12 December 2019 Military News
- US Military Evacuate 300 Relatives of Daesh Militants From Syrian Camp to Iraq - Reports Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The US military evacuated about 300 family members of militants of the Daesh* terrorist group from the Al-Hawl camp in northern Syria to Iraq, Syrian state television reported on Wednesday.
- US-Taliban Talks in Qatar Pause for a 'Few Days' VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- The Afghan Taliban says it wrapped up nearly a week of peace negotiations Thursday with the United States in Qatar in a "good and positive" atmosphere, but the insurgent group did not report any breakthrough.
- Mark Esper Says US Considering Troop Reductions in Afghanistan Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The US military is considering scaling down its presence in Afghanistan with increased emphasis on counterterrorism operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman Mark Milley and Defence Secretary Mark Esper said in a hearing on Wednesday.
Defense Policy / Programs
- DOD Tests Prototype Conventionally-Configured Ground-Launched Ballistic Missile DoD 12 Dec 2019 -- On Thursday, Dec. 12, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. Pacific Time, the U.S. Air Force, in partnership with the Strategic Capabilities Office, conducted a flight test of a prototype conventionally-configured ground-launched ballistic missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.
- US Has Carried Out Test of Medium-Range Missile - Pentagon Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The US resumed testing of ground-based medium-range nuclear-capable missiles earlier this year after scrapping its commitment to the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), a landmark strategic arms reduction agreement aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war in Europe.
- US to Work With Allies on Possible Deployments of Intermediate-Range Missiles - Esper Sputnik 13 Dec 2019 -- The United States will closely work with its allies on possible deployments of intermediate-range ballistic missiles, US Secretary of Defence Mark Esper told reporters.
- Department of Defense Press Briefing by Assistant to the Secretary of Defense Jonathan Hoffman and Rear Admiral William Byrne DoD 12 Dec 2019 -- Jonathan R. Hoffman, Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs; Rear Admiral William D. Byrne, Jr., Vice Director, Joint Staff
- Readout of Meeting Between Secretary of Defense Mark T. Esper and Minister of Defense of the Czech Republic Lubomir Metnar DoD 12 Dec 2019
- CIO Explains DOD's Advancements in Digital Modernization DoD News 12 Dec 2019 -- Protecting the nation's warfighters and enabling them to win on the battlefield is the driving force behind the Defense Department's digital modernization efforts, DOD's chief information officer said.
- Defense Officials Discuss Budget, Pensacola Shooting DoD News 12 Dec 2019 -- Defense Secretary Dr. Mark T. Esper will be in New York tomorrow to participate in a discussion at the Council on Foreign Relations before joining President Donald J. Trump in Philadelphia on Saturday at the 120th Army-Navy football game, chief Pentagon spokesman Jonathan Rath Hoffman said.
- U.S., Czech Republic Agree to Sale of Helicopters DoD News 12 Dec 2019 -- Defense Secretary Dr. Mark T. Esper and Czech Defense Minister Lubomir Metnar met at the Pentagon to finalize the sale of eight UH-1Y Venom utility helicopters and four AH-1Z Viper attack helicopters.
- Australia to Spend $715 Million Upgrading Port to Accommodate More US Navy Ships - Report Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Canberra is preparing to shell out $715 million to upgrade naval facilities in Australia's Northern Territory to accommodate more US warships, according to a report by the US military-linked publication Stars and Stripes.
- Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense System successfully intercepts test targets Army News 12 Dec 2019 -- The U.S. Army conducted a successful intercept test today with the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS).
- US House approves Space Force, family leave in $738bn defense bill Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- The US House of Representatives approved on Wednesday a $738 billion defense policy bill providing the first paid family leave for all federal workers and the creation of a Space Force, a top military priority for President Donald Trump.
- Bulgaria Ready to Establish NATO Maritime Coordination Centre in Varna City - Stoltenberg Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Bulgaria is ready to establish a coordination centre for NATO ships in the Black Sea in the port city of Varna, NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said on Thursday at a joint press conference with Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borissov.
- Joint press point with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and the Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria, Boyko Borissov NATO 12 Dec 2019
- France Warns NATO Members' Disjointed Behaviour Has Left Bloc in 'State of Political Confusion' Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Last week, at the NATO summit held on the 70th anniversary of the bloc's creation, US President Donald Trump accused French President Emmanuel Macron of making "very nasty" comments about the alliance after Macron called NATO "braindead" and said the alliance was seemingly unable to guarantee collective defence in the face of common threats.
- Serviceman Killed In Fire At Russia's Only Aircraft Carrier RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- A serviceman died and an officer was missing after Russia's only aircraft carrier, the Admiral Kuznetsov, caught fire in an Arctic shipyard, the Northern Fleet's press service says.
- Russian Northern Fleet Says One Soldier Killed During Fire Response at Admiral Kuznetsov Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- One soldier was killed during fire response on the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier in Murmansk, the search for another officer continues, Russia's Northern Fleet said in a statement on Thursday.
- Contract on Delivering T-80BMV Tanks to Russian Army Fulfilled - Rostec Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The Russian Defen?e Ministry and Rostec signed the contract for extensive repairs and deep modernisation of the T-80 tanks at the Army-2017 defence forum.
- Mi-28 Military Helicopter Crashes in Russia, Two Crew Members Died Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The crash was probably caused by a pilot's mistake or a technical failure, the military source said.
- Iran's defense systems fully indigenized: IRGC cmdr. Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- A senior Iranian commander says the Islamic Republic's defensive systems and equipment boast a thoroughly indigenous production process, noting that the military hardware's quality has turned the country into one of the world's defense technology leaders.
- US Reproaches Pakistan for Misusing F-16s During Aerial Dogfight with India Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The warplanes of India and Pakistan were engaged in an air battle over Kashmir following New Delhi's attack on an alleged terrorist militant camp on the Pakistani side of the Line of Control in February. The incident led to the shooting down of an Indian MiG-21 and a Pakistani F-16 jet, as claimed by the Indian Air Force.
- Experts Question Washington's Timing on Seoul's Share of Defense Cost VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- Washington's call for a sharp increase in Seoul's share of its defense costs is an untimely demand that could put the readiness of the combined U.S. and South Korean forces at risk at a time when North Korea is escalating threats, said experts.
- Russia condemns US pressure on Turkey over S-400 missile systems procurement Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- Russia has strongly condemned US pressure on Turkey over its purchase of advanced Russian-made S-400 missile defense systems, describing Washington's threats of sanctions over procurement of the military hardware as "unacceptable."
- UK provides military assistance in search for missing Chilean Air Force aircraft UK MOD 12 Dec 2019 -- An A400M aircraft has been deployed from the Falkland Islands
- SCO carries out online anti-terrorism drill Global Times 12 Dec 2019 -- The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) launched on Thursday a joint online anti-terrorism exercise in China, in which competent authorities of eight SCO member states simulated a complete crackdown against online terrorist propaganda amid rising cybersecurity challenges.
- 12 December 2019 - Daily Press Briefing by the Office of the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General United Nations 12 Dec 2019
- ICC President Rejects Criticism That Court Targets Africans VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- As the International Criminal Court faces criticism in the U.S. and on the African continent, Judge Chile Eboe-Osuji, president of the ICC, said he is hopeful relationships can be repaired.
- Analysts: Seized Weapons Show Iran's Deep Involvement in Yemen's War VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- The recent U.S. seizure of suspected Iranian guided missile parts headed to rebels in Yemen highlights Iran's continued far-reaching involvement in the war-torn country, experts say.
- Yemeni forces hit gathering of Saudi mercenaries in Jawf with ballistic missile: Army Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- Yemeni forces have launched a ballistic missile at a gathering of Saudi mercenaries in Yemen's northern province of al-Jawf in retaliation for airstrikes by the kingdom, the army says.
- Diseases, including cancer, kill 300 children every day in Yemen: Health minister Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- Yemen says every day, 300 Yemeni children suffering from various diseases, including cancer, lose their lives, meaning a genocide is happening before the eyes of the world in the impoverished country.
- Seven Hashd Sha'abi fighters killed in bomb attack in northern Iraq Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- At least seven fighters from the Iraqi pro-government Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) have lost their lives and several others sustained injuries when a massive bomb explosion struck their convoy in Iraq's north-central province of Salahuddin.
- Two rockets fall near Baghdad International Airport: Iraqi military Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- The Iraqi army says two Katyusha rockets have landed near the "outside perimeter" of Baghdad International Airport.
- LNA's Haftar Announces Start of Final Operation to Take Over Tripoli Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- East Libya's Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar announced the start of the Libyan National Army's final offensive to gain control over rival Government of National Accord-held Tripoli.
- Myanmar Leader Slammed in Top UN Court For Apologia, Silence on Rohingya Atrocities Radio Free Asia 12 Dec 2019 -- Lawyers for Gambia lambasted Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi on Thursday for her defense of the country against genocide charges at the U.N.'s highest court, despite credible and copious evidence of military-led atrocities against the country's Rohingya Muslims, and repeated their called for "provisional measures" to prevent further atrocities against the minority group.
- Aung San Suu Kyi's Dramatic Fall From Grace Laid Bare at The Hague VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- As Myanmar's State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi addressed the International Court of Justice in The Hague this week, many former supporters watched in dismay as the Nobel peace laureate denied accusations that Myanmar's military conducted atrocities against the Rohingya Muslim population.
- Myanmar Accusers Criticize Aung San Suu Kyi's Defense of Genocide Allegations VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- A lawyer presenting Gambia's case accusing Myanmar of committing genocide against Rohingya Muslims said Thursday that Myanmar's de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi ignored allegations of mass killings and rape as she led her country's defense before the U.N.'s top court.
- Poroshenko: Zelenskiy Crossed 'No Red Lines' In Paris Talks With Putin RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- Former Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko has said his successor, Volodymyr Zelenskiy, did not cross any "red lines" in his recent talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin on resolving the conflict in eastern Ukraine.
- Ukrainian Lawmakers Extend Donbas Special Status Law Until End Of 2020 RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- Ukrainian lawmakers have approved a bill extending the law on the special status of local self-governance in areas of the eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk regions until December 31, 2020.
- EU Extends Sanctions On Russia For Role In Ukraine Conflict RFE/RL 13 Dec 2019 -- European Union leaders on December 12 decided to prolong economic sanctions on Russia over the ongoing conflict in Ukraine by another six months.
- US Senate Adopts Resolution Recognising Armenian Genocide Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The US Senate has joined the House of Representatives in passing a resolution to recognise the killings of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire as genocide.
- U.S. Congress Recognizes Armenian Killings As Genocide RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- The U.S. Senate has unanimously passed a resolution recognizing the mass killing of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire a century ago as genocide, a move Armenia's prime minister hailed as a "victory of justice and truth."
- Visa Restrictions on South Sudan Peace Process Spoilers US Dept. of State 12 Dec 2019
- South Sudan famine threat: UN food security agency in 'race against time' UN News 12 Dec 2019 -- The World Food Programme (WFP) is warning against potential famine in South Sudan as hunger deepens due to drought, floods and an uncertain political future.
- Cameroon Records Daily Boko Haram Attacks Along Nigeria Border VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- Authorities in Cameroon say Boko Haram terrorists have been launching daily attacks on villages along the Nigeria border, killing at least 30 people and injuring scores in the past few months.
- Briefing by Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Maria Zakharova, Moscow, December 12, 2019 Russia Ministry of Foreign Affairs 12 Dec 2019
- Ukraine Welcomes, Germany Rejects Expected U.S. Sanctions On Nord Stream RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- Ukraine has welcomed expected U.S. sanctions on the Russian Nord Stream 2 natural-gas pipeline as"good news," while Germany, the main beneficiary of the project, has rejected the move as "foreign interference."
- Moscow Blasts US Senate Push to Dub Russia 'State Terror Sponsor', Says It Reeks of Russophobia Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- On Wednesday, the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee advanced a bill to ask the State Department whether it would be appropriate to designate Russia as a 'state sponsor of terrorism' alongside countries including Iran, North Korea, Sudan and Syria.
- Unusual Alliance Seeks Reforms in Foreign Intelligence Surveillance VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- In 2013, Democratic Senator Richard Blumenthal introduced legislation to reform the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, the law that authorizes the FBI to undertake secret electronic surveillance of terror suspects and foreign spies.
- Russia Expels Two Germans From Embassy In Diplomatic Tit-For-Tat RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- Russia has announced the expulsion of two German diplomats in a tit-for-tat response to a similar move by Berlin last week.
- German Embassy Employees Declared Personae Non Grata, Ordered to Leave Russia Within 7 Days Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Russia has declared two employees of the German Embassy personae non grata, following a similar move by the country, and they should leave Russia within seven days, the Foreign Ministry said on Thursday.
- Indian Couple Convicted in Germany for Spying on Kashmiris and Sikhs Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Germany has the third-highest Sikh population in Europe after the UK and Italy. Germans with Indian backgrounds includes Indian expatriates there, as well as German citizens of Indian-origin or descent. The Indian government suspects that some Sikhs in the diaspora have been supporting anti-Indian activities in Europe.
- DPRK Foreign Ministry Spokesman Issues Statement KCNA 12 Dec 2019 -- The spokesman for the Foreign Ministry of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea released the following statement on Thursday:
- North Korea Says 'US Has Nothing to Offer Us' Even if Talks Are Resumed Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- This comes following a statement by US Ambassador to the United Nations Kelly Craft at the UN Security Council meeting on non-proliferation that Washington was prepared to be flexible in denuclearisation talks with Pyongyang.
- North Korea Berates US for Criticizing its Ballistic Missile Program VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- North Korea berated the U.S. Thursday for denouncing its ballistic missile tests at a United Nations Security Council meeting.
- UN session 'foolish thing', US has nothing to offer in possible talks: N Korea Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- North Korea has lambasted as a "foolish thing" a meeting by the United Nations Security Council, convened by the United States, saying Washington has nothing to offer in possible renewed nuclear talks with Pyongyang.
- Iran inventing new mechanisms to circumvent US oil sanctions: Official Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- A senior Iranian official has said that the government has come up with new initiatives to circumvent the oil sanctions imposed by the United States.
- Iran Says It Defused A State-Sponsored Cyberattack On Infrastructure RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- Iran says it has "repelled" a cyberattack on its e-governance infrastructure that was allegedly "state-sponsored," according to the country's telecommunications minister, Mohammad Javad Azari Jahromi, as cited by local media.
- US Hopes Prisoner Exchange Will Lead to Broader Discussion with Iran VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- Top American officials say the U.S. is hopeful that the recent prisoner exchange will lead to a broader discussion on consular affairs between the U.S. and Iran.
- China big but nonthreatening like panda: FM Global Times 12 Dec 2019 -- Following some recent foreign media reports that have taken a tough line toward China and described the country as a threat, a spokesperson for the Chinese foreign ministry said such an attitude is unnecessary, and used the metaphor of China as a panda, which has a gentle temper and is loved by others despite its large size.
- Crowds Mark Six Months of Hong Kong Protests, Pay Respects to Student Who Died Radio Free Asia 12 Dec 2019 -- Tens of thousands of people gathered in downtown Hong Kong on Thursday to mark six months since the pro-democracy protests began in earnest with demands for fully democratic elections as well as the withdrawal of plans to allow extradition to mainland China.
- Tripartite enforcement campaign demonstrates Hong Kong police capability amid social unrest Global Times 12 Dec 2019 -- Police in South China's Guangdong Province and the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions finished a six-month campaign against cross border crime, apprehending 1,400 suspects and seizing 21 kilograms of drugs and 152 firearms. Experts said it shows the joint enforcement capability remains effective despite ongoing social unrest in Hong Kong.
- China airs Xinjiang truths Global Times 12 Dec 2019 -- China's state broadcasters consecutively aired three documentaries from Thursday illustrating the anti-terrorism efforts in Northwest China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, a terrorist organization East Turkistan Islamic Movement's (ETIM) role in plotting terrorist attacks in China and US hypocrisy on human rights issues. The documentaries sparked wide discussions on domestic and overseas media.
- Capitalism is losing appeal to Chinese Global Times 12 Dec 2019 -- As China has stood on a higher level of development, it is having a different way of dealing with, and understanding Western countries. It's fair to say the Chinese people now have the most profound and objective understanding of capitalism.
- Passing Article 23 an urgent mission for Hong Kong: official Global Times 12 Dec 2019 -- A senior official of the Chinese government responsible for Hong Kong and Macao affairs published an article in the flagship newspaper of the Communist Party of China (CPC) pointing out that Hong Kong has neither passed the national security law nor established any institute for enforcement while Macao has already passed the law and improved a lot, and this is why separatist activities have been intensifying in Hong Kong in recent years.
- Diversity of human rights model urged People's Daily 12 Dec 2019 -- Human rights representatives from developing countries expressed strong opposition to moves that politicize human rights issues or that smack of double standards, and they called for a more just and reasonable global human rights governance system.
- China leads world in successful orbital launches Global Times 12 Dec 2019 -- There have 29 successful rocket launches in China this year and with a few more scheduled for the last days of 2019, Chinese experts said they expect China to lead the world for a second year and showcase the nation's high-performing aerospace technology.
- Remembering The Formosa Incident in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 40 Years On Radio Free Asia 12 Dec 2019 -- Democratic Taiwan, which was itself once ruled by a one-party authoritarian state under the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT), has been vocal in support of protesters in Hong Kong and their demands for freedom and democracy in the face of growing interference from Beijing.
- Indicted Netanyahu to give up 4 ministerial positions but will remains PM Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- Embattled Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is set to relinquish the four ministerial positions he currently holds in the face of his indictment on charges relating to corruption, bribery and breach of trust and a new general election, but will remain premier.
- Israel set to hold unprecedented third general elections in 12 months amid political deadlock Press TV 12 Dec 2019 -- Israel heads to hold an unprecedented third round of general elections within 12 months, after a deadline to form a cabinet passed with no politician able to build a coalition with disparate parties.
- Israel Headed for Third Election in a Year VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- Israel is headed for a third election in a year, for the first time ever. The new election comes as Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu faces a series of corruption charges and after the two largest parties failed to reach an agreement to join forces.
- Israel's Knesset Dissolves, Election Set for 2 March 2020 Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Israel is now heading for its third general election within a year - an unprecedented situation for the country.
- India Deploys Troops to Country's Northeast Amid Protests Against New Citizenship Legislation Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Assam, a state in India, imposed an indefinite curfew in its capital Guwahati, the epicentre of violent protests against a controversial constitutional amendment to provide citizenship rights to illegal immigrants, provided they are not Muslims. India's parliament gave its assent to the legislation on Wednesday (11 December).
- Modi Welcomes New Citizenship Bill Passing Through Indian Upper Chamber Amid Protests Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Wednesday welcomed the decision of the upper chamber of the federal parliament to approve a controversial bill on simplifying the naturalization process for religious refugees from neighbouring countries.
- Controversial Citizenship Bill Sparks Violent Protests in Northeast India VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- India sent thousands of troops into the northeastern state of Assam Thursday to quell violent protests triggered by a new law that would make it easier for non-Muslims from some neighboring countries to gain citizenship.
- Peruvian Authorities Say Detained Submarine With 2 Tonnes of Cocaine From Ecuador Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- The Peruvian authorities said they had detained a semi-submersible vessel with 2 tonnes of cocaine on board as well as apprehended four crew members 180 miles from the country's coast.
- Cambodia Responds to Damning EU Report on Rights Record as Loss of Trade Status Looms Radio Free Asia 12 Dec 2019 -- Cambodia's government on Thursday said it had responded to a list of concerns from the European Union that could lead to the suspension of its tariff-free access to the bloc's markets if it fails to take drastic action to improve the country's rights record.
- Kyrgyz Court Freezes Bank Accounts Of RFE/RL, Other Media Following Investigative Report RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- A court in Bishkek has ruled to freeze the bank accounts of RFE/RL's Kyrgyz Service, locally known as Azattyk, its correspondent, and the Kyrgyz news site Kloop following their joint investigation about possible widespread corruption in the country's customs service and massive outflows of cash.
- Uzbek Authorities Bar Gulnara Karimova's Swiss Lawyer From Entering Country RFE/RL 12 Dec 2019 -- Uzbek authorities have accused a Swiss defense lawyer who has provided legal counsel to Gulnara Karimova, the elder daughter of late President Islam Karimov, of ethics violations, and barred him from entering the country.
- Bolivia's Ex-President Morales Arrives in Argentina as Refugee - Argentine Foreign Minister Sputnik 12 Dec 2019 -- Earlier this month, Morales stayed in Mexico where he was granted asylum after the collapse of his government in November following a disputed election.
- Former Bolivian President Granted Asylum in Argentina VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- Former Bolivian President Evo Morales has arrived in Argentina, where he has been granted asylum by the new left-wing government.
- The United States Takes Action Against the Ortega Regime in Nicaragua US Dept. of State 12 Dec 2019 -- Today, the United States announces new financial sanctions against Daniel Ortega's son Rafael Ortega and three Nicaraguan companies.
- Treasury Sanctions Son of Nicaraguan President Ortega for Money Laundering and Supporting Corruption US Treasury 12 Dec 2019 -- Today, the U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) designated Rafael Antonio Ortega Murillo, son of Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, and two companies he owns or controls and uses to finance and launder money for the Ortega regime. OFAC also designated Distribuidor Nicaraguense de Petroleo S.A. (DNP), a company owned or controlled by Rafael Antonio Ortega Murillo as well as by Nicaraguan Vice President and First Lady Rosario Maria Murillo De Ortega.
- Observers: Presidential Election Turnout Fairly Low in Algeria as Popular Protests Continue VOA 12 Dec 2019 -- Observers in Algeria say turnout has been fairly low for Thursday's presidential election, amid reports on social media of scattered violence and large protests in various parts of the country. The official election commission reported that turnout stood at over 7% at 11 a.m. local time, with several Algerian media outlets reporting that turnout had reached approximately 20% by late afternoon.
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