of failed tasks, the commander may allow the crew to reshoot the tasks that were failed if ammunition is available.

      (2) If a crew has to reshoot tasks on Table VIII to qualify, their table is called a "Q2," or "qualification on second attempt." If a crew's table is scored a Q2, then the maximum score they can achieve is 700 points. If a crew does not qualify after the second pass, the commander must decide whether or not to commit resources to allow the crew to try for a "Q3."

      (3) Although the tables are progressive, Table VIII day may be fired after Table VII day without firing Table VII night. In addition, Table VIII night may be fired directly after Table VII night.

      (4) If the crew is assigned to an aircraft that has a night qualification requirement, they must successfully pass both the day and night portions of Table VIII for qualification. For validation, the crew must successfully pass both the day and night portions of Table VII.

    b. Target Range and Engagement Time. The live-fire tables represent more than a chance to expend ammunition. They represent a training standard. The range to targets and engagement time have been revised for this manual.

      (1) The engagement ranges in the tables were developed as a function of the effective range of the weapon and the limitations of training ammunition. Sensing the impacts of training ammunition can be difficult.

      (2) The engagement time standards were developed to ensure that crews could place fires on targets quickly and accurately. The time standards are based on target acquisition time, munition time of flight, and time to adjust rounds on target.

    c. Gate 4: Table VI. The first live-fire training table the crew will fire is Table VI. This table allows the crew to determine if their assigned helicopter weapon systems are working properly. Table VI will be accomplished to standard before progressing to Table VII.

      (1) The intent of Table VI is to certify the helicopter weapon systems and will be fired under the supervision of the unit armament or maintenance officer. If the aircraft weapons do not function to standard, the aircraft will not be used for qualification.

      (2) This table allows the crew to fire live munitions without the fear of failing because of time constraints. Table VI may be the first live-fire training for unit crews in a year. Table VI allows crews to become reacquainted with firing live munitions before progressing to Table VII.

    d. Table VII. Live-fire of Table VII is required before progressing to Table VIII. However, crews can validate on Table VII and skip Table VIII. Validation is the process of ensuring the gunnery crew can still meet the Table VIII standard, thus "validating" the results of the last range.

      (1) With the concurrence of the commander, crew members may validate on table VII if --

        The crew members occupy the same crew station as the previous gunnery in which he/she qualified, unless dual-seat designated by the commander.

        The crew qualified Table VIII during the preceding 12 months on an objectively scored qualification range.

        Crew is Q1 on validation table.

      (2) The minimum standard for validation is 7 of 10 qualified engagements and 700 points. If the standard is met, the crew can, at the discretion of the commander, progress to advanced tables without firing Table VIII. In effect, their Table VII performance becomes their Table VIII qualification.

      (3) Crews who fail to meet the standard on Table VII will be evaluated by the commander before progression to Table VIII. If required, crews will be given additional training in deficient areas before progression.

      (4) STRAC provides ammunition for Table VII as a live-fire table. Use of the simulator does not satisfy the requirement for progression to Table VIII.

    e. Gate 5: Table VIII. This table is an annual requirement. Annual is once every 12 months, based on the last date of crew qualification. Table VIII is only valid if it is conducted live-fire.

      (1) For crews that do not validate on Table VII, live firing this table is a requirement. This table determines crew qualification. Scoring standards are the same as Table VII. A crew cannot progress to advanced table gunnery without qualifying on Table VIII.

      (2) Successful qualification will be annotated on DA Form 759 (Individual Flight Record and Flight Certificate - Army) and appropriate entries made in the crew member's individual aircrew training folder according to TC 1-210.

      (3) Due to limited range time, weather, and other factors, units cannot always complete the required tables during a single gunnery range training period. Because of these factors, a crew's Table VII (validation) or Table VIII might be interrupted. However, a crew must complete all tasks of Table VII (validation) or Table VIII within 180 days of starting the table. Failure to complete all tasks within 180 days will require the crew to start the table over and complete all Table VIII tasks at the next available opportunity.

    f. Advanced Tables.

      (1) The advanced level of gunnery training consists of four tables--Tables IX, X, XI, and XII. The battalion/squadron commander uses these tables to train and assess his unit's collective gunnery skills. These tables emphasize the command and control aspects of the unit's fire distribution plan, target acquisition, engagement priorities, and other control measures. Tables X and XII contain training ammunition resources to conduct live-fire by platoons and company/troops, respectively, and will be fired if sufficient ammunition is available after the conduct of intermediate tables. These are not qualification tables but collective training tables. Evaluation of these tables are based on tasks, conditions, and standards found in the unit's MTP.

      (2) Table IX is a dry-fire training table for a team or platoon. This table is oriented on the basic fighting elements of a company/troop. The commander uses this table to train his unit in the coordination skills needed for multiple aircraft to engage targets. Unlike Table VIII that trains a crew to effectively "place steel on target," Table IX allows the commander to train multiple aircraft operations, placing primary emphasis on fire distribution and control measures.

      (3) Gate 6, Table X is the live-fire version of Table IX. The training emphasis is focused on the coordination between multiple aircraft for joint target engagements. This table provides the framework for conducting team or platoon gunnery training. Thorough and accurate coordination between elements, as well as accurate ordnance delivery, will determine the unit's success on this table.

      (4) Tables XI and XII are company/troop training tables. These tables provide examples of training tasks the company commander may use to evaluate his unit's proficiency in collective training tasks. The commander's ultimate gunnery training goal is to train his unit to fight in the combined arms environment. Table XI is a dry-fire training table, designed to exercise the company-level command and control. The primary training emphasis is placed on the unit's fire distribution, target engagement priorities, and control measures. Table XII is the live-fire culmination of the company/troop's gunnery training program. This table emphasizes the same areas as Table XI, but under live-fire, tactical conditions. Evaluation of unit command and control is the primary objective of this table. However, Table XII is also an opportunity for the commander to evaluate the unit maintenance and rearm/refuel capability during multihelicopter operations.

      (5) Combined arms live-fire exercises are not advanced tables. FM 25-101 defines CALFEXs as "high-cost, resource-intensive exercises in which player units move or maneuver and employ organic and supporting weapons systems using full-service ammunition with attendant integration of all combat, CS, and CSS functions." In addition, live-fire exercises conducted at Combined Training Centers are not advanced tables, but live-fire exercises.

2-10. ENGAGEMENT SCORING SYSTEM

This paragraph provides aviation units with a standardized, objective system to evaluate gunnery proficiency.

    a. Missile Scoring.

      (1) Hellfire missile. Score engagements using the Apache's onboard video recorder subsystem or the Kiowa Warrior's airborne video tape recorder. Missile engagements may also be scored with DA-approved objective scoring systems, if available.

      (2) TOW missile. STRAC resources live-fire for TOW missile qualification. Scoring will be as described in FM 1-140.

      (3) Air-to-air Stinger. No live missiles are resourced. Captive flight trainer engagements will be scored.

    b. Cannon and Rocket Scoring. The standard for scoring cannon and rocket engagements is the aerial weapons scoring system or comparable, DA-approved objective scoring system.

    c. Target Handovers. All target handovers will be transmitted from the range tower or a similar fixed-base for Tables VII and VIII. Units should develop scripts for the handover readers to provide standardized handovers for all crews.

    d. Target Hits. When firing on a multipurpose range complex, target hits will be recorded on the RETS range computers along with the AWSS.

2-11. SCORING CRITERIA

Using the appropriate gunnery tables, aviation units will make an objective evaluation of their crews. The following are commonly used terms relating to the scoring process.

    a. Target Effect. Target effect means the target is hit or the required number of rounds impact in the target effect area. For missile (Hellfire, TOW, and Stinger) and cannon engagements, the target must be hit to achieve target effect.

    b. Engagement Time. Engagement time is the total time required for the engagement. The two basic target types are controlled presentation targets and fixed, uncontrolled targets. Start and stop times are defined as follows:

      (1) Start.

        Controlled Presentation (Pop-ups). Engagement time starts when the target is in the full upright position.

        Uncontrolled Presentation (Fixed). Engagement time starts when the firing crew accepts the target handover.

      (2) Stop. For all ranges the stop time is when target effect is achieved or the crew calls "mission complete." "Mission complete" is the point in time when the last rounds fired impact in the TEA or target effect is achieved (for example, the target falls). If the personnel operating the range observe target effect, they will announce "target cease fire" to let the crew know to stop firing.

2-12. ENGAGEMENT SCORING

    a. Each engagement in a firing table is worth 100 points. Target effect is graded on a qualified/unqualified standard, with the score derived from engagement time tables. A qualified engagement is an engagement where the target effect standard as expressed in the table is achieved.

    b. Crew duties and time of flight figures are integrated into the engagement time tables. The criteria for each table are in the table annex. For example, the rockets tables for the AH-64 and AH-1 are built for pairs of rockets, not for rockets fired singly.

    c. The minimum table qualification requires the crew to qualify on 7 of 10 engagements, and accrue at least 700 of the 1,000 points possible on the table. In addition, a crew must achieve at least one qualified engagement per evaluated weapon system to receive a "go" on the table. For example, an AH-64 crew must qualify on 7 of 10 engagements, with a minimum of one qualified engagement for each evaluated weapon system (cannon, rockets, and Hellfire missile).

    d. Upon qualification, crews will be rated by the following standard:

      (1) DISTINGUISHED-- 900-1,000 points on the qualification table.

      (2) SUPERIOR--800-899 points on the qualification table.

      (3) QUALIFIED--700-799 points on the qualification table.

      (4) UNQUALIFIED--699 points or less on the qualification table.

2-13. SCORING MOVING ENGAGEMENTS

    a. Moving engagements are defined as engagements in which the helicopter is deliberately moving between designated start-fire and stop-fire points while firing at targets.

    b. Running fire engagements are defined as engagements in which the helicopter is deliberately moving forward between designated start-fire and stop-fire points while firing at targets.

    c. Experience has shown that it is more difficult to place accurate fires on a target with the aircraft at a hover than while moving or running, particularly with rockets. The challenge for training is to give the crew adequate maneuver space to fire and observe the impacts.

    d. The master gunner must accurately and objectively score the moving engagement. The objective is to design the target array to give the crew the maximum time to observe munitions impacts on the target. Figure 2-1 shows a range layout.

    e. When designing the moving engagement--

      (1) Master gunners have the option to start engagement time at the start-fire line and stop engagement time at the stop-fire line.

      (2) The range to target decreases as the helicopter flies toward the target. When an aircraft is traveling at 30 knots, it will cover approximately 1 kilometer in 1 minute.

      (3) Select a start-fire line and stop-fire line that will keep the aircraft firing within the range fan and in an engagement time window. Refer to figure 2-1. If the start-fire line is 4,000 meters from the target, and the stop-fire line is 3,000 meters from the target, the engagement can be scored using the 3,001-4,000 meter engagement time scoring table.

      (4) The amount of maneuver room available will dictate the speed of the aircraft during the engagement.

      (5) If the aircraft cannot complete all shots between the start-fire and stop-fire line, time each pass separately. Time will start at the start-fire line and stop at the stop-fire line. Add the engagement times for each pass together to get the total engagement time.

2-14. SCORING HELLFIRE ENGAGEMENTS WITH THE VRS AND AVTR

The Apache's VRS and the Kiowa Warrior's AVTR are the current standard for scoring Hellfire missile engagements. Whether using live or training missiles, the tape recorded by the VRS or AVTR provides feedback on switchology, crew coordination, and proper employment techniques. Videotape is a useful resource for crew training, but is not an approved method for scoring cannon and rocket engagements. The master gunner is encouraged to maintain a library of videotapes containing both good and bad Hellfire engagement techniques. This library is an excellent way to preserve continuity in the gunnery program and is useful for reinforcing gunnery instruction and combat readiness.

    a. Target hit is the standard for Hellfire missile engagements. The score for the engagement is derived from the engagement time scoring tables. Review of the crew's tape of the engagement is the method for determining target effect and confirming engagement time. For autonomous Hellfire engagements, engagement time starts as in paragraph 2-11 and ends with the simulated missile impacting the target. As a technique, crews may announce "splash" to the tower over the radio to stop engagement time.

    b. When a crew finishes its gunnery table, the master gunner or his representative will view the tape and determine target effect. At a minimum, the tape must reflect that the--

      (1) Target is within range of the Hellfire missile (adjusted for selected delivery mode).

      (2) Aircraft is within constraints to launch a missile.

      (3) Line of sight and laser energy is on target for the required length of time for the engagement.

      (4) Proper grid is keyed in the DEK for remote engagements.

      (5) Missile and LRF/D are on same code for autonomous designation. The AH-64 alphanumeric display may be displayed on the high action display and videotaped to confirm this data.

    c. The master gunner can also determine proficiency of the Apache crew from reviewing the VRS tape. Target tracking technique, crew coordination, and proper designation technique can be evaluated. This scoring technique will also be used with the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior.

2-15 REMOTE HELLFIRE ENGAGEMENT SCORING

Remote Hellfire engagements are scored in the same manner as an autonomous Hellfire engagement.

    a. The standards for engagement time start and stop are as follows:

      (1) START ENGAGEMENT. Target handover complete. (Transmission acknowledged by the shooting crew).

      (2) STOP ENGAGEMENT. Crew announces "Shot, over."

    b. The Hellfire remote engagement has the following evaluation standards:

      (1) The evaluated crew will fire the training missile.

      (2) The target handover will be sent from the range tower or similar fixed-base.

      (3) The target handover will use the FM 1-140 standard format including an 8-digit grid coordinate of the target.

      (4) The master gunner will determine proper crew procedures from review of the VRS tape.

Section IV. Posttraining Assessment

2-16. AFTER-ACTION REVIEW

After the live-fire gunnery exercise is complete, a comprehensive after-action review will be completed. The after-action review should focus on all facets of the gunnery program leading up to, and including, the live-fire exercise. The AAR process will produce a written document outlining the issues encountered in the conduct of the unit gunnery program. There are several reasons for this process including the following:

    a. Allows the commander to assess unit strengths and weaknesses in helicopter gunnery training and evaluation, as well as the unit standardization program.

    b. Allows the unit to design the next gunnery training program based on demonstrated unit proficiency.

    c. Provides continuity during periods of personnel turnover. Allows the entire unit to capture the good and the bad of the program.

    d. Provides objective data on gunnery to solicit changes or modifications to this manual.

2-17. REQUIRED DOCUMENTS

Besides the written AAR, the following documents and training records will be kept for reference by each unit:

    a. Range MOI and duty logs.

    b. Individual crew score sheets for each crew.

    c. AWSS and RETS printouts of all engagements.

    d. A memorandum containing the names of the crews that fired on the range, their scores, and whether they were Q2, Q3, or unqualified. The memorandum will include the tail number of the aircraft they used for firing.

    e. A comment slip in each IATF showing the gunnery qualification date and the crew station from which the crew member qualified.

    f. A memorandum containing an in-depth assessment of the unit helicopter gunnery training program. It also will provide data for the unit to negotiate for increased resources. It should contain the following information:

      (1) The names, ranks, and position of the key unit personnel serving as range staff. For example, name and rank of the officer in charge.

      (2) Specific problems, if any, with the scoring system. Cite examples.

      (3) Lot numbers of the ammunition fired and any problems encountered with the ammunition.

      (4) A roll-up of engagements by table with--

        Range to target for each task.

        Total number of rounds fired.

        Total number of bullet hits and total number of rockets scored in the TEA by task.

2-18. RANGE SCORE SHEET

    a. Figure 2-2 is a suggested format for a blank score sheet. The score sheet allows the master gunner to use a standardized score sheet for scoring the tables. Figure 2-3 shows an example of a completed score sheet used during range training.

    b. This score sheet is not mandatory. However, if units develop their own score sheet, it will contain the same information as the example score sheet.

RANGE SCORE SHEET

PILOT

CPG/CPO

AIRCRAFT NUMBER

UNIT

TABLE:          DAY      NIGHT

DATE

TEMPERATURE:             VISIBILITY:        CEILING:              CONDITIONS:

START TIME

END TIME

Q1

Q2

Q3

Engagement

And Task

Weapon

Flight

Mode

Range

To

Target

Weapons

Effect

Standard

Crew

Weapons

Effect

Engagement

Time

Standard

Crew

Engagement

Time

Crew

Score

Qualify?

Y/N

TABLE TOTALS:    QUALIFIED
ENGAGEMENTS:       TOTAL SCORE:

QUALIFIED TABLE      YES    NO

SCORER

REMARKS

Figure 2-2. Suggested format blank score sheet

Figure 2-3. Example of a completed score sheet



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