Section I. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
A2C2 Army airspace command and control
A2C2S Army airborne command and control system
AAMP Army aviation modernization plan
AATF air assault task force
AATFC air assault task force commander
ABCB2 Army battle command brigade and below
ABCS Army battle command system
ACE analysis and control element
ACR armored cavalry regiment
ACR(L) armored cavalry regiment (light)
ACS armored cavalry squadron
ACT air cavalry troop
ACUS area common user system
AD air defense
ADA air defense artillery
ADCOORD air defense coordinator
ADDS Army data distribution system
ADRG arc digitized raster graphic
AEB aerial exploitation battalion
AFAPD artillery fired atomic projectile device
AFATDS advanced field artillery tactical data system
AFSO aerial fire support officer
AG adjutant general
AH attack helicopter
AHB assault helicopter battalion
AHC assault helicopter company
AHRS attitude heading reference system
ALO air liaison officer
AM amplitude modulated
AMPS aviation mission planning system
AO area of operations
AOR area of responsibility
AR Army regulation
ARI aviation restructure initiative
ARL airborne reconnaissance low
ARS air reconnaissance squadron
ASAS all source analysis system
ASAS-W all source analysis system-warrior
ASB aviation support battalion
ASCC Army service component command
ASE aircraft survivability equipment
ASK audio shift key
ATACMS Army tactical missile system
ATAS air-to-air stinger
ATC air traffic control
ATCCS Army tactical command and control system
ATHS airborne target hand-over system
ATKHB attack helicopter battalion
ATO air tasking order
ATO-SPINS air tasking order-special instructions
ATS air traffic services
AVIM aviation intermediate maintenance
AVTOC aviation tactical operations center
AVUM aviation unit maintenance
AWE advanced warfighting experiment
BCDSS battle command decision support system
BCIS battlefield combat identification system
BCV battle command vehicle
BDA battle damage assessment
BM battle management
BOS battlefield operating system
BP battlefield position
BSA brigade support area
C cargo airplane
C2 command and control
C2I command, control, and intelligence
C2V command and control vehicle
C2W command and control warfare
C3 command, control, and communications
C3I command, control, communications, and intelligence
C4I command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence
CAB command aviation battalion
CAC command aviation company
CAS close air support
CASEVAC casualty evacuation
CD-ROM compact disk-read only memory
CH cargo helicopter
CHS II common hardware/software II
CNR combat net radio
COA course of action
COMINT communications intelligence
COMMZ communications zone
COMPO composite unit
COMSEC communications security
CONOPS continuous operations
CONUS continental United States
COSCOM corps support command
CP command post
CPFSK continuous phase frequency shift key
CS combat support
CSA Chief of Staff, US Army
CSAB combat support aviation battalion
CSAR combat search and rescue
CSS combat service support
CSSCS combat service support control system
CTOC corps tactical operations center
CV combat vehicle
DA Department of the Army
D3A decide, detect, deliver, assess
DCA defensive counterair
DCSOPS Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans
DF direction finding
DISCOM division support command
DMA Defense Mapping Agency
DOCC deep operations coordination cell
DOD Department of Defense
DOL Directorate of Logistics
DPTM Directorate of Plans, Training, and Mobilization
DPW Directorate of Public Works
DRA data rate adapter
DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office
DS direct support
DSS dismounted soldier system
DST decision support template
DTED digital terrain elevation data
DTM data transfer module
DTOC division tactical operations center
EA electronic attack; engagement area
EAC echelons above corps
ECAP environmental compliance achievement program
ECCM electronic counter-countermeasures
ECM electronic countermeasures
ECO environmental compliance officer
ED Environmental Division
EGI inertial navigation system
EH electronic helicopter
ELINT electronic intelligence
ENRD Environmental and Natural Resources Division
EP electronic protection
EPA evasion plan of action
EPLRS enhanced position location reporting system
ES electronic support
EW electronic warfare
FAAD forward area air defense
FAADC2I forward area air defense command, control, and intelligence
FAADC3I forward area air defense command, control, communications, and intelligence
FAADS forward area air defense system
FAC forward air controller
FARP forward arming and refueling point
FAST fast sealift ship
FCR fire control radar
FEBA forward edge of the battle area
FID foreign internal defense
FLC force level control
FLIR forward-looking infrared
FLOT forward line of own troops
FM frequency modulated; field manual
FMSP foreign military sales program
FRAGO fragmentary order
FSCL fire support coordination line
FSCOORD fire support coordinator
FSK frequency shift key
ft foot; feet
G1 Assistant Chief of Staff, G1 (Personnel)
G2 Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence)
G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans)
G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics)
GPS global positioning system
GS general support
GSAB general support aviation battalion
GS-R general support-reinforcing
GUI graphical user interface
HAZCOM hazardous communications
HAZMIN hazardous waste minimization
HF high frequency
HHC headquarters and headquarters company
HHT headquarters and headquarters troop
HM hazardous material
HMMWV high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle
HQ II HaveQuick II
HTF how to fight
HUMINT human intelligence
HW hazardous waste
IDM improved data modem
IEW intelligence and electronic warfare
IFF identification, friend or foe (radar)
IMCPU improved master controller processor unit
IMETP international military education and training program
IMINT imagery intelligence
IMSP improved mast-mounted-sight system processor
IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield
IVIS intravehicular information system
J4 Logistics Directorate
JAAT joint air attack team
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
JP jet petroleum
JSAK joint second echelon attack
JSEAD joint suppression of enemy air defense
JSTARS joint surveillance target attack radar system
JTCB joint targeting coordination board
JTF joint task force
LAN local area network
LBA Longbow Apache
LCC land component commander
LCU Light-weight computer unit
LIC Low-intensity conflict
LNO liaison officer (aviation)
LUH light utility helicopter
LWR laser warning receiver
LZ landing zone
MCS/P maneuver control system/Phoenix
MEDEVAC medical evacuation
METL mission essential task list
METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available
MFD multifunction display
MH modified helicopter
MI military intelligence
MITT mobile integrated tactical terminal
MLRS multiple launch rocket system
MMW milimeter wave
MOOTW military operations other than war
MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain
MOPP mission-oriented protective posture
MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain
MSCA military support to civil authorities
MSP mast-mounted-sight system processor
MTS Marine tactical system
NA not applicable
NAI named area of interest
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVAID navigational aid
NBC nuclear, biological, chemical
NCA national command authority
NCO noncommissioned officer
NEO noncombatant evacuation operations
nm nautical mile
NRB Natural Resources Branch
NRT near real time
OCA offensive counterair
OH observation helicopter
OPCON operational control
OPLAN operational plan
OPORD operation order
OPSEC operations security
OPTEMPO operational tempo
PIR priority intelligence requirement
POC point of contact
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants
PSYOP psychological operations
PZ pickup zone
RAH reconnaissance attack helicopter
RAM random access memory
RAS regimental aviation squadron
RC reconnaissance cargo airplane
RF radio frequency
RFI radio frequency interferometer
ROAD reorganization objectives Army division
RPV remotely piloted vehicle
RU reconnaissance utility airplane
RV reconnaissance vehicle
RWS remote workstation
S1 adjutant (US Army)
S2 intelligence officer (US Army)
S3 operations and training officer (US Army)
S4 supply officer (US Army)
SAC support aviation company
SAR search and rescue
SASO stability and support operations
SATCOM satellite communications
SBF support by fire
SEAD suppression of enemy air defense
SEMA special electronic mission aircraft
SERE survival, evasion, resistance, and escape
SHORAD short range air defense
SIDPERS Standard Installation Division Personnel System
SIGINT signals intelligence
SINCGARS single channel ground and airborne radio system
SIP system improvement program
SITREP situation report
SJA Staff Judge Advocate
SOA special operations aviation
SOF special operations forces
SOP standing operating procedure
SPOTREP spot report
STAMIS standard Army management information system
TA theater Army
TAA tactical assembly area
TAACOM theater Army area command
TACAIR tactical air
TACFIRE tactical fire
TACP tactical air control party
TAI target area of interest
TBM theater ballistic missile
TC training circular
TCAE technical control and analysis element
TCF tactical combat force
TCIM tactical communication interface module
TCU tactical computer unit
TDMA time domain multiple access
TENCAP tactical exploitation of national capabilities
TF task force
TIS thermal image sensor
TMD theater missile defense
TOC tactical operations center
TOE table(s) of organization and equipment
TOW tube launched, optically tracked, wire guided
TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
UA utility airplane
UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
UH utility helicopter
UHF Ultra-high frequency
US United States (of America)
USA US Army
USAAVNC US Army Aviation Center
USAF United States Air Force
UV utility vehicle
VHF very high frequency
VIXL video image crosslink
VMF variable message format
XO executive officer
Section II. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
- Active Component
- armored cavalry regiment
- air defense artillery
- the ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy.
- air assault--
- operations in which air assault forces--using the firepower, mobility, and total integration of helicopter assets in their ground or air roles--maneuver on the battlefield under the control of the ground or air maneuver commander to engage and destroy enemy forces.
- air combat--
- Any use of organic weapons to engage another aircraft while both aircraft are in flight.
- air defense--
- all defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the earth's envelope of atmosphere or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such an attack. (NATO)--all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air actions. (Army aviation does not perform counterair operations. However, Army aviation units do participate in the air defense effort by conducting air combat operations.)
- air liaison officer--
- the senior Air Force officer at each TACP who advises the Army commander and staff on the capabilities, limitations, and employment of tactical air operations. He operates the Air Force request net. He coordinates CAS missions with the fire support element and assists it in planning the simultaneous employment of air and surface fires. He supervises FACs and will assist the fire support team in directing airstrikes in the absence of a FAC.
- air movement operations--
- operations using airlift assets--primarily helicopters--to move maneuver, CS, and CSS forces and/or equipment whose primary purpose is not to engage and destroy enemy forces. (NATO) air movement--air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment, including airdrops and air landings.
- air reconnaissance--
- the acquisition of intelligence information by employing visual observation/sensors in air vehicles. (NATO)--the collection of information of intelligence interest either by visual observation from the air or through the use of airborne sensors.
- air tasking order--
- the air operations center tasking order (USAF) to the air assets under its control. Similar in purpose to the OPORD. Although not under the operational control of the USAF, Army SEMA assets may use the ATO-SPINS (air tasking order-special instructions) to describe their missions to other ATO-SPINS recipients.
- defensive measures to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorism.
- area defense--
- denying the enemy access to designated terrain for a specific time to retain ground using a combination of defensive positions and small, mobile reserves.
- area of operations--
- a geographical area assigned to an Army commander by a higher commander. An AO has lateral and rear boundaries that usually define it within a larger joint geographical area.
- armed helicopter--
- a helicopter fitted with weapons or weapon systems.
- Army force--
- that force provided by the Army service component to the subordinate joint force commander for the conduct of joint operations.
- Army service component commander--
- the commander of the Army service component command assigned to the theater combatant commander who provides forces and support to subordinate joint force commanders. The ASCC is responsible for preparing; maintaining, training; equipping; administering; and supporting Army forces assigned to unified and specified commands. The ASCC normally advises the combatant or subordinate unified commander on the proper employment of the forces of the Army component. The ASCC is normally not a part of the joint force staff.
- to place units or personnel in an organization in which such placement is relatively permanent and/or in which such an organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function or greater portion of the functions of the unit or personnel.
- to place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. Subject to limitations imposed in the attachment order, the commander of the formation, unit, or organization receiving the attachment will exercise the same degree of command and control over them as he does over the units and persons organic to his command. However, the responsibility for transfer and promotion of personnel will normally be retained by the parent formation, unit, or organization.
- attack helicopter--
- a helicopter designed to search out, attack, and destroy enemy targets.
- aviation maneuver forces--
- aviation maneuver units that operate in the ground environment. They engage targets by fire from covered and concealed positions. Their operations are similar to ground maneuver operations in that they tailor their movement to the terrain and use supporting fires. These units are integrated into the tactical plan of the ground force commander. They can control terrain by denying the enemy its use by direct aerial fire for limited periods of time.
- battle command--
- the art of battle decision making, leading, and motivating soldiers and their organizations into action to accomplish missions. Includes visualizing current state and future state, then formulating concepts of operations to get from one to the other at least cost. Also includes assigning missions; prioritizing and allocating resources; selecting the critical time and place to act; and knowing how and when to make adjustments during the fight.
- battle damage assessment--
- the process of determining the essential tactical reconstitution requirements for an attrited unit; the process of determining the combat effectiveness of the enemy after engagement by friendly force.
- battlefield framework--
- an area of geographical and operational responsibility established by the commander; it provides a way to visualize how he will employ his forces; it helps him relate his forces to one another and to the enemy in time, space, and purpose.
- battlefield operating systems--
- the major functions performed by the force on the battlefield to successfully execute Army operations (battles and engagements) to accomplish military objectives directed by the operational commander; they include maneuver, fire support, air defense, command and control, intelligence, mobility and survivability, and combat service support.
- battle space--
- components determined by the maximum capabilities of a unit to acquire and dominate the enemy; includes areas beyond the AO; it varies over time according to how the commander positions his assets.
- cargo (transport) helicopter--
- a helicopter designed and employed primarily for movement of passengers/cargo.
- close support--
- the action of the supporting force against targets or objectives that are sufficiently near the supported force to require detailed integration or coordination of the supporting action with the fire, movement, or other actions of the supported force.
- combat maneuver forces--
- forces that use fire and movement to engage the enemy with direct fire weapon systems, as distinguished from forces that engage the enemy with indirect fires or otherwise provide combat support. These maneuver elements are primarily infantry, armor, cavalry (air and armored), and aviation.
- combat service support--
- the focus of logistics at the tactical level of war; the synchronization of essential functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain soldiers and their weapon systems in an area of operations; includes but is not limited to that support rendered by service support troops to arm, fuel, fix, move, man, and sustain soldiers and their equipment.
- combat support--
- fire support and operational assistance provided to combat elements. Artillery, air defense artillery, engineer, military police, signal, military intelligence, chemical, and aviation all provide CS.
- combatting terrorism--
- actions--including antiterrorism (defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism)--taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum.
- combined arms--
- application of several arms, such as infantry, armor, artillery, and aviation.
- combined arms team--
- two or more arms mutually supporting one another. A team can consist of armor, infantry, cavalry, aviation, field artillery, air defense artillery, and engineers.
- commander's intent--
- a concise expression of the purpose of an operation, a description of the desired end state, and the way in which the posture of that goal facilitates transition to future operations.
- communications zone--
- the rear part of the theater of war or theater of operations that contains the lines of communications, theater logistics bases, forward operating bases, and other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of the field forces; extends back to the CONUS base.
- the state characterized by confrontation and the need to engage in hostilities to secure strategic objectives.
- an attack with a reserve or lightly committed forward element that is launched after the enemy begins its attack, after the commander has identified the enemy's effort, or when a resolute defense creates an assailable enemy flank.
- the point in time and space when the attacker's combat power no longer exceeds that of the defender or when the defender no longer has the capability to defend successfully.
- decisive force--
- applying overwhelming forces to fight and win quickly with minimum casualties.
- decisive point--
- a point, usually geographical in nature, that, when retained, provides a commander with a marked advantage over his opponent. Decisive points could also include other physical elements such as enemy formations, command posts, and communications nodes.
- deep operations--
- operations designed in depth to secure advantages in later engagements; protect the current close fight; and defeat the enemy more rapidly--by denying freedom of action and disrupting, or destroying, the coherence and tempo of its operations.
- deliberate attack--
- fully synchronized operations that employ the effects of every available asset against the enemy's defense.
- the act of returning the force and materiel to a premobilization posture or to some other approved posture; also involves returning the mobilized portion of the industrial base to peacetime conditions.
- a show of force in an area where a decision is not sought, made with the aim of deceiving the enemy as to the true intentions of the attack.
- the relocation of forces to desired areas of operations; the movement of forces within areas of operations.
- direct support--
- (DOD)--a mission requiring a force to support another specific force and authorizing it to answer directly the supported force's request for assistance. (NATO)--the support provided by a unit or formation not attached or under command of the supported unit or formation but required to give priority to the support required by that unit or formation.
- fundamental principles by which the military forces, or elements thereof, guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application. (NATO)--fundamental principles by which the military forces guide their actions in support of objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application.
- electronic warfare--
- military actions including a. electronic attack--the use of either electromagnetic or directed energy to degrade, neutralize, or destroy an enemy's combat capability; b. electronic protection--those actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare; c. electronic warfare support--those actions tasked by an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition.
- small, tactical conflicts, usually between opposing maneuver forces.
- an offensive maneuver in which the main attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive positions to secure objectives in the enemy's rear.
- the attacker's extension of destruction of the defending force by maintaining offensive pressure.
- a spoiling attack designed to divert the enemy's attention from the main effort.
- fire support--
- assistance to those elements of the ground forces that close with the enemy, such as infantry and armor units, rendered by delivering artillery and mortar fire, naval gunfire, and close air support. Fire support may also be provided by tanks, air defense artillery, and armed helicopters.
- forward air controller--
- A member of the TACP who, from a ground or airborne position, controls aircraft engaged in CAS of ground forces.
- the employment of friendly weapons and munitions with the intent to kill the enemy or destroy his equipment or facilities, which results in unforeseen and unintentional death or injury to friendly personnel.
- general support--
- that support given to the supported force as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof.
- general support--reinforcing--
- a tactical artillery mission. GS-R is not used by aviation forces.
- hasty attack--
- result of a meeting engagement--launched with the forces at hand and with minimum preparation to destroy the enemy before he is able to concentrate or establish a defense.
- health services--
- the logistical function of promoting, improving, conserving, or restoring the mental or physical well being of military personnel.
- high-payoff target--
- high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, would contribute substantially to the success of friendly plans.
- high-value target--
- a target whose loss to the enemy can be expected to contribute to substantial degradation of an important battlefield function.
- host nation support--
- civil and/or military assistance rendered by a nation to foreign forces within its territory during peacetime, times of crisis, emergencies, or war; assistance provided during war is based upon agreements mutually concluded between nations.
- humanitarian assistance--
- assistance provided by DOD forces, as directed by appropriate authority, in the aftermath of natural or man-made disasters to help reduce conditions that present a serious threat to life and property; assistance provided by US forces is limited in scope and duration and is designed to supplement efforts of civilian authorities who have primary responsibility for providing such assistance.
- identification friend or foe--
- a system using electromagnetic transmissions to which equipment carried by friendly forces automatically responds: for example, by emitting pulses thereby allowing friendly forces to be distinguished from enemy forces.
- the ability to set or change the terms of battle; implies an offensive spirit.
- the product resulting from collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas.
- A systematic and continuous process which describes the tactical environment and the effects of that environment on operations and what the enemy can accomplish.
- actions to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy before it can affect friendly forces.
- The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces and to use the exchanged services to enable them to operate effectively together.
- connotes activities, operations, and organizations in which elements of more than one service of the same nation participate.
- joint task force--
- a force composed of assigned or attached elements of two or more services and constituted by appropriate authority for a specific or limited purpose or missions of short duration.
- lines of communication--
- All the routes (land, water, and air) that connect an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and military forces move.
- the process of planning and executing the movement and sustainment of forces in the execution of military operations. Logistics includes the design, development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel; the acquisition, preparation, maintenance, equipping, movement, and health support of personnel; the acquisition or furnishing of services; and the acquisition, construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities. Logistics is an overarching function that must encompass the range of military operations. At the tactical level, logistics focuses on the traditional CSS functions of arming, fixing, fueling, manning, moving, and sustaining soldiers.
- logistics-over-the-shore operations--
- the loading and unloading of ships without the benefit of fixed port facilities.
- the movement of forces supported by fire to achieve a position of advantage from which to destroy or threaten destruction of the enemy.
- mobile defense--
- employing a combination of fire and maneuver, offense, defense, and delay to destroy the enemy and defeat his attack.
- the process by which the Armed Forces, or a portion thereof, is brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency; includes activating all or part of the RC, as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel.
- modular units--
- units comprised of multiple capabilities; depending on the requirement, modules can be added or subtracted from the unit or force package.
- multinational operations--
- An operation conducted by forces of two or more allied nations acting together to accomplish a single mission.
- nation assistance--
- diplomatic, economic, informational, and military cooperation between the US and the government of another nation, with the objective of promoting internal development and the growth of sustainable institutions within that nation. This corrects conditions that cause human suffering and improves the quality of life of the nation's people.
- NBC defense--
- the methods, plans, procedures, and training for defense against the effects of an attack by NBC weapons. The term may not be used in the context of US offensive operations.
- noncombatant evacuation operations--
- operations that relocate threatened civilian noncombatants from locations in a foreign country or host nation. These operations normally involve US citizens whose lives are in danger. They may also include selected host nation natives and third country nationals.
- observation helicopter--
- helicopter used primarily for observation and reconnaissance but which may be used for other roles.
- operational control--
- the authority delegated to a commander to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks that are usually limited by function, time, or location; to deploy units concerned and to retain or assign tactical control of those units. It does not include authority to assign separate employment of components of the units concerned. Nor does it, of itself, include administrative or logistical control.
- operational operating systems--
- the major functions performed by joint and combined operations forces to successfully execute campaigns and major operations in a theater or area of operations; these systems include movement and maneuver, fires, intelligence, protection, command and control and support.
- operations in-depth--
- the totality of the commander's operations against the enemy--composed of deep, close, and rear operations that are usually conducted simultaneously in a manner that appears as one continuous operation against the enemy.
- assigned to and forming an essential part of a military organization; an element normally shown in the unit's table of organization and equipment.
- 1. Teams dropped or airlanded at an objective to establish and operate navigational aids to guide aircraft to drop zones/landing zones. 2. Teams air-delivered into enemy territory for determining the best approach and withdraw lanes, landing zones, and sites for heliborne forces.
- peace building--
- postconflict diplomatic and military action to identify and support structures that tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avoid a relapse into combat.
- peace enforcement--
- military intervention to forcefully restore peace between belligerents who may be engaged in combat.
- operations using military forces and/or civilian personnel, at the request of the parties to a dispute, to help supervise a cease-fire agreement and/or separate the parties.
- the diplomatic process or military actions to gain an end to disputes.
- power projection--
- the ability of the nation to apply all or some of the instruments of national power--diplomatic, economic, informational, or military--to respond to crisis, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability.
- priority of support--
- priorities set by the commander in his concept of the operation and during execution to ensure that combat support and combat service support are provided to subordinate elements in accordance with their relative importance to accomplishing the mission.
- an attack with the purpose of annihilating the enemy once his resistance has broken down completely and he is fleeing the battlefield.
- a limited-objective attack into enemy territory not for the specific purpose of gaining and holding ground.
- rear operations--
- operations that assist in providing freedom of action and continuity of operations, logistics, and battle command. Their primary purposes are to sustain the current close and deep fights and to posture the force for further operations.
- a mission undertaken to obtain information by visual observation or other detection methods about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy or about the meteorologic, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area.
- at the strategic level, those functions and activities required to restore the Army's capability to respond to any mission across the full range of possible operations. At the operational and tactical levels, reconstitution consists of extraordinary actions that commanders plan and implement to restore units to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and available resources.
- in artillery usage, a tactical mission in which one artillery unit augments the fire of another artillery unit. Reinforcing is not used by aviation forces.
- retrograde operation--
- a maneuver to the rear or away from the enemy to improve a situation or prevent a worse situation from occurring.
- risk management--
- the process of detecting, assessing, and controlling risk arising from operational factors and making decisions that balance risk costs with mission benefits.
- rules of engagement--
- directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which US forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other encountered forces.
- security assistance--
- groups of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives.
- split-based logistics--
- dividing logistics management functions so that only those functions absolutely necessary are deployed, allowing some management functions to be accomplished from CONUS or another theater.
- spoiling attack--
- an attack from a defensive posture to disrupt an expected enemy attack. A spoiling attack attempts to strike the enemy while he is most vulnerable during his preparations for attack in assembly areas and attack positions--or while he is on the move before crossing the line of departure.
- stability and support operations--
- military activities during peacetime and conflict that do not necessarily involve armed clashes between two organized forces.
- strategic mobility--
- transportation actions using national assets, both military and civilian, in support of a force-projection mission.
- (DOD)--the action of a force that aids, protects, complements, or sustains another force in accordance with a directive requiring such action. (NATO)--The action of a force--or portion thereof--that aids, protects, complements, or sustains any other force.
- supporting attack--
- an attack designed to hold the enemy in position, to conceal the location of the main attack, to prevent him from reinforcing the elements opposing the main effort, and/or to cause him to commit his reserves prematurely at an indecisive location.
- supporting fire--
- fire delivered by supporting units to assist or protect a unit in combat.
- supporting forces--
- forces stationed in, or to be deployed to, an area of operations to provide support for the execution of an operation order. Operational command of supporting forces is not passed to the supported commander.
- the systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface area, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means.
- the ability to focus resources and activities in time and space to produce maximum relative combat power at the decisive point.
- tactical air control party--
- advises and assists the commander, requests and coordinates tactical air support, and meets other requirements of the individual force echelon support. The TACP consists of experienced personnel; ground/airborne vehicles; and the communications equipment required to obtain, coordinate, and control tactical air support of ground operations.
- tactical combat forces--
- those forces the commander assigns the mission of defeating enemy airborne, air assault, amphibious, or ground-infiltration attacks in the rear area.
- Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities--
- a program of the Army Space Program Office with the charter: To exploit the current and future tactical potential of nation space systems and integrate the capabilities into the Army's tactical decision making progess as rapidly as possible. National space systems make available near real time imagery intelligence (NRT IMINT) and near real time signals intelligence (NRT SIGINT) derived from national level sources to Army commanders. National space systems at the division echelon include equipment such as the mobile integrated tactical terminal (MITT).
- the art and science of employing available means to win battles and engagements.
- the rate of military action; controlling or altering that rate is a necessary means to initiative; all military operations alternate between action and pauses as opposing forces battle one another and fight friction to mount and execute operations at the time and place of their choosing.
- a basic truth held by an organization; the fundamental tenets of Army operations doctrine describe the characteristics of successful operations.
- terrain flight--
- the tactic of employing helicopters to use the terrain's vegetation and man-made objects to degrade the enemy's ability to visually, optically, or electronically detect or locate the helicopter. This tactic involves a constant awareness of the capabilities and positions of enemy weapons and detection means in relation to available masking terrain features and flight routes. Terrain flying involves flight close to the earth's surface and includes the tactical application of low-level, contour, and nap-of-the-earth flight techniques.
- utility helicopter--
- a multipurpose helicopter capable of lifting troops but which may be used in command and control, logistics, casualty evacuation, or armed helicopter roles.
- the ability of units to meet diverse challenges, shift focus, tailor forces, and move from one role or mission to another rapidly and efficiently.
- a state of open and declared armed hostile conflict between political units such as states or nations; may be limited or general in nature.
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