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08 January 2005

Chronology of U.S. Engagement in Sudan Peace Process Recapped

State Department summarizes Bush Administration's peace efforts

Following is a State Department fact sheet on U.S. engagement in the Sudan peace process from March 2001 to December 2004:

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Fact Sheet

[U.S. Department of State]

Office of the Spokesman

Nairobi, Kenya

January 8, 2005

Chronology of U.S. Engagement in the Sudan Peace Process

March 2001: President Bush directs a review of U.S.-Sudan policy. The review results in three policy objectives: counterterrorism cooperation, an end to regional destabilization, and the achievement of a just peace.

May 2001: Secretary Powell directs Assistant Secretary Walter Kansteiner to quietly approach the Sudanese to discuss all three policy objectives, particularly the prospects for achieving a just peace in Sudan. President Bush appoints Andrew Natsios as U.S. Special Humanitarian coordinator for Sudan.

June 2001: The U.S. forms an informal Troika with the United Kingdom and Norway to support the peace process.

July 2001: U.S. Special Humanitarian Coordinator Natsios travels to Sudan to lay out a framework of humanitarian access, reinstitution of humanitarian neutrality, and preparing southern Sudan for peace.

September 2001: President Bush appoints former Senator John Danforth as the Special Envoy for Peace in Sudan.

November 2001: Special Envoy Danforth travels to the region and sets out "four tests" for peace: a slavery commission, ending attacks on civilians, days of tranquility (vaccination program), and a Nuba Mountains ceasefire.

January 2002: Secretary Powell directs a U.S. team to assist parties with the Nuba Mountains ceasefire discussions. The parties agree to Ceasefire Agreement in the Nuba Mountains, Burgenstock, Switzerland.

Spring 2002: Assistant Secretary Kansteiner forms the Sudan Programs Group within the Department's Bureau of African Affairs to support Special Envoy Danforth and the peace talks. The U.S. and the Troika stand up a Joint Monitoring Commission to monitor the Nuba Mountains ceasefire. Secretary Powell authorizes the U.S. Embassy in Khartoum to resume normal operations after a four-year hiatus.

May 2002: The U.S.-funded report of the International Eminent Persons Group on slavery in Sudan is issued. The U.S. participates directly in the Sudan peace talks for the first time.

July 2002: The parties sign the Machakos Protocol.

October 2002: The parties agree to a cessation of hostilities. The U.S.-led Civilian Protection Monitoring Team begins operations to monitor attacks on civilians. President Bush signs the Sudan Peace Act.

January 2003: Special Envoy Danforth travels to the region to monitor progress on the "four tests."

May 2003: Secretary Powell meets with Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) Chairman Garang in Washington.

September 2003: The parties sign an agreement on security arrangements. Secretary Powell meets with Sudanese Foreign Minister Ismail in Washington.

October 2003: Secretary Powell travels to Naivasha, Kenya—the site of the peace talks.

November 2003: Secretary Powell meets with SPLM Chairman Garang in Washington. U.S.-sponsored UN Security Council President Statement is issued, authorizing pre-planning for a UN Peacekeeping mission.

December 2003: President Bush calls President Bashir and SPLM Chairman Garang. Secretary Powell places key call to parties on wealth-sharing, which results in a breakthrough agreement.

January 2004: Parties sign the agreement on wealth-sharing.

March 2004: The U.S. tables a compromise proposal to resolve the Abyei issue, which is accepted by the parties. President Bush calls President Bashir and SPLM Chairman Garang.

April 2004: The U.S. presses for the first UN Security Council press statement on Darfur.

May 2004: The parties sign agreements on power-sharing and the three conflict areas (Nuba Mountains/Southern Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Abyei). The UN Security Council adopts a Presidential Statement condemning the violence in Darfur and demanding humanitarian access.

June 2004: Secretary Powell travels to Khartoum and Darfur, Sudan. President Bush nominates Special Envoy Danforth as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. The U.S. and U.K. introduce UN Security Council Resolution 1547, establishing a UN Special Representative of the Secretary General and creating a UN political office in Sudan.

July 2004: The U.S. sponsors UN Security Council Resolution 1556 on Darfur.

September 2004: Secretary Powell meets with SPLM Chairman Garang in Washington. The U.S. sponsors UN Security Council Resolution 1564 on Darfur.

November 2004: Secretary Powell dispatches a U.S. team to discuss security arrangements with the Sudan People's Liberation Army Front Commanders. Under the U.S. Presidency, the United Nations Security Council holds an extraordinary session in Nairobi, Kenya, to discuss Sudan. The parties sign a Declaration, witnessed by the Security Council, to finish the final comprehensive agreement by the end of 2004. The Security Council adopts Resolution 1574. Secretary Powell meets with National Democratic Alliance (NDA) Chairman Mirghani. President Bush calls President Bashir and SPLM Chairman Garang.

December 2004: The parties complete the permanent ceasefire and implementation modalities. President Bush signs the Comprehensive Peace in Sudan Act.

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(Distributed by the Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. Web site:

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