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A2C2 Army airspace command and control

A2C2S Army airborne command and control system

AAMP Army aviation modernization plan

AATF air assault task force

AATFC air assault task force commander

ABCB2 Army battle command brigade and below

ABCS Army battle command system

ACE analysis and control element

acft aircraft

ACR armored cavalry regiment

ACR(L) armored cavalry regiment (light)

ACS armored cavalry squadron

ACT air cavalry troop

ACUS area common user system

AD air defense

ADA air defense artillery

ADCOORD air defense coordinator

ADDS Army data distribution system

ADRG arc digitized raster graphic

AEB aerial exploitation battalion

AFAPD artillery fired atomic projectile device

AFATDS advanced field artillery tactical data system

AFSO aerial fire support officer

AG adjutant general

AH attack helicopter

AHB assault helicopter battalion

AHC assault helicopter company

AHRS attitude heading reference system

AL Alabama

ALO air liaison officer

AM amplitude modulated

AMPS aviation mission planning system

AO area of operations

AOR area of responsibility

AR Army regulation

ARI aviation restructure initiative

ARL airborne reconnaissance low

ARS air reconnaissance squadron

ASAS all source analysis system

ASAS-W all source analysis system-warrior

ASB aviation support battalion

ASCC Army service component command

ASE aircraft survivability equipment

ASK audio shift key

ATACMS Army tactical missile system

ATAS air-to-air stinger

ATC air traffic control

ATCCS Army tactical command and control system

ATHS airborne target hand-over system

ATKHB attack helicopter battalion

ATO air tasking order

ATO-SPINS air tasking order-special instructions

ATS air traffic services

AVIM aviation intermediate maintenance

AVTOC aviation tactical operations center

AVUM aviation unit maintenance

AWE advanced warfighting experiment

BCDSS battle command decision support system

BCIS battlefield combat identification system

BCV battle command vehicle

BDA battle damage assessment

BM battle management

BOS battlefield operating system

BP battlefield position

BSA brigade support area

C cargo airplane

C2 command and control

C2I command, control, and intelligence

C2V command and control vehicle

C2W command and control warfare

C3 command, control, and communications

C3I command, control, communications, and intelligence

C4I command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence

CAB command aviation battalion

CAC command aviation company

CAS close air support

CASEVAC casualty evacuation

cbt combat

CD-ROM compact disk-read only memory

CH cargo helicopter

CHS II common hardware/software II

CINC Commander-in-chief

cmd command

CNR combat net radio

COA course of action

COMINT communications intelligence

COMM communications

COMMZ communications zone

COMPO composite unit

COMSEC communications security

CONOPS continuous operations

CONUS continental United States

COSCOM corps support command

CP command post

CPFSK continuous phase frequency shift key

CS combat support

CSA Chief of Staff, US Army

CSAB combat support aviation battalion

CSAR combat search and rescue

CSS combat service support

CSSCS combat service support control system

CTOC corps tactical operations center

cu cubic

CV combat vehicle

DA Department of the Army

D3A decide, detect, deliver, assess

DCA defensive counterair

DCSOPS Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans

ea each

DF direction finding

DISCOM division support command

DMA Defense Mapping Agency

DOCC deep operations coordination cell

DOD Department of Defense

DOL Directorate of Logistics

DPTM Directorate of Plans, Training, and Mobilization

DPW Directorate of Public Works

DRA data rate adapter

DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office

DS direct support

DSS dismounted soldier system

DST decision support template

DTED digital terrain elevation data

DTM data transfer module

DTOC division tactical operations center

EA electronic attack; engagement area

EAC echelons above corps

ECAP environmental compliance achievement program

ECCM electronic counter-countermeasures

ECM electronic countermeasures

ECO environmental compliance officer

ED Environmental Division

EGI inertial navigation system

EH electronic helicopter

ELINT electronic intelligence

ENRD Environmental and Natural Resources Division

EP electronic protection

EPA evasion plan of action

EPLRS enhanced position location reporting system

ES electronic support

EW electronic warfare

FAAD forward area air defense

FAADC2I forward area air defense command, control, and intelligence

FAADC3I forward area air defense command, control, communications, and intelligence

FAADS forward area air defense system

FAC forward air controller

FARP forward arming and refueling point

FAST fast sealift ship

FCR fire control radar

FEBA forward edge of the battle area

FID foreign internal defense

FLC force level control

FLIR forward-looking infrared

FLOT forward line of own troops

FM frequency modulated; field manual

FMSP foreign military sales program

FRAGO fragmentary order

FSCL fire support coordination line

FSCOORD fire support coordinator

FSK frequency shift key

ft foot; feet

G1 Assistant Chief of Staff, G1 (Personnel)

G2 Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence)

G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans)

G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics)

gal gallon

GB gigabyte

GPS global positioning system

GS general support

GSAB general support aviation battalion

GS-R general support-reinforcing

GUI graphical user interface

HAZCOM hazardous communications

HAZMIN hazardous waste minimization

HF high frequency

HHC headquarters and headquarters company

HHT headquarters and headquarters troop

HM hazardous material

HMMWV high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle

HQ headquarters

HQ II HaveQuick II

hr hour

HTF how to fight

HUMINT human intelligence

HW hazardous waste

IDM improved data modem

IEW intelligence and electronic warfare

IFF identification, friend or foe (radar)

IMCPU improved master controller processor unit

IMETP international military education and training program

IMINT imagery intelligence

IMSP improved mast-mounted-sight system processor

in inch

IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield

IVIS intravehicular information system

J4 Logistics Directorate

JAAT joint air attack team

JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff

JP jet petroleum

JSAK joint second echelon attack

JSEAD joint suppression of enemy air defense

JSTARS joint surveillance target attack radar system

JTCB joint targeting coordination board

JTF joint task force

KB kilobyte

kt knot

LAN local area network

lb pound

LBA Longbow Apache

LCC land component commander

LCU Light-weight computer unit

LIC Low-intensity conflict

LNO liaison officer (aviation)

lt light

LUH light utility helicopter

LWR laser warning receiver

LZ landing zone

MB megabyte

MCS/P maneuver control system/Phoenix

MEDEVAC medical evacuation

METL mission essential task list

METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available

MFD multifunction display

MH modified helicopter

MI military intelligence

min minute

MITT mobile integrated tactical terminal

MLRS multiple launch rocket system

MMW milimeter wave

MOOTW military operations other than war

MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain

MOPP mission-oriented protective posture

MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain

MSCA military support to civil authorities

MSP mast-mounted-sight system processor

MTS Marine tactical system

NA not applicable

NAI named area of interest

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NAVAID navigational aid

NBC nuclear, biological, chemical

NCA national command authority

NCO noncommissioned officer

NEO noncombatant evacuation operations

nm nautical mile

NOE Nap-of-the-earth

NRB Natural Resources Branch

NRT near real time

OCA offensive counterair

OH observation helicopter

OPCON operational control

OPLAN operational plan

OPORD operation order

OPSEC operations security

OPTEMPO operational tempo

PIR priority intelligence requirement

POC point of contact

POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants

PSYOP psychological operations

PZ pickup zone

RAH reconnaissance attack helicopter

RAM random access memory

RAS regimental aviation squadron

RC reconnaissance cargo airplane

RF radio frequency

RFI radio frequency interferometer

ROAD reorganization objectives Army division

RPV remotely piloted vehicle

RU reconnaissance utility airplane

RV reconnaissance vehicle

RWS remote workstation

S1 adjutant (US Army)

S2 intelligence officer (US Army)

S3 operations and training officer (US Army)

S4 supply officer (US Army)

SAC support aviation company

SAR search and rescue

SASO stability and support operations

SATCOM satellite communications

SBF support by fire

SEAD suppression of enemy air defense

SEMA special electronic mission aircraft

SERE survival, evasion, resistance, and escape

SHORAD short range air defense

SIDPERS Standard Installation Division Personnel System

SIGINT signals intelligence

SINCGARS single channel ground and airborne radio system

SIP system improvement program

SITREP situation report

SJA Staff Judge Advocate

SOA special operations aviation

SOF special operations forces

SOP standing operating procedure

SPOTREP spot report

STAMIS standard Army management information system

TA theater Army

TAA tactical assembly area

TAACOM theater Army area command

tac tactical

TACAIR tactical air

TACFIRE tactical fire

TACP tactical air control party

TAI target area of interest

TBM theater ballistic missile

TC training circular

TCAE technical control and analysis element

TCF tactical combat force

TCIM tactical communication interface module

TCU tactical computer unit

TDMA time domain multiple access

TENCAP tactical exploitation of national capabilities

TF task force

TIS thermal image sensor

TMD theater missile defense

TOC tactical operations center

TOE table(s) of organization and equipment

TOW tube launched, optically tracked, wire guided

TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command

TV television

UA utility airplane

UAV unmanned aerial vehicle

UH utility helicopter

UHF Ultra-high frequency

US United States (of America)


USAAVNC US Army Aviation Center

USAF United States Air Force

UV utility vehicle

VHF very high frequency

VIXL video image crosslink

VMF variable message format

XO executive officer


Active Component

armored cavalry regiment

air defense artillery

the ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy.

air assault--
operations in which air assault forces--using the firepower, mobility, and total integration of helicopter assets in their ground or air roles--maneuver on the battlefield under the control of the ground or air maneuver commander to engage and destroy enemy forces.

air combat--
Any use of organic weapons to engage another aircraft while both aircraft are in flight.

air defense--
all defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the earth's envelope of atmosphere or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such an attack. (NATO)--all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air actions. (Army aviation does not perform counterair operations. However, Army aviation units do participate in the air defense effort by conducting air combat operations.)

air liaison officer--
the senior Air Force officer at each TACP who advises the Army commander and staff on the capabilities, limitations, and employment of tactical air operations. He operates the Air Force request net. He coordinates CAS missions with the fire support element and assists it in planning the simultaneous employment of air and surface fires. He supervises FACs and will assist the fire support team in directing airstrikes in the absence of a FAC.

air movement operations--
operations using airlift assets--primarily helicopters--to move maneuver, CS, and CSS forces and/or equipment whose primary purpose is not to engage and destroy enemy forces. (NATO) air movement--air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment, including airdrops and air landings.

air reconnaissance--
the acquisition of intelligence information by employing visual observation/sensors in air vehicles. (NATO)--the collection of information of intelligence interest either by visual observation from the air or through the use of airborne sensors.

air tasking order--
the air operations center tasking order (USAF) to the air assets under its control. Similar in purpose to the OPORD. Although not under the operational control of the USAF, Army SEMA assets may use the ATO-SPINS (air tasking order-special instructions) to describe their missions to other ATO-SPINS recipients.

defensive measures to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorism.

area defense--
denying the enemy access to designated terrain for a specific time to retain ground using a combination of defensive positions and small, mobile reserves.

area of operations--
a geographical area assigned to an Army commander by a higher commander. An AO has lateral and rear boundaries that usually define it within a larger joint geographical area.

armed helicopter--
a helicopter fitted with weapons or weapon systems.

Army force--
that force provided by the Army service component to the subordinate joint force commander for the conduct of joint operations.

Army service component commander--
the commander of the Army service component command assigned to the theater combatant commander who provides forces and support to subordinate joint force commanders. The ASCC is responsible for preparing; maintaining, training; equipping; administering; and supporting Army forces assigned to unified and specified commands. The ASCC normally advises the combatant or subordinate unified commander on the proper employment of the forces of the Army component. The ASCC is normally not a part of the joint force staff.

to place units or personnel in an organization in which such placement is relatively permanent and/or in which such an organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function or greater portion of the functions of the unit or personnel.

to place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. Subject to limitations imposed in the attachment order, the commander of the formation, unit, or organization receiving the attachment will exercise the same degree of command and control over them as he does over the units and persons organic to his command. However, the responsibility for transfer and promotion of personnel will normally be retained by the parent formation, unit, or organization.

attack helicopter--
a helicopter designed to search out, attack, and destroy enemy targets.

aviation maneuver forces--
aviation maneuver units that operate in the ground environment. They engage targets by fire from covered and concealed positions. Their operations are similar to ground maneuver operations in that they tailor their movement to the terrain and use supporting fires. These units are integrated into the tactical plan of the ground force commander. They can control terrain by denying the enemy its use by direct aerial fire for limited periods of time.

battle command--
the art of battle decision making, leading, and motivating soldiers and their organizations into action to accomplish missions. Includes visualizing current state and future state, then formulating concepts of operations to get from one to the other at least cost. Also includes assigning missions; prioritizing and allocating resources; selecting the critical time and place to act; and knowing how and when to make adjustments during the fight.

battle damage assessment--
the process of determining the essential tactical reconstitution requirements for an attrited unit; the process of determining the combat effectiveness of the enemy after engagement by friendly force.

battlefield framework--
an area of geographical and operational responsibility established by the commander; it provides a way to visualize how he will employ his forces; it helps him relate his forces to one another and to the enemy in time, space, and purpose.

battlefield operating systems--
the major functions performed by the force on the battlefield to successfully execute Army operations (battles and engagements) to accomplish military objectives directed by the operational commander; they include maneuver, fire support, air defense, command and control, intelligence, mobility and survivability, and combat service support.

battle space--
components determined by the maximum capabilities of a unit to acquire and dominate the enemy; includes areas beyond the AO; it varies over time according to how the commander positions his assets.

cargo (transport) helicopter--
a helicopter designed and employed primarily for movement of passengers/cargo.

close support--
the action of the supporting force against targets or objectives that are sufficiently near the supported force to require detailed integration or coordination of the supporting action with the fire, movement, or other actions of the supported force.

combat maneuver forces--
forces that use fire and movement to engage the enemy with direct fire weapon systems, as distinguished from forces that engage the enemy with indirect fires or otherwise provide combat support. These maneuver elements are primarily infantry, armor, cavalry (air and armored), and aviation.

combat service support--
the focus of logistics at the tactical level of war; the synchronization of essential functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain soldiers and their weapon systems in an area of operations; includes but is not limited to that support rendered by service support troops to arm, fuel, fix, move, man, and sustain soldiers and their equipment.

combat support--
fire support and operational assistance provided to combat elements. Artillery, air defense artillery, engineer, military police, signal, military intelligence, chemical, and aviation all provide CS.

combatting terrorism--
actions--including antiterrorism (defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism)--taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum.

combined arms--
application of several arms, such as infantry, armor, artillery, and aviation.

combined arms team--
two or more arms mutually supporting one another. A team can consist of armor, infantry, cavalry, aviation, field artillery, air defense artillery, and engineers.

commander's intent--
a concise expression of the purpose of an operation, a description of the desired end state, and the way in which the posture of that goal facilitates transition to future operations.

communications zone--
the rear part of the theater of war or theater of operations that contains the lines of communications, theater logistics bases, forward operating bases, and other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of the field forces; extends back to the CONUS base.

the state characterized by confrontation and the need to engage in hostilities to secure strategic objectives.

an attack with a reserve or lightly committed forward element that is launched after the enemy begins its attack, after the commander has identified the enemy's effort, or when a resolute defense creates an assailable enemy flank.

the point in time and space when the attacker's combat power no longer exceeds that of the defender or when the defender no longer has the capability to defend successfully.

decisive force--
applying overwhelming forces to fight and win quickly with minimum casualties.

decisive point--
a point, usually geographical in nature, that, when retained, provides a commander with a marked advantage over his opponent. Decisive points could also include other physical elements such as enemy formations, command posts, and communications nodes.

deep operations--
operations designed in depth to secure advantages in later engagements; protect the current close fight; and defeat the enemy more rapidly--by denying freedom of action and disrupting, or destroying, the coherence and tempo of its operations.

deliberate attack--
fully synchronized operations that employ the effects of every available asset against the enemy's defense.

the act of returning the force and materiel to a premobilization posture or to some other approved posture; also involves returning the mobilized portion of the industrial base to peacetime conditions.

a show of force in an area where a decision is not sought, made with the aim of deceiving the enemy as to the true intentions of the attack.

the relocation of forces to desired areas of operations; the movement of forces within areas of operations.

direct support--
(DOD)--a mission requiring a force to support another specific force and authorizing it to answer directly the supported force's request for assistance. (NATO)--the support provided by a unit or formation not attached or under command of the supported unit or formation but required to give priority to the support required by that unit or formation.

fundamental principles by which the military forces, or elements thereof, guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application. (NATO)--fundamental principles by which the military forces guide their actions in support of objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application.

electronic warfare--
military actions including a. electronic attack--the use of either electromagnetic or directed energy to degrade, neutralize, or destroy an enemy's combat capability; b. electronic protection--those actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare; c. electronic warfare support--those actions tasked by an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition.

small, tactical conflicts, usually between opposing maneuver forces.

an offensive maneuver in which the main attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive positions to secure objectives in the enemy's rear.

the attacker's extension of destruction of the defending force by maintaining offensive pressure.

a spoiling attack designed to divert the enemy's attention from the main effort.

fire support--
assistance to those elements of the ground forces that close with the enemy, such as infantry and armor units, rendered by delivering artillery and mortar fire, naval gunfire, and close air support. Fire support may also be provided by tanks, air defense artillery, and armed helicopters.

forward air controller--
A member of the TACP who, from a ground or airborne position, controls aircraft engaged in CAS of ground forces.

the employment of friendly weapons and munitions with the intent to kill the enemy or destroy his equipment or facilities, which results in unforeseen and unintentional death or injury to friendly personnel.

general support--
that support given to the supported force as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof.

general support--reinforcing--
a tactical artillery mission. GS-R is not used by aviation forces.

hasty attack--
result of a meeting engagement--launched with the forces at hand and with minimum preparation to destroy the enemy before he is able to concentrate or establish a defense.

health services--
the logistical function of promoting, improving, conserving, or restoring the mental or physical well being of military personnel.

high-payoff target--
high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, would contribute substantially to the success of friendly plans.

high-value target--
a target whose loss to the enemy can be expected to contribute to substantial degradation of an important battlefield function.

host nation support--
civil and/or military assistance rendered by a nation to foreign forces within its territory during peacetime, times of crisis, emergencies, or war; assistance provided during war is based upon agreements mutually concluded between nations.

humanitarian assistance--
assistance provided by DOD forces, as directed by appropriate authority, in the aftermath of natural or man-made disasters to help reduce conditions that present a serious threat to life and property; assistance provided by US forces is limited in scope and duration and is designed to supplement efforts of civilian authorities who have primary responsibility for providing such assistance.

identification friend or foe--
a system using electromagnetic transmissions to which equipment carried by friendly forces automatically responds: for example, by emitting pulses thereby allowing friendly forces to be distinguished from enemy forces.

the ability to set or change the terms of battle; implies an offensive spirit.

the product resulting from collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas.

A systematic and continuous process which describes the tactical environment and the effects of that environment on operations and what the enemy can accomplish.

actions to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy before it can affect friendly forces.

The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces and to use the exchanged services to enable them to operate effectively together.

connotes activities, operations, and organizations in which elements of more than one service of the same nation participate.

joint task force--
a force composed of assigned or attached elements of two or more services and constituted by appropriate authority for a specific or limited purpose or missions of short duration.

lines of communication--
All the routes (land, water, and air) that connect an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and military forces move.

the process of planning and executing the movement and sustainment of forces in the execution of military operations. Logistics includes the design, development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel; the acquisition, preparation, maintenance, equipping, movement, and health support of personnel; the acquisition or furnishing of services; and the acquisition, construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities. Logistics is an overarching function that must encompass the range of military operations. At the tactical level, logistics focuses on the traditional CSS functions of arming, fixing, fueling, manning, moving, and sustaining soldiers.

logistics-over-the-shore operations--
the loading and unloading of ships without the benefit of fixed port facilities.

the movement of forces supported by fire to achieve a position of advantage from which to destroy or threaten destruction of the enemy.

mobile defense--
employing a combination of fire and maneuver, offense, defense, and delay to destroy the enemy and defeat his attack.

the process by which the Armed Forces, or a portion thereof, is brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency; includes activating all or part of the RC, as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel.

modular units--
units comprised of multiple capabilities; depending on the requirement, modules can be added or subtracted from the unit or force package.

multinational operations--
An operation conducted by forces of two or more allied nations acting together to accomplish a single mission.

nation assistance--
diplomatic, economic, informational, and military cooperation between the US and the government of another nation, with the objective of promoting internal development and the growth of sustainable institutions within that nation. This corrects conditions that cause human suffering and improves the quality of life of the nation's people.

NBC defense--
the methods, plans, procedures, and training for defense against the effects of an attack by NBC weapons. The term may not be used in the context of US offensive operations.

noncombatant evacuation operations--
operations that relocate threatened civilian noncombatants from locations in a foreign country or host nation. These operations normally involve US citizens whose lives are in danger. They may also include selected host nation natives and third country nationals.

observation helicopter--
helicopter used primarily for observation and reconnaissance but which may be used for other roles.

operational control--
the authority delegated to a commander to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks that are usually limited by function, time, or location; to deploy units concerned and to retain or assign tactical control of those units. It does not include authority to assign separate employment of components of the units concerned. Nor does it, of itself, include administrative or logistical control.

operational operating systems--
the major functions performed by joint and combined operations forces to successfully execute campaigns and major operations in a theater or area of operations; these systems include movement and maneuver, fires, intelligence, protection, command and control and support.

operations in-depth--
the totality of the commander's operations against the enemy--composed of deep, close, and rear operations that are usually conducted simultaneously in a manner that appears as one continuous operation against the enemy.

assigned to and forming an essential part of a military organization; an element normally shown in the unit's table of organization and equipment.

1. Teams dropped or airlanded at an objective to establish and operate navigational aids to guide aircraft to drop zones/landing zones. 2. Teams air-delivered into enemy territory for determining the best approach and withdraw lanes, landing zones, and sites for heliborne forces.

peace building--
postconflict diplomatic and military action to identify and support structures that tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avoid a relapse into combat.

peace enforcement--
military intervention to forcefully restore peace between belligerents who may be engaged in combat.

operations using military forces and/or civilian personnel, at the request of the parties to a dispute, to help supervise a cease-fire agreement and/or separate the parties.

the diplomatic process or military actions to gain an end to disputes.

power projection--
the ability of the nation to apply all or some of the instruments of national power--diplomatic, economic, informational, or military--to respond to crisis, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability.

priority of support--
priorities set by the commander in his concept of the operation and during execution to ensure that combat support and combat service support are provided to subordinate elements in accordance with their relative importance to accomplishing the mission.

an attack with the purpose of annihilating the enemy once his resistance has broken down completely and he is fleeing the battlefield.

a limited-objective attack into enemy territory not for the specific purpose of gaining and holding ground.

rear operations--
operations that assist in providing freedom of action and continuity of operations, logistics, and battle command. Their primary purposes are to sustain the current close and deep fights and to posture the force for further operations.

a mission undertaken to obtain information by visual observation or other detection methods about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy or about the meteorologic, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area.

at the strategic level, those functions and activities required to restore the Army's capability to respond to any mission across the full range of possible operations. At the operational and tactical levels, reconstitution consists of extraordinary actions that commanders plan and implement to restore units to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and available resources.

in artillery usage, a tactical mission in which one artillery unit augments the fire of another artillery unit. Reinforcing is not used by aviation forces.

retrograde operation--
a maneuver to the rear or away from the enemy to improve a situation or prevent a worse situation from occurring.

risk management--
the process of detecting, assessing, and controlling risk arising from operational factors and making decisions that balance risk costs with mission benefits.

rules of engagement--
directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which US forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other encountered forces.

security assistance--
groups of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives.

split-based logistics--
dividing logistics management functions so that only those functions absolutely necessary are deployed, allowing some management functions to be accomplished from CONUS or another theater.

spoiling attack--
an attack from a defensive posture to disrupt an expected enemy attack. A spoiling attack attempts to strike the enemy while he is most vulnerable during his preparations for attack in assembly areas and attack positions--or while he is on the move before crossing the line of departure.

stability and support operations--
military activities during peacetime and conflict that do not necessarily involve armed clashes between two organized forces.

strategic mobility--
transportation actions using national assets, both military and civilian, in support of a force-projection mission.

(DOD)--the action of a force that aids, protects, complements, or sustains another force in accordance with a directive requiring such action. (NATO)--The action of a force--or portion thereof--that aids, protects, complements, or sustains any other force.

supporting attack--
an attack designed to hold the enemy in position, to conceal the location of the main attack, to prevent him from reinforcing the elements opposing the main effort, and/or to cause him to commit his reserves prematurely at an indecisive location.

supporting fire--
fire delivered by supporting units to assist or protect a unit in combat.

supporting forces--
forces stationed in, or to be deployed to, an area of operations to provide support for the execution of an operation order. Operational command of supporting forces is not passed to the supported commander.

the systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface area, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means.

the ability to focus resources and activities in time and space to produce maximum relative combat power at the decisive point.

tactical air control party--
advises and assists the commander, requests and coordinates tactical air support, and meets other requirements of the individual force echelon support. The TACP consists of experienced personnel; ground/airborne vehicles; and the communications equipment required to obtain, coordinate, and control tactical air support of ground operations.

tactical combat forces--
those forces the commander assigns the mission of defeating enemy airborne, air assault, amphibious, or ground-infiltration attacks in the rear area.

Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities--
a program of the Army Space Program Office with the charter: To exploit the current and future tactical potential of nation space systems and integrate the capabilities into the Army's tactical decision making progess as rapidly as possible. National space systems make available near real time imagery intelligence (NRT IMINT) and near real time signals intelligence (NRT SIGINT) derived from national level sources to Army commanders. National space systems at the division echelon include equipment such as the mobile integrated tactical terminal (MITT).

the art and science of employing available means to win battles and engagements.

the rate of military action; controlling or altering that rate is a necessary means to initiative; all military operations alternate between action and pauses as opposing forces battle one another and fight friction to mount and execute operations at the time and place of their choosing.

a basic truth held by an organization; the fundamental tenets of Army operations doctrine describe the characteristics of successful operations.

terrain flight--
the tactic of employing helicopters to use the terrain's vegetation and man-made objects to degrade the enemy's ability to visually, optically, or electronically detect or locate the helicopter. This tactic involves a constant awareness of the capabilities and positions of enemy weapons and detection means in relation to available masking terrain features and flight routes. Terrain flying involves flight close to the earth's surface and includes the tactical application of low-level, contour, and nap-of-the-earth flight techniques.

utility helicopter--
a multipurpose helicopter capable of lifting troops but which may be used in command and control, logistics, casualty evacuation, or armed helicopter roles.

the ability of units to meet diverse challenges, shift focus, tailor forces, and move from one role or mission to another rapidly and efficiently.

a state of open and declared armed hostile conflict between political units such as states or nations; may be limited or general in nature.

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