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Lesson 2

CONDUCT COMPANY/COMPANY TEAM DEFENSIVE OPERATION

OVERVIEW

Lesson Description:

In this lesson you will learn to conduct company/company team defensive operation.

Terminal Learning Objective:

Action:

Identify how to conduct a company/company team delay or withdrawal under enemy pressure, conduct a company/company team withdrawal not under enemy pressure, and consolidate and reorganize following enemy contact.

   
Condition: Given the subcourse material contained in this lesson.
   
Standard: The student will demonstrate his comprehension and knowledge by identifying how to conduct a company/company team delay or withdrawal under enemy pressure, conduct a company/company team withdrawal not under enemy pressure, and consolidate and reorganize following enemy contact.
   
References: The material in this lesson was derived from the following publications:
   
  FM 7-10.
FM 71-1.

PART A - CONDUCT A COMPANY/COMPANY TEAM DELAY OR
WITHDRAWAL UNDER ENEMY PRESSURE

1.    General.

In a withdrawal, your company disengages from the enemy and repositions for some other mission. That mission may be to delay the enemy, to defend another position, or to attack some place else.

A withdrawal under pressure is conducted when a battalion is directed to withdraw from its sector or is forced from its defensive positions by the enemy. The battalion may move to another position to continue the defense or disengage and move elsewhere for another mission. Your company team will not normally be permitted to withdraw based solely on judgment. You must either receive permission to withdraw from the battalion task force commander or S3 (by radio, pyrotechnics, or face to face), or you must use an event-oriented plan from the task force. The order instructs you to begin disengaging when the enemy reaches a certain location, appears in a certain formation, or appears at a certain location in a certain strength. It can be given in a commander's briefback communication and must be sufficiently detailed to prevent premature movement and loss of tactical advantage. In your planning you must consider certain factors. You must maintain security. Obstacles, fires, and reconnoitered routes must be used to achieve mobility advantages. If possible, the withdrawal should be conducted during night or other limited visibility periods. Friendly smoke should be used to hide movement. All available indirect fires, CAS, and attack helicopters must be concentrated on the enemy. Overwatch must be provided by direct fire weapons to keep pressure off the withdrawing forces. Each company tries to disengage from the enemy by fire and maneuver to the rear. Once a company has disengaged and moved to the rear of its original position, the battalion commander directs what it is to do next. This may include covering the rearward movement of other companies, occupying a new defensive position, or moving to perform another mission.

There is usually no time to make detailed plans and/or rehearse a withdrawal under pressure. You plan quickly and give a FRAGO. If your company team is withdrawing with assistance, the assisting force will provide overwatch (if necessary) to allow the company to move. If withdrawing without assistance, the company team will provide its own overwatch. When withdrawing under enemy pressure, the company team will use the techniques and considerations for the delay. The technique or method used by the company team commander depends on his evaluation of the factors of METT-T. A company SOP for withdrawals under pressure can help eliminate lengthy orders.

2.    Sequence of Withdrawal.

You control the sequence in which your platoons withdraw. Your decision on which to withdraw first is usually based on where the enemy attacks and how heavily each platoon is engaged. Once the battalion commander directs your company to withdraw, you normally withdraw your least heavily engaged platoon first (Figure 2-1). You usually direct that platoon to disengage and move into a position where it can overwatch the disengagement of the more heavily engaged platoons. The platoons then change roles and leapfrog the rear using fire and maneuver.

Figure 2-1. Withdrawal Under Pressure.

At some point in this action, your company can stop fire and maneuver and begin moving by bounding overwatch (to the rear). This occurs when the company is no longer under enemy direct fire or when another company is covering its move. Once disengagement is complete, the company moves as directed by the battalion commander.

3.    Passage of lines.

If your withdrawing company is to pass through a friendly unit to its rear, you send a quartering party to coordinate with that unit. The quartering party arranges for recognition signals, communications, contact points, passage points, passage lanes, assembly areas, guides, traffic controls, fire support, combat service support, and the procedure for how and when the stationary unit will assume the responsibility for the fight (Figure 2-2).

Figure 2-2. Passage of Lines.

4.    Delays.

The intent of a delay is to slow the enemy, cause enemy casualties, and stop him without becoming decisively engaged. This is done by defending, disengaging, moving, and defending again. Companies do not conduct delays independently. They fight as part of their battalion. The company may delay in sector or from delay (battle) positions.

Mission. The battalion commander normally assigns the company the mission to delay in sector when:

o   The primary threat is infantry.
o   The battalion sector cannot be adequately covered from one position.
o   There are multiple enemy avenues of approach.
o   The battalion sector is extremely wide.
o   The battalion is delaying in armor restricted areas to canalize.

The battalion commander may assign a company a sector in which to delay, one or more delay lines and set a time on each delay line. This means the company must keep the enemy forward of each line until the time set for that line.

Planning and Executing. A delaying action is characterized by operations on a wide front with maximum forces in contact and minimum forces in reserve. In the delay, the company team must maintain enemy contact and closely coordinate flank security. This will ensure that the enemy does not bypass or envelop elements of the delaying force or penetrate and prevent the delaying mission. In planning the delay the following must be considered:

o   Make maximum use of terrain
o   Force the enemy to deploy and maneuver
o   Make maximum use of obstacles
o   Maintain contact with the enemy
o   Avoid decisive engagement

Make Maximum Use of Terrain. Delaying forces use all terrain features that will help delay the enemy. When battle positions must be used, they should be located on terrain that controls likely enemy avenues of approach.

Force the Enemy to Deploy and Maneuver. Use terrain to exploit firepower. Engage the enemy at the maximum range of all weapons. You may be able to trap the enemy if he moves within close range. This causes the enemy to take time consuming measures to deploy, develop the situation, and maneuver to drive the delaying force from its position. Repeated use of this technique will slow the forward progress of the enemy and will trade space for time.

Make Maximum Use of Obstacles. Use man-made and natural obstacles to canalize and slow enemy progress, and provide security to the flanks. To be effective, obstacles must be covered by observation and fire.

Maintain Contact with the Enemy. Conduct continuous reconnaissance to establish and maintain contact with the enemy. Maintaining enemy contact requires visual observation of the enemy, observation and correction of fires, and freedom of maneuver to avoid decisive engagement or to break contact on order. Enemy forces with freedom of maneuver and mobility will try to bypass or envelop the flanks, or penetrate between units conducting the delay. To prevent penetration or envelopment, maintain contact with the enemy forces.

Avoid Decisive Engagement. In a delay, occupy positions long enough to force the enemy to deploy; then, develop the situation and maneuver to attack each position. A delaying force moves to the next delaying position before becoming decisively engaged. If it remains in position as the enemy launches his attack, it will become decisively engaged, the mission will fail, and the unit will sustain unnecessary losses.

5.    Types of Delay.

The types of delay are outlined below:

Delay in Sector. The company commander selects initial and subsequent delay positions for his platoons (Figure 2-3). He defends and withdraws by platoons, leap frogging them to the rear. Delay positions should have long-range fields of fire to the front and covered withdrawal routes to the rear.

Figure 2-3. Company Delay in Sector.

Delay from Delay Positions. The battalion commander normally assigns the company the mission to delay from delay positions (Figure 2-4), when:

o   The primary threat is armor or motorized units.

o   The battalion is delaying in an armor-restrictive area where the enemy can be canalized into selected areas.

o   Terrain is available that dominates armor avenues of approach, or the battalion sector is narrow.

Figure 2-4. Delay from Delay (battle) Positions.

The battalion commander assigns the company a series of delay positions from which to delay. The company moves from one delay position to another as directed by the battalion commander. The initial delay position is where most of the position preparation is made and where the commander normally wants to hold out the longest.

If a delay is conducted over a long distance, delay in sector or delay from delay positions may be used. The company commander picks the platoon positions and the routes to them. If there is terrain that is defendable forward of a delay line (set by the battalion commander), the company commander may decide to defend there for the required time stated for that line. (See Figure 2-5). The company's fires are supplemented by supporting fires, smoke, minefields, and obstacles in both types of delays. The company commander must make maximum use of his engineers.

Figure 2-5. Company Delay Forward of a Specified Line for a Specified Time.

The company commander will send a quartering party out on both types of delays to reconnoiter routes, positions for machine guns, Dragons, TOWs, and mortars. The quartering party may also guide the arriving units into their positions, stockpile supplies, water, and ammunition at each position. The quartering party will also coordinate with any units to the rear of the company when a passage of lines is conducted.

The battalion commander controls the conduct of the delay when delaying from delay (battle) positions. The company commander controls the conduct of the delay when delaying in sector. However, the battalion commander can impose certain restraints on the company's rearward movement by assigning delay lines and times for each line. If all means of communication is lost with the battalion, the company commander may withdraw on his own if he has delayed for the required time or if his company is seriously endangered. He must use every means available to tell the battalion commander of the action he has taken. If a platoon loses communication with the company commander, its leader must use his best judgement and withdraws according to the company plan or when seriously endangered. The platoon leader must find a way to inform the company commander of his actions.

The battalion commander and company commander, and the platoon leaders should reconnoiter positions and routes as much as possible before the delay begins. The battalion commander normally gives the company commanders:

o   The battalion task organization.

o   Their initial delay positions.

o   His plans for conducting the defenses, disengagements and movements.

o   Either a sector or delay position.

o   The location of the company assembly areas (AAs) (if used).

o   General routes to follow from position to position (when delaying from delay positions).

o   Instructions about the quartering party (if used).

o   Any special instructions concerning the control of the TOWs and mortars, and the movement of company vehicles.

o   Priorities for efforts of the supporting engineers.

The company commander will give his platoon leaders basically the same information with a few additions:

o   Their initial delay positions to defend.

o   Subsequent positions to the rear.

o   The location of the platoon AAs (when used).

o   Instructions on the movement of supplies, equipment, and vehicles.

6.    Methods of Conducting a Delay.

The methods of conducting a delay are discussed below:

Delay from Successive Positions or Phase Lines. This method is used when the mission requires covering a wide sector or avenue of approach, and all or most of the forces must be deployed forward to cover the area. This method is also used when the terrain will not allow placing depth in the delay (Figure 2-6).

Figure 2-6. Delay from Successive Positions.

As the battle progresses, the company team fights from phase line to phase line (front to rear). The platoons disengage separately from one phase line or battle position to the next while the remaining platoons provide overwatch. The situation may force the entire company team to disengage simultaneously. If enemy forces move more quickly than expected, the possibility of becoming decisively engaged increases. Bounding within platoons is necessary when the terrain restricts the platoons' ability to provide security for one another.

Delay from Alternate Positions. When the area is deep, and narrow enough to be covered by one or two platoons, more depth and security can be achieved by delaying from alternate positions (Figure 2-7). This is generally a leapfrog maneuver and does not usually allow all the forces to place all weapon systems on the enemy at one time. It is more difficult to control because platoons are moving and fighting simultaneously. However, platoons have more time to establish elements in the next positions because other platoons are fighting and providing security.

Figure 2-7. Delay from Alternate Positions.

7.    Special Planning Considerations.

While the following considerations are part of the defensive planning process, they take on added importance during planning for the delay.

o   Rivers, defiles, chokepoints, or gaps that must be crossed during the delay must be given priority during your planning phase. Existing crossing sites must be protected to prevent your company team from being cut off if the enemy is able to bypass or break through. If crossing sites do not exist, engineers may prepare them. An element to guard the site should be posted to protect it after the site is prepared.

o   Delay operations are often more decentrally executed than other defense missions. Because the company team must gain an advantage to be successful, reconnaissance and the rehearsal of movements is critical. It is even more important because of the speed and depth of maneuver and less responsive supporting fires will be available.

o   Your company team's chemical detection and radiological monitoring and survey team should be sent to subsequent battle positions to check for contamination. You may choose to use the alternate position method of delay in sector to allow for partial decontamination. However, mission accomplishment is the primary consideration.

o   Your company team combat trains are located on the next subsequent delay position to ensure continuous support.

o   The company team field trains remain co-located with the battalion task force field trains.

o   Engineers can support a delaying force by preserving battlefield mobility while providing countermobility in depth.

o   Other assets you may find available to you on the battlefield that require planning considerations are ADA, short-range air defense (SHORAD) and GSR.

You must also consider the time required to move to the next subsequent position, the amount of time the unit has been in a chemically contaminated or radioactive area, and alternate means of communications, both audio and visual, to be used in the event that radio communications is disrupted.

8.    Summary.

This concludes the discussions on conducting a withdrawal under enemy pressure, and conducting a delay. We covered the sequence of withdrawal and how you control the sequence and elements of a passage of lines when your company must pass through a friendly unit to its rear. We also covered delays including the types of delays and the methods of conducting a delay. We will now cover the conduct of a company/company team withdrawal not under enemy pressure, and a relief.

PART B - CONDUCT A COMPANY/COMPANY TEAM WITHDRAWAL
NOT UNDER ENEMY PRESSURE AND A RELIEF

1.    General.

In a withdrawal not under pressure, your company disengages and moves to its rear while the enemy is not attacking. The company must be ready to fight its way to the rear or to resume the defense should the enemy attack.

A withdrawal not under pressure is conducted with secrecy and deception. It is best done at night or during other periods of limited visibility (fog, snow, rain, or smoke). Usually, all platoons move to the rear at the same time. However, your company leaves an element called a detachment left in contact (DLIC) which is part of the battalion DLIC to cover the withdrawal by deception and by fire and maneuver when required.

2.    Detachment Left in Contact (DLIC).

The size, composition, and mission of the battalion DLIC are directed by the battalion commander. He will also designate the battalion DLIC commander, normally the battalion XO, the combat support company commander, or one of the rifle company commanders.

The battalion commander may decide to leave one company as the battalion DLIC or have each company leave a company DLIC. The three company DLICs make up the battalion DLIC.

The size, composition, and mission of the company DLIC are directed by you. You also designate the DLIC commander, normally the company XO or a platoon leader.

If your company is selected as the battalion DLIC, you must reposition platoons and weapons to cover the battalion's withdrawal. This normally includes repositioning a platoon in each of the other company positions to cover the most dangerous avenue of approach into those positions, and repositioning weapons to cover the most dangerous avenue of approach into the battalion's sector. As a rule, the DLIC company is reinforced by about half of the battalion's TOWs, mortars, Redeyes, tanks, and GSRs.

If your company is directed to have a company DLIC (part of the battalion DLIC), it normally consists of one-third of the company's rifle strength (one platoon) and half of the company's support weapons (one TOW and two mortars). You may, however, have each platoon leave a platoon DLIC. The three platoon DLICs make up the company DLIC.

If you select a platoon as the company DLIC, the platoon leader repositions squads and weapons to cover the company's withdrawal. This normally includes repositioning a squad in each of the other platoon positions to cover the most dangerous avenue of approach into that position, and repositioning weapons to cover the most dangerous avenues of approach into the company's position.

If each platoon is to have a DLIC (part of the company DLIC), each platoon leader leaves one-third of his rifle strength (one squad) and half of his key weapons (one machine gun and two Dragons). The platoon DLIC leader is normally the squad leader of the squad left in position. When the withdrawal starts, each platoon DLIC comes under the control of the company DLIC commander.

The DLIC, whether the battalion's or company's, strives to conceal the withdrawal and deceive the enemy by continuing the normal operating patterns of the unit. If the enemy attacks during the withdrawal, the DLIC covers the withdrawal by fire. Once the main body is at its next position or a designated distance or time from the old position, the DLIC commander orders the withdrawal of the DLIC. These orders should be given by telephone or codeword over the radio. The DLIC withdraws using the same basic plan as the main body used. If under attack, the DLIC may have to conduct fire and maneuver to the rear until contact is broken and then assemble to move to the rear.

3.    Quartering Party.

The battalion commander may send a quartering party to the next position before the withdrawal starts. This party is normally made up of battalion headquarters personnel, and representatives from each company (company quartering parties). Company representatives (under the control of your XO are usually your company XO, first sergeant (1SG), company headquarters personnel, platoon sergeants, and a guide for each squad.

When the company's quartering party reaches the next position, its members reconnoiter and, as appropriate, pick positions, sectors, routes, and OPs for the company. When the company arrives, the squad guides meet and guide their squads into position. The platoon sergeants meet and brief the platoon leaders on the positions and any other important information. The XO and 1SG meet and brief you.

4.    Planning.

The battalion commander normally tells you and the other company commanders:

o   when the withdrawal will start;

o   where the battalion assembly area is (if used) and what each company is to do upon arrival in it;

o   where each company assembly area is;

o   what routes to take from the company assembly areas to the battalion assembly area or next position including passage of lines;

o   the size, composition, mission, and commander of the battalion DLIC;

o   upcoming battalion and company missions;

o   when to move company vehicles to the rear; and

o   any special instructions on the control of TOWs and mortars.

Based on the information received from the battalion commander, you plan for and tell your platoon leaders, XO, and 1SG:

o   when the withdrawal will start;

o   where the company assembly area is and what each platoon is to do upon arrival in it;

o   where each platoon assembly area is;

o   what routes to take from the platoon assembly areas to the company assembly area;

o   the size, composition, mission, and commander of the company DLIC;

o   upcoming company and platoon missions;

o   when to move company vehicles to the rear; and

o   any special instructions on the control of TOWs and mortars.

If the company DLIC is to occupy the OPs and positions of the other companies, the company commanders concerned coordinate the time and sequence of the changeover. The changeover must occur at the designated time and before the companies begin their withdrawals.

The DLIC FSO chief obtains the consolidated battalion fire plan from the FSO, and coordinates all indirect fire for the DLIC. In some cases, however, the FSO may remain with the DLIC.

5.    Conduct of the Withdrawal.

Before the withdrawal starts, all company vehicles and equipment not needed for the withdrawal are moved to the rear. They may be moved to the next position or to an assembly area where they will linkup with the company. Your mortars are also moved to a position from which they can support the withdrawal. Several positions may be assigned to the mortars along the withdrawal route to allow continuous coverage.

At the time specified in the battalion order, the withdrawal begins. Soldiers move from their fighting positions to their squad's assembly area, and the squads then move to their platoon's assembly area. The platoons then move to the company assembly area. When all personnel and equipment are accounted for, your company moves as directed by the battalion commander. The complete move is characterized by stealth and secrecy.

When the battalion's main body is at a predesignated location, after a predesignated length of time, or on command from the battalion commander, the DLIC withdraws. It follows the same basic plan as the main body used.

6.    Relief in Place

In a relief in place, a deployed force is replaced by another unit which assumes the mission of the outgoing unit. The tactical situation will dictate whether the relief will be conducted during daylight hours or during periods of limited visibility. The preferred time to conduct a relief is at night. Before the relief operation, the incoming unit moves to a planned assembly area behind the unit being relieved. There are four methods of conducting a relief in place which apply to the company team as part of the battalion task force and to platoons as part of the company team. These methods are: one element at a time, all elements simultaneously, center platoon first followed by flank platoons simultaneously, and flank platoons simultaneously followed by the center.

The primary purpose for conducting a relief in place is to maintain the combat effectiveness of committed elements. Additional reasons for conducting a relief in place are:

o   Replace a unit when it has taken heavy losses.

o   Introduce a new unit to combat.

o   Rest a unit due to prolonged operations.

o   Replace a unit for medical treatment or decontamination due to nuclear or chemical contamination.

o   Conform to a larger tactical plan.

7.    Planning Considerations.

You must consider the following items in developing your plan:

o   Use an advance party.

o   Reconnoiter at the lowest level possible.

o   Plan as much detail as possible.

o   Assume the outgoing unit's normal patterns of activity as much as possible.

o   METT-T.

o   When you will be responsible for the position (normally when the majority of forces in the position are yours).

o   Plan to locate your command post with the relieved unit's command post.

o   Avoid actions that may lead to detection.

o   Maximize security.

o   Relieve combat support elements after infantry and tanks.

o   Transfer excess ammunition, wire lines, POL, and material to the incoming unit.

Prior to conducting the relief, the incoming and outgoing company teams must exchange certain items of information. These items must be included in your planning. This information must include but is not limited to:

o   Location of individual vehicle and infantry fighting positions.

o   Location of the commanders.

o   The enemy situation.

o   The outgoing company team's plan. This includes the scheme of maneuver, the fire plan for direct and indirect fires, patrol routes, OP locations, locations of sensors, and counterattack plans.

o   Types of weapon systems of the unit being relieved.

o   The time, sequence, and method of relief.

o   The location, disposition, and transfer responsibility for obstacles.

o   Transfer of excess supplies (ammunition, communication wire, POL, etc.).

o   Exchange of equipment.

o   Movement control.

o   Communications-Electronics Operations Instructions (CEOI) information. Both units will be on the outgoing unit's radio net.

You must also consider the following items for movement control:

o   Reconnoiter and designate routes into and out of positions.

o   Traffic control and designation of assembly areas for outgoing units.

o   Ensure guides are provided for the incoming unit.

o   Maximize use of organic transportation assets.

8.    Conduct of the Relief.

You as incoming company team commander, must reconnoiter the area as you would for any defensive mission. The leaders must reconnoiter each position and check sketch/range cards and siting and positions of weapons. Your incoming command group sets up in close proximity to the outgoing command group. You and the outgoing commander must coordinate details and agree upon procedures. Your company team occupies positions of the outgoing company team until all of your company team are in position. At this time you may adjust unit dispositions. The outgoing unit normally provides fire support until responsibility for the area passes, usually when the majority of the combat forces belong to the relieving unit. Until such adjustments are made, your incoming unit uses the sketch/range cards, positions, and fire plan of the outgoing unit.

Company teams conduct the relief on forward positions by using one of several techniques. The relieving platoons occupy hide positions and move into the forward fighting positions as relieved elements begin to withdraw to subsequent positions.

Your company team can relieve elements one at a time (Figure 2-8). This is the most time-consuming method. Company team command posts and combat trains co-locate to facilitate the relief and transfer of equipment, excess ammunition, fuel, water, and medical supplies. Platoons relieve each other one at a time. The relieving platoon moves to the relieved platoon. The relief in place occurs at tank and squad level with the relieved squads and tanks going to a platoon assembly area then to a company assembly area. Once a relieved platoon clears a specified point, (release point (RP)), another relieving platoon starts to move to its relieved platoon's location.

Figure 2-8. Sequential Relief in Place.

The fastest method is to relieve elements simultaneously (Figure 2-9). This method sacrifices security because all units move at one time. The command groups and combat trains co-locate and exchange plans and equipment. The relieving platoons move along designated routes and relieve the other platoons simultaneously. The relieved elements withdraw immediately once they are relieved.

Figure 2-9. Simultaneous Relief in Place.

If speed and security are of equal importance, the relief in place is conducted starting with the center platoon followed by the flank platoons simultaneously. Or the flank platoons could be relieved simultaneously followed by the center platoon.

9.    Summary.

This concludes the discussions on conducting a withdrawal not under enemy pressure and a relief. We covered designation and control of the DLIC, duties and responsibilities of the quartering party, and planning and conduct of the withdrawal. We then covered a relief in place. It was stated that the primary purpose for conducting a relief in place was to maintain the combat effectiveness of committed elements. The planning considerations and the conduct of the relief were also covered. We will now discuss consolidation and reorganization following enemy contact.

PART C - CONSOLIDATE AND REORGANIZE
FOLLOWING ENEMY CONTACT

1.    General.

Throughout the conduct of the defense, the platoon leaders keep you informed of their situation. You must keep the battalion commander informed of the company's situation.

If the enemy is repelled, OPs are established again and patrols may be sent forward to maintain enemy contact. Indirect fire is called on areas where the enemy is likely to regroup. The company reorganizes and prepares for another enemy attack.

2.    Consolidation and Reorganization.

To prepare for the next attack, you ensure that the squad and platoon leaders accomplish the following:

o   Replace key men lost during the fight.

o   Establish security. If men withdrew from the OPs to their fighting positions, they return to their OPs. If some did not get back to the platoon position, leaders check their status and replace those who became casualties. As soon as feasible, the unit reverts to its security (sleep/alert) system.

o   Treat or evacuate casualties. Casualties are treated as far forward as practical. Those who can, return to their positions. Others are evacuated through medical channels. The dead are reported and the bodies are evacuated.

o   Redistribute ammunition and supplies. Squad leaders distribute remaining ammunition and supplies equally among their men. Ammunition is taken from casualties and distributed. Platoon leaders issue any stockpiled ammunition to their squads, take a quick inventory of other needs, and request resupply (to include barrier materials and medical supplies).

o   Relocate fighting positions and weapon positions, as necessary. During the assault, the enemy may have pinpointed some of the positions. If a platoon leader thinks certain positions are in danger, he may reposition those men and weapons which he feels are vulnerable or which do not have good observation and fields of fire. Leaders recheck sectors of fire and see that they remain covered. Positions are adjusted to maintain mutual support.

o   Re-establish communications. If a phone line was cut during the attack, troops on each end of the line try to find and repair the break. If they cannot, they lay new wire. If a signal, such as a green star cluster, was used to initiate fire, the commander should consider changing that signal because the enemy may know what it means.

o   Replace camouflage. Each soldier checks and, if necessary, replaces the camouflage on existing positions and camouflages new positions.

o   Replace obstacles, mines, and boobytraps if enemy troops are far enough away so it can be done safely. This is risky, especially if the enemy has snipers. Troops may have to wait until visibility is poor to do this. Smoke may be used to create poor visibility.

o   Use snipers. Before an attack is initiated and after it has been stopped, the defending unit may add to its security by using snipers. They should be allowed to move anywhere in the position. They find and hit targets such as enemy reconnaissance parties, infiltration teams, leaders, obstacle-breaching teams, weapon crews, stragglers, and (enemy) snipers.

Conclusion. This completes lesson two, you should know how to conduct a company/company team delay or withdrawal under enemy pressure, conduct a withdrawal not under pressure and a relief. You should also know how to consolidate and reorganize your unit following enemy contact. After reviewing all the material in this lesson, you should complete the practice exercise for lesson two. Answers and feedback for the questions in the practice exercise will be provided to show you where further study is required.

 


Practice Exercise