ARSOA may be supported by one or more of the other US armed services, particularly if the operation being conducted is of a joint nature. ARSOA normally receives CSS from three sources-- theater army, the SOSB, and the contractor logistics system. In addition, the TASOSC provides ARSOA, as well as all ARSOF units that deploy into the theater, a CSS planning and coordination capability. The SOA units must notify TASOSC of any CSS requirements that are above their own organizational supply and maintenance capabilities. The TASOSC determines who provides the actual supplies, maintenance, and services; for example, the SOSB or a conventional support unit, depending on the type of mission and location. The TASOSC works for the TA commander and does not have any support capability. When ARSOA deploys into an immature theater where there is no support structure or into the flanks of a developing theater, the SOSB provides CSS. Once the theater develops, SOA will continue to receive support from the SOSB until it is relieved by conventional CSS units.
a. In a developed theater, the theater sustainment base has been established. Non-ARSOA-unique, pre-positioned war reserve materiel stocks are in place, HNS agreements exist, and Army support arrangements are current and operational. An undeveloped theater, on the other hand, normally does not have a significant sustainment base. PWRMS, in-theater operational stocks, and HNS agreements are minimal or nonexistent. When it deploys into an undeveloped theater, an ARSOA element must bring enough resources to operate until the TA can provide the necessary support.
b. ARSOA mission planning dictates collocation with supported units. The ARSOA commander may conduct decentralized operations by placing companies and platoons at FOB or supported Air Force SO detachments. The commander may further deploy modules to advanced operational bases to form an Army SO detachment. The ARSOA maintenance company's AVUM assets perform routine services and on-aircraft maintenance. Its AVIM assets provide one-stop maintenance and repair parts supply. Specialized airframes and advanced avionics need ARSOA-peculiar AVIM support. The ARSOA element commander plans and coordinates logistical support for the ARSOA. This support may include contractor repair of ARSOA-peculiar airframes and avionics and backup AVIM support at forward locations. It may also include intratheater airlift of ARSOA maintenance contact teams and repair parts to these locations as required. ARSOA elements can provide only the most essential services. Therefore, the collocation of ARSOA assets with other SO elements reduces the problem of ARSOA sustainment. The ARSOA element's organic support capability is discussed below.
(1) In an undeveloped theater, the ARSOA commander may arrange for contracted AVIM with the host nation or third-country military or commercial aviation facilities. He may also arrange for AVIM by an interservice agreement with the Air Force or Navy.
(2) To provide ARSOA-peculiar Class IX maintenance support for specialized airframes and avionics, ARSOA has flyaway packages that accompany deploying units.
(3) ARSOA units operate their own FARE. However, other organizations must deliver, store, distribute, and protect enough bulk POL to sustain ARSOA operations. Additional arrangements also must be made to sustain ARSOA ammunition consumption.
(4) ARSOA units have limited health service support capabilities. Companies and platoons operating independently must rely on a supported unit to provide a flight surgeon and other health service support.
(5) Field services fall into two groups--essential and nonessential. Essential services include airdrop and mortuary affairs. Nonessential services include clothing exchange and bath, laundry, and baking services. Clothing issue and repair will not be initially provided.
a. The SOSB was established to provide the ARSOF with an in-place, dedicated, direct-support capability. It was required to meet the necessary operational criteria of OPSEC and to provide flexibility and unity of command. It provides habitual support arrangements, simplicity, and the capability to support the ARSOF-peculiar, low-density equipment. The SOSB does not use ad hoc support relationships. It provides a deployable ARSOF support system that can deliver sustainment until theater logistical support matures or until it is properly relieved.
b. The SOSB can provide limited CSS to support all ARSOF operations. These include worldwide ARSOA throughout the operational continuum for two concurrent operations (3,000 personnel for the first operation and 500 for a second.) The SOSB consists of a command structure with a coordinating staff, one headquarters and main support company, and three appropriately integrated forward support companies. Figure 5-1 shows the special operations support battalion. It can deploy rapidly in its entirety, or it can task-organize as required. Once deployed, the SOSB can provide support to multiple locations. To meet its rapid deployment mission, the SOSB has been designated as an airborne unit and is 80 percent mobile in organic vehicles. SOSB equipment and resources that are deployable on the first lift can be delivered by air transport. These resources and equipment are sized to fit into strategic deployment aircraft such as the C-141 or larger aircraft. All other equipment will be deployed by air in AMC aircraft.
Figure 5-1. Special operations support battalion
(1) Capabilities. The SOSB simplifies the support and sustainment requirement for ARSOF. In two separate, simultaneous operations, the SOSB plans, directs, and provides supervision of direct support maintenance, supply, transportation, health services, and field services support. It also provides information and advice to the TASOSC commander and the supported ARSOF commander and staffs about support capabilities.
(a) Supply. The SOSB provides a materiel management capability for all supported ARSOF units. It operates forward distribution points for limited Class I, Class II, Class III (retail and FARP), Class V, and Class VII supplies within the area of operation.
(b) Maintenance. The SOSB provides maintenance for vehicles, weapon systems, radio systems, electronics, and SO-peculiar, low-density materiel up to the direct-support level. It also provides limited classification of materials and limited storage. The SOSB conducts repairable exchanges and receives or issues Class IX repair parts and direct exchange items. The SOSB has no aviation-related Class IX capability.
(c) Transportation. By coordinating with TAMCA to move ARSOF personnel and materiel, the SOSB provides supported units with a movement management capability. The SOSB can also provide limited motor transport support and unload supplies and materiel from aircraft.
(d) Field services. The SOSB provides limited food service, mortuary affairs, water production and distribution, airdrop or air-delivery support, and clothing and equipment issue.
(e) Health service support. The SOSB provides Level I and limited Level II medical support. This includes advance trauma management, limited ground evacuation, and limited preventive medical support. The SOSB can also provide emergency resuscitative surgery and limited postoperative recovery and holding. The SOSB must be augmented to provide veterinary services, dental support, and humanitarian missions.
(f) Contracting. The SOSB provides local procurement using contracting officers.
(g) Engineer support. The SOSB can fabricate training facilities and targets and provide limited vertical construction.
(2) Organization. As shown in Figure 5-1. The SOSB is organized with a headquarters, a main support company, and three forward support companies. The headquarters provides the command and control function (Figure 5-2). The main support company (Figure 5-2) provides health services support, food service support, airdrop support, personnel parachute packing support, and a limited construction and combat engineering capability. It also conducts mortuary affairs and water purification. The multifunctional forward support companies can receive, store, and issue supplies; transport supplies and water; and transport troops. These companies can also manage movements and provide DS maintenance for supported ARSOF units (Figure 5-3).
Figure 5-2. Headquarters and main support company
Figure 5-3. Forward support company
(3) Logistics flow. Two CSS systems support deployed ARSOA units. To the extent possible, the first CSS system is provided by TA nondivisional DS and GS units through the SOSB. After coordination with DA, the theater commander determines the functional types and levels of host-nation support that can be accepted without risking the overall mission. Figure 5-4 shows the ARSOA logistics flow. The second CSS support system is based totally on the classification of the operation. This system uses a direct pipeline logistics system from the ARSOA regiment; it finds the needed part stateside and has it shipped by scheduled airlift to the user.
Figure 5-4. Logistics flow
(a) Supply. DS and AVIM units are supplied primarily through the DS system. Theater-source items that are not available from the SOSB are filled from TAMMC in-theater stocked assets. Except for Class VIII (medical) supplies, TAMMC is the principal manager for all classes of supply throughout the theater. Requests for ARSOA-unique or low-demand items are routed through the TAMMC to the NICP at Lexington Blue Grass Army Depot. The ARSOA regiment will participate in this process because it can procure ARSOA-peculiar parts.
(b) Maintenance. To the maximum extent possible, civilian specialists and technicians (US, HN, and/or third country) are used to maintain sophisticated and complex equipment. The SOSB provides DS maintenance. Aviation maintenance units will provide the needed aviation maintenance. TAACOM maintenance units that furnish support on an area basis provide maintenance, recovery, and evacuation support. Contact teams provide AVIM on an area basis.
(c) Transportation. With input from the SOSB transportation section, a wartime movements program developed by TAMCA will provide movements management for the theater. Program execution provides for the movement of supplies and equipment from support areas to forward deployed ARSOA units. Priority should be provided to ARSOA items when an aircraft becomes NMCS. Parts must be tracked through the system. Without a method to ensure its shipment from CONUS to the requesting unit, a single item can easily be lost.
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