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Waterfronts

Tidelands are the legal class of lands underlying marine and estuarine waters located between ordinary high tide and extreme low tide. Except in cases where the meander line is used as a boundary, the waterside boundary of the abutting upland parcel is the ordinary high water mark (OHWM). Tidelands also includes those lands underlying rivers that are affected by tidal influences and in such cases high tide can reach a considerable distance upstream.

In general, shorelands are the legal class of aquatic lands underlying fresh water bodies that are located between the line of ordinary high water and the line of navigability. As with tidelands, the waterside boundary of shorelands is the line of ordinary high water except in those cases where the meander line is used as a boundary. The line of ordinary high water is defined as the line of permanent terrestrial vegetation along the shores of non-tidal navigable waters. If there is no vegetation, this line is the line of mean high water.

The terms "bedlands" and "beds of navigable waters" include all aquatic lands, whether or not tidally influenced, that always lie submerged and waterward of the tidelands or shorelands they adjoin. This includes lands waterward of the outer harbor line8 and submerged lands waterward of the designated line of navigability in tidal and non-tidal waters. Waterways are reserved for public access between uplands and open water in order to provide public navigation routes between deep water and the land inside of the inner harbor line. Waterways are planned and platted as part of a harbor area designation.

Harbor areas are reserved for landings, wharves, streets, and other conveniences of navigation and commerce. A variety of structures may be present at a waterfront. Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 (33 U.S.C. 403) requires authorization from the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Corps of Engineers, for the construction of any structure in or over any navigable water body. It applies to all structures, from the smallest floating dock to the largest commercial undertaking. It further includes, without limitation, any wharf, dolphin, weir, boom breakwater, jetty, groin, bank protection (e.g. riprap, revetment, bulkhead), mooring structures such as pilings, and any other permanent, or semi-permanent obstacle or obstruction. Overwater structures are all structures built over, or placed in, state-owned aquatic lands at or below ordinary mean high water (OMHW) in marine/estuarine waters and ordinary high water in freshwater systems.

A piling and a pile are sometimes confused. A pile is a long, slender column of timber, steel or reinforced concrete driven into the ground to support a bridge, dock or other load. A piling is a structure of piles.

A pile is a long slender column usually made of steel, reinforced concrete, or wood that is driven into the ground. Piles can be made of structural steel, pressure treated timber, hollow steel casing, reinforced concrete, or prestressed concrete. The most common type of pile is the steel H-pile. Piles are used when a deep foundation for a structure is needed. Deep foundations are usually required when the soils near the surface are not strong or stable enough to support the weight of and the loads placed on a structure. Piles are also used to support a structure when there is a chance the soil, directly underneath a structure, would become loose or would wash away even though the soil could support the structure. Piles are usually placed in groups. Piling simply refers to a group of piles. It is useful to know whether piles are friction piles or bearing piles (some piles are a combination of the two) and what soil layers the pile are expected to be driven through. The pile transmits loads by the frictional resistance developed between the side surface of the pile and the adjacent soil by direct bearing of the pile tip on bedrock (or a very hard soil) or by a combination of the two. Friction piles rely on the residual friction developed between a driven pile and the adjacent soil to transmit loads from the pile to the soil. The friction is developed along the side surface of the pile. End-bearing piles are designed to transmit the loads carried by the pile to bedrock or hard soil strata. Although there may be friction developed between the pile and the adjacent soil, this friction is not relied upon. It is the layer of rock or hard soil at the pile tip that is expected to carry the loads.

Pile driving involves long sturdy posts or columns of timber, steel, or concrete being driven into the earth as a foundation or support for a structure such as a building, pier or wharf. Piles are driven to the point of refusal or a minimum pit elevation. This type of activity usually occurs when a portion of the structure is going to be under water, in mud, at a site where the ground is soft or unstable, or when the structure is expected to be of extraordinary weight. This includes driving wood or steel beams, driving concrete columns, shaft sinking or caisson work, stacking of concrete piles, erection of a cofferdam, and includes all cross beaming, decking, and similar carpentry incidental to, and connected with, pile driving operations as part of the foundation construction project.

A boardwalk is a path for pedestrians, along beaches and harbors, but also common as paths through wetlands, coastal dunes, and other sensitive environments. A boardwalk is a structure, usually, but not always, in the form of raised timber decking, that provides for pedestrian and small vehicle [eg, bicycle] access over any land, river, lake, wetland, or artificial wetland. It would typically extend into the water no further than the low water mark. A boardwalk is a series of connected bridges, each with a span as long as is practical, perhaps 8 to 40 feet. The surface of a boardwalk is typically constructed of boards, and the entire structure is supported by posts driven or anchored into the bottom of the water, similar to a dock. Often boardwalks, are found around visitor centers, heavily used interpretive trails, or at other high-use pedestrian. A boardwalk is a structure that uses widely spaced bents or piers as a foundation. Stringers, parallel with the centerline of the boardwalk, rest on the ledgers of the bents or piers. The stringers support the deck, which is usually 2 by 6 or 2 by 8 lumber laid perpendicular to the center-line and nailed or screwed to the stringers, or to nailers bolted to the stringers. Boardwalks usually have a curb or handrail along their edge. A boardwalk may be constructed using one of several construction system options. Some construction options use wood planks for application in the paved options of the boardwalk, either building wood planks on concrete curb footings or on a concrete slab. Another option would use stamped concrete, constructing the boardwalk using imprinted conventional concrete with a stamped concrete pattern simulating timber planks. Or a "boardwalk" may be constructed of a cantilever deck, dispensing entirely with boards.




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Page last modified: 05-07-2011 02:59:55 ZULU