CURRENT AD WEAPON SYSTEMS
This lesson does not specifically relate to any enlisted or officer tasks, but provides general information on current AD weapon systems.
Use only this lesson material to complete the examination.
You must attain a grade of 70 percent or more on the examination to receive credit for this subcourse.
The following references are sources for additional information. You do not need them to complete this lesson.
No single AD weapon can protect ground forces against the various attack types and techniques employed by the enemy. A mix of complementary AD weapon systems must be employed in sufficient numbers to be effective. All weapon systems must be integrated into a cohesive defense that is responsive both to the tactical priorities of the maneuver commander and the operational priorities of the AADC and or RADC during the AD battle.
SHORAD weapons are normally employed in support of maneuver forces. They defend the most critical assets against attack by enemy close support aircraft and helicopters. They are also employed in rear areas to defend such assets as air bases, other forces, and key installations in the corps area. SHORAD weapons include both gun and missile systems. The Duster, Vulcan, Chaparral, and MANPAD systems such as Redeye and Stinger are described briefly in the following pages.
The M42A1 Duster (Figure 19) is a full-tracked armored combat vehicle. It is a designed for deployment with the maneuver forces in the forward combat areas as a means for providing defense against low-altitude air attack. The M42A1 is also capable of delivering a high rate of fire against enemy ground targets. The vehicle is powered by a horizontally opposed 6-cylinder, supercharged, air-cooled engine, which uses a fuel-injection system. Duster system characteristics are shown in Figure 20.
FIGURE 19. DUSTER M42A1.
FIGURE 20. DUSTER SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS.
Engagement Sequence. In a typical duster engagement (Figure 21) the squad leader (1) designates the target, estimates target speed, determines direction of flight, and the angle of dive or climb (2) and sets these values into the computing sight M38 (7). The gunner (3) engages the power drive mechanism and traverses and elevates the gun mount and dual 40-millimeter guns (4) until the target is centered in the retical of the reflex sight M24C (5). The sight mechanically computes the required lead angle (6) based on target speed and flight direction; superelevation is automatically inserted based on gun elevation. When target tracking is steady, the gunner reports ON. Upon receiving the report ON, and having determined that the target is within effective range, the squad leader commands, "Fire." The gunner commences firing and continues to fire until the target is destroyed or the squad leader commands, "Cease firing." The normal mode of firing is the power control mode, using the M38 computing sight. An alternate mode of operation is the manual mode. In this mode the mount and dual gun are moved in azimuth and elevation by hand-operated cranks. When operating in the manual mode, speed ring sights (8) are used for fire control.
FIGURE 21. DUSTER ENGAGEMENT SEQUENCE.
SP Vulcan. The SP, M163A1, Vulcan (Figure 22) is a full-tracked, lightweight, lightly armored, 20-millimeter gun system designed for deployment, in the combat area to provide AD coverage against the low-altitude air threat. The system is capable of delivering a selected rate of fire (3,000 or 1,000 rounds per minute against air and ground targets. SP Vulcan can be used against stationary or moving ground targets such as personnel, trucks, and lightly armored vehicles. It is highly mobile, capable of high-speed operation on improved roads, cross-country travel over rough terrain, and amphibious operation on streams and small lakes. Also, the system is portable by cargo aircraft.
FIGURE 22. SP VULCAN.
Towed Vulcan. The towed Vulcan, M167A1, ADA weapon system (Figure 23) consists of a 6-barrel, 20-millimeter cannon, and a fire control system mounted on a 2-wheel trailer carriage. The system is capable of being towed at high speeds over improved roads, travel over rough terrain, and fording streams to a depth of 30 inches. Towed Vulcan has essentially the same target engagement capability as the SP Vulcan. The cannon characteristics, fire control system, and modes of operation are the same as the SP Vulcan. The primary difference is the towed Vulcan uses a linked feed system and is mounted on a trailer. The system is designed to be towed by a 1 1/4-ton truck M561 (Gamma Goat); however, an adapter permits the system to be towed by the 2 1/2-ton truck M35. The system is air portable by cargo aircraft and helicopter and can be air dropped. The Vulcan gun system's characteristics (SP and Towed) are listed in Figure 24.
FIGURE 23. TOWED VULCAN.
FIGURE 24. VULCAN GUN SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS.
System Operation. In a Vulcan engagement (Figure 25) the SL identifies the target as hostile. The gunner acquires the target visually and tracks it in the gyro lead computing sight (1); simultaneously, he energizes the ROR (2) which is aligned to the optical line of sight. The radar supplies target range and range-rate data which are processed to provide the proper superelevation and lead angles.
FIGURE 25. VULCAN SYSTEM OPERATION.
The gunner selects the firing rate of 1,000 rpm, with no burst limit, or 3,000 rpm with a burst limit of 10, 30, 60, or 100 rounds appropriate to the type of target (4). A ready-to-fire lamp lights, signaling to the gunner when to fire. When all conditions of firing have been met, the gunner fires. The normal mode of firing is the radar mode. An alternate mode is the manual mode, wherein the gunner estimates the target range and target speed, and sets these estimates on indicator dials on the gunner's control panel (5). The lead computing sight then computes the superelevation and lead angles based on these estimates. Functional characteristics, engagement, and firing procedures are the same for both the SP and the towed systems.
The Redeye missile system (Figure 26) provides combat units with the capability of destroying very low- to low-altitude threat aircraft. Redeye is deployed throughout the combat area. It moves with the troops, providing continuous AD. The Redeye weapon consists of three major components: (1) the launch tube assembly, (2) the missile round, and (3) the BCU.
FIGURE 26. REDEYE MISSILE SYSTEM M41.
The missile, sealed within the launcher, is not removed in the field except by firing. After being replaced by the Stinger missile system, it is expected that Redeye will be in service for several years with Reserve and National Guard units. Redeye missile system characteristics are shown in Figure 27.
FIGURE 27. REDEYE MISSILE SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS.
System Operation. On sighting a hostile target, the gunner (1) tracks it visually in an open sight. At the same time he activates the missile guidance system (2). A buzzer (3) informs the gunner when the missile has acquired the target and is ready to fire. The gunner inserts superelevation and lead to the missile-target line of sight (4) and fires the missile. Upon firing, the ejector motor propels the missile (5) out of the launch tube. When the missile has cleared the launch tube muzzle by a distance sufficient to protect the gunner from blast effects (5 to 9 meters), the sustainer motor fires (6) and propels the missile the rest of the way to the target (Figure 28).
FIGURE 28. REDEYE MISSILE OPERATION.
The Stinger (Figure 29) is a second generation MANPAD system. Stinger has an increased range and intercept capability over Redeye. Stinger will replace the Redeye weapon system in the 1980-1990 time frame.
FIGURE 29. STINGER MISSILE SYSTEM.
The Stinger is a short-range, very low- to low-altitude, shoulder-fired weapon with IFF capabilities. It is easily deployed throughout the combat area and moves with the troops the same as Redeye. Stinger is capable of engaging all aircraft operating at low level and different ordnance delivery speeds. The Stinger missile system characteristics are shown in Figure 30.
FIGURE 30. STINGER MISSILE SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS.
System Operation. When the target is visually detected, the gunner points the launcher toward the target. He sights over the sight assembly and then looks into the peep sight. He positions the target into the center of the range ring and challenges the target by pressing the IFF challenge switch. Depending upon the IFF response and the rules of engagement, the gunner begins tracking and ranging the target in the sight until visual identification is made. When the target is identified as hostile, the gunner activates his weapon by pressing the safety and actuator device.
He continues tracking the target and listens for an IR acquisition tone. If the signal is strong enough for seeker lock-on, the tone becomes steady. After the seeker acquires the target, the gunner presses and holds the uncaging switch and continues to track the target. The tone should remain constant, indicating to the gunner that the seeker is still locked onto the target. The gunner inserts superelevation and lead into the missile line of sight and fires the missile. When the missile clears the launch tube by a distance sufficient to protect the gunner from backblast (9 meters), the dual-thrust motor ignites and propels the missile toward the target.
The Chaparral weapon system is a highly mobile SAM system designed to counter the high-speed, low-altitude air threat to organizations and critical assets in the forward areas. Chaparral is fielded in the SP configuration only; however, the launching station is a complete, self-contained weapon system and may be separated from the carrier and operated in a ground-emplaced mode. Effective employment of the system depends upon visual target detection, tracking, and recognition. Chaparral is considered to be a fair-weather system. The system is air-portable by cargo aircraft. The launching station may be sling-lifted by helicopter when separated from the carrier. The M48 system is composed of three major elements: launching station, carrier, and Chaparral missiles. The Chaparral missile system characteristics are listed in Figure 31.
FIGURE 31. CHAPARRAL MISSILE SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS.
The Chaparral missile system is enhanced with the addition of the FLIR modification. The FLIR enables the gunner to acquire, track, and engage targets during clear weather, at night, and during some adverse weather. Its introduction will change the engagement sequence, giving the gunner the authority to make identification and engagement decisions. The squad leader may override the gunner's decisions at any time.
System Operation. The squad leader (1) identifies the target (2) as hostile and commands the gunner to "Engage." The gunner (3) visually acquires the target, centers it in the reflex optical sight reticule, and establishes smooth tracking (4) until an audible IR signal tone is received. The gunner maintains the IR tone, evaluates target range, and makes his decision to fire. When all target engagement requirements are met and the hold-fire lamp is out, the gunner fires one or more missiles (5) as directed by the SL. At the time of firing, superelevation (6) is automatically inserted to ensure that proper missile flight is achieved (Figure 32).
FIGURE 32. CHAPARRAL MISSILE OPERATION.
The category of HIMAD systems includes Hawk and Patriot. High- to medium-altitude missile systems are deployed throughout the theater to defend the theater and or corps commander's high-priority assets against hostile aircraft. They could also be assigned to corps or divisions, when available, to provide AD coverage for corps or division assets against high-speed aircraft.
Hawk is a medium-range, all-weather AD guided missile system designed to provide AD coverage against very low- to medium-altitude air attack. Hawk organizations in the current Army force structure still call for battalions of either three or four firing batteries. Every Hawk firing battery consists of two AFPs and a battery headquarters. The Hawk unit organic to the corps ADA brigade is a 3x2 battalion. It consists of an HHB and three firing batteries, each of which has two AFPs. The Hawk unit organic to the theater army is a 4x2 battalion. It consists of an HHB and four firing batteries, each of which has two AFPs. All major components are trailer mounted giving the system a high degree of operational mobility. The system is air portable by cargo aircraft and can be sling lifted by helicopter. Figure 33 lists the Hawk system characteristics.
FIGURE 33. HAWK MISSILE SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS.
Firing Battery System Description. Figure 34 shows how the Hawk missile system functions. The system detects targets using CWAR (1). Target data are also provided from outside the system through a data link from the battalion FDC. Target data are fed to the PCP (2). The PCP provides a means of target display, IFF challenge and display, and target assignment. The TCO in the PCP selects the target for engagement and assigns the target to his fire control section. The HIPIR (3) tracks the target and provides a reference signal to the missile. After launch, the missile homes on the target by continuously comparing the transmitted signal from the HIPIR with the reflected signal from the target. Using this information to make continuous adjustments in its course, the Hawk missile flies a proportional navigation course to the intercept point (4).
FIGURE 34. HAWK SYSTEM FUNCTIONING.
The Patriot missile system is designed for maximum effectiveness against the air threat anticipated in the 1980s and beyond. The system has the role of very low- to very high-altitude AD of ground combat forces and critical assets. It is designed to replace US Mike Hercules and most of the Hawk missile systems. The Patriot system performs its mission with less tactical equipment, greater firepower, improved ECCM capability, 100 percent mobility, and simplified logistics and maintenance. The system requires fewer major end items of equipment and personnel than previous AD systems. Figure 35 lists the characteristics for the Patriot missile system.
FIGURE 35. PATRIOT MISSILE SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS.
System Operation. Figure 36 shows the scheme of operation of a Patriot fire unit and the principal functions of each major item of equipment. The RS (1) covers the surveillance area and detects (2) all targets. RS data (3) on each target are processed by the ECS (4) WCC. Targets are then manually or automatically identified as unknown, friendly, or hostile. When a target is identified as hostile, it then is engaged either manually or automatically. Once engagement is initiated, the WCC determines which LS (5) will fire. The WCC communicates with the selected LS by means of VHF communications. Missiles from the selected LSD are then activated, data exchanged between the selected missile and the WCC (6), and the missile (7) is launched. It is acquired by the RS and a two-way data link (8) is established with the WCC, and then the target is acquired by the onboard missile seeker antenna (9). The target is then tracked via missile, while the two-way data link is maintained at an increased rate. The missile moves to the intercept point while the target is illuminated (10) by the RS. The missile proximity fuze is armed causing the activation of the warhead at the proper time.
FIGURE 36. PATRIOT SYSTEM.
Long- and medium-range ADA weapons, such as Hawk and Patriot, operate within a command and control system that is tied in with higher level AD control facilities. This tie-in provides for the exchange of aircraft track information on, and direct assignment of, hostile aircraft for engagement by these weapons. Elements of the command and control system are established and employed at all levels from the brigade to the fire units. The use, requirements, and purposes of a command and control system are well established.
AN/TSQ-73 Command and Control System. The AN/TSQ-73 system is an electronic AD command and control system designed to provide essential tactical command to SAM firing units in defense against hostile aircraft. Specifically, the AN/TSQ-73 Missile Minder is a fifth generation AD command and control system developed to provide the AD commander with the resources necessary to effectively carry out his AD mission. Capable of operating at either battalion or brigade level, the mission of the AN/TSQ-73 is to furnish information for the command and control of individual fire units, coordinate the actions of subordinate systems, and provide an interface with other services and the US Army systems.
The key features of the AN/TSQ-73 are: two self-contained situation display consoles, radar interface equipment, ADP equipment, and communications equipment capable of providing automatically processed digital data communications and advanced voice communications.
The AN/TSQ-73 is a reliable, mobile, easily transportable, compact, and automated command control system. The extensive use of microelectronic digital circuitry to replace discrete, component digital elements and a number of analog elements resulted in size, weight, and power reductions that enable the entire system to be housed in single mobile shelter. The shelter is designed to withstand worldwide environmental conditions. Due to the modular design of the system equipment, the baseline AN/TSQ-73 is easily expanded for increased AD missions or for modified roles and missions. The system is programmable and compatible with a wide range of radars and other command and control systems. It can be deployed anywhere in the world. Featuring built-in test equipment and fault detection, the AN/TSQ-73 system maintenance is accomplished by replacing defective parts. Computer-controlled diagnostic programs and in-shelter spare parts are used to maintain a short Mean-Time-to-Repair. All equipment used in the system is designed and constructed to permit access to all modules without removal of any other module. Short downtime and high reliability enable the AN/TSQ-073 to meet stringent availability standards essential to AD control systems. The AN/TSQ-73 is self-transportable when the shelter is mounted on a cargo truck. It can also be transported by ship, rail, or air, and is skid mounted for transport by helicopter.
The AN/TSQ-73 system can be operated at either battalion or brigade level. The battalion system provides control and coordination of individual fire units. The group system acts as overall activity director, coordinating the actions of subordinate battalion systems, and providing AN/TSQ-73 interface with other services and US Army systems. A battalion system can handle 24 individual fire units and a group system is capable of coordinating the actions of 48 individual fire units. In the absence of a brigade system, battalion AN/TSQ-73 assumes brigade functions as a master battalion.
Display Consoles. Two display consoles provide the operator with a position referenced display of situation data and the capability to enter, modify, and delete information in the ADP display files. The consoles can be operated in five different modes, each selectable by the operator. These are tracking, tactical, tracking and tactical (combined), monitor, and test. The data display group provides unit fire status information, missile counts, weapon status, alert conditions, and system fault conditions. Essential data are displayed enabling the operator to make fast, accurate decisions based on up-to-second displayed information concerning track positions, weapon positions, map, jam strobes, velocity vectors, safe corridors, pairing lines, defended areas, and points.
RIE. The RIE accepts information from local radar and IFF equipment, and processes it for use by the ADP and display equipment. The RIE obtains radar target and sweep position data, normalized radar data, video target, and internally digitized data. An IFF beacon decoder rapidly identifies and tracks any aircraft which are undetectable by the primary radar. A target processor coordinates target stops and starts to determine azimuth and range reports, updates continuing target reports, and verifies valid targets.
ADP Equipment. Overall control and coordination of the system functions are performed by the ADP equipment. It provides data processing for radar signals, simulation routines, communications, display data for the consoles, and mechanizes operator initiated commands. The ADP equipment interfaces with all AN/TSQ-73 subsystems except voice communications, and provides them with necessary interface information. AN/TSQ-73 data processing is a real-time function permitting validation of incoming radar target data to determine threat conditions and assigning the appropriate SAM to the hostile threat. The data processor continuously and automatically updates the status and location of AD forces, and informs AD units of status, condition, and activity changes.
Communications Equipment. The communications equipment provides voice and data links between the ADP and console operators, and between external systems and subscribers. Voice communications and data communications are two independent functions common to the communications patch panel for line only or equipment only monitoring. Voice communications are by a standard semiautomatic telephone switching system. The data communications function provides an interface between the ADP and the remote site data system.
The arrangement of the equipment in the AN/TSQ-73 is shown in Figure 37.
FIGURE 37. AN/TSQ-73 SHELTER AND EQUIPMENT ARRANGEMENT.
The FAAR system (radar system AN/MPQ-49) (Figure 38) is a complete self-contained acquisition radar system consisting of radar set AN/TPQ-32, the M561 Gamma Goat, and a 5-kilowatt generator set mounted in a cargo trailer.
FIGURE 38. FAAR SYSTEM.
The FAAR is relatively lightweight (6 tons), mobile, and capable of being deployed as required to support Chaparral, Vulcan, Redeye and Stinger. The system is air transportable and can be lifted and moved by CH-47 or larger helicopters. The FAAR system aids in denying enemy aircraft undetectable access to forward combat areas. The FAAR provides relative position data for each aircraft detected, in terms of distance (range) and direction (azimuth). Through use of the AN/TPX-50 IFF system, FAAR also provides tentative target identification.
While FAAR is highly susceptible to damage from small arms and field artillery fire, the system can be operated from a protected spot up to 50 meters (150 feet) from the radar system and antenna by removing and remoting the control-indicator assembly. The FAAR can detect targets at ranges out to 20 kilometers.