Tooele Army Depot (TEAD)
Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) is a Tier 1 active joint ammunition storage site. Tooele is responsible for shipping, storing, receiving, inspecting, demilitarization, and maintaining training and war reserve conventional ammunition. Tooele's Ammunition Equipment Directorate designs and manufacturers ammunition peculiar equipment (APE) used in maintenance and demilitarization of munitions for all of the Department of Defense (DoD).
Tooele Army Depot was established in 1942 in an area with a historical tradition of Indian cultures. Early Desert Archaic Indians inhabited the Tooele Valley and probably a portion of the North Area some 11,000 years ago. They were followed by the Late Desert Archaics, the Fremont culture, and the Numic-speaking culture. The Goshute people, who currently inhabit reservations in the surrounding area, are descendants of the Numic-speaking culture.
Construction of the TEAD facilities was completed in 1943. Originally the north area was known as the Tooele Ordnance Depot, which functioned as a storage depot for World War II supplies, ammunition, and combat vehicles. In 1949 TEAD assumed command of the Deseret Chemical Depot, recently known as TEAD South Area. In 1962 the depot was redesignated the Tooele Army Depot. Since that time the depot has been assigned maintenance mission responsibilities for topographic equipment, troop support items, construction equipment, power generators, and various wheeled vehicles. The depot currently retains only the conventional ammunition storage, maintenance and demilitarization portions of its mission (North Area).
The chemical munition storage and demilitarization mission (South Area) has been realigned with CBDCOM and has stood up as Deseret Chemical Depot.
In 1952, the National Field Service System Representative working for the Ordnance Ammunition Command (OAC), assigned several depots projects to develop equipment for distribution to all depots for use in munitions operations. The OAC conducted a review of all depots involved in developing and provide Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) to determine the best location for the program. Tooele Army Depot met or exceeded all criteria selected by OAC for this review.
In 1955 the Office of the National Representative was established at Tooele Army Depot and employees recruited to create a central point for modernization and standardization of Ammunition Peculiar Equipment. This mission was involved with all munitions except small arms which was assigned to Savanna Army Depot. All other missions at various locations were phased out during FY 57.
Since 1964, TEAD assumed command and control of the non-tactical generator rail, equipment repair facility located at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Since the beginning of the Rail Shop history in 1942, the mission belonged to Ogden Arsenal, Ogden, Utah; then it transferred to the Transportation Corps and the Utah General Depot. On September 1, 1964, the Transportation Depot Maintenance Division became known as the Rail Equipment Division and was transferred to Tooele Army Depot, Tooele, Utah. On October 1, 1994, the Rail Shop was renamed, Defense Non-Tactical Generator and Rail Equipment Center (DGRC). DGRC is the only facility of its kind in the Department of Defense (DoD). It is the only organization in DoD that performs all levels of rail maintenance. DGRC currently services 80% of the Army's rail fleet. It is the only facility in DoD that provides overhaul and modification of Non-Tactical Generators. September 28, 1999 was another mark in DGRC history. Again, this mission transferred to a new Command. The US Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) in Warren, Michigan will take command and control effective October 1, 1999. The 39 civilian employees at DGRC remained at the facility located at Hill Air Force Base, Utah.
The establishment of the Ammo Equipment Office (AEO) at Tooele was the result of a careful study involving thorough analysis and reverified several times in the intervening years. Since the start of AEO, this program has successfully pursued its assigned mission and provided worldwide engineering services and technical support. AEO was changed to the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) in 1981. This changed the status of the organization on the depot. The AED mission was now recognized as a valuable asset to Tooele Army Depot and included in depot planning and programs. It was given equivalent recognition as was afforded the supply and maintenance missions.
BRAC 93 brought even more importance to the AED mission at Tooele. With the realignment of the maintenance mission and the transfer of DLA there are only three direct funded operations left at Tooele . AED is now providing approximately 1/3 of the direct funding received by the depot. The APE program is one of the major missions performed at Tooele and a main focal point for base support and command interest. Also, as a result of the BRAC, Tooele will become the National Inventory Control Point (NICP) for all APE.
AED is also a major source for equipment and technical support for the chemical demil programs located at the Deseret Chemical Depot (former TEAD South Area) and other chemical storage locations nationwide. AED has an active role in developing and fielding equipment for the chemical nonstockpile programs as well.
With the downsizing of the Army and the hiring restrictions implemented nationwide AED has become the main source of engineering and fabrication support for the APE program. About 60% of the employees supporting the Army APE program are located at TEAD and approximately 75% of the funding is directed to AED annually.
This source of technical expertise has been used by many IOC installations and several foreign governments. Any IOC installation which handles munitions has had direct involvement with AED in the past few years. AED supports these facilities with equipment, onsite technical guidance, training, environmental information and numerous other types of help so they can perform critical missions successfully.
The areas of expertise at AED have evolved with the changing role of the military. AED has become the primary supplier of engineering, field support and equipment in the demilitarization area. This is one of the major areas of focus at IOC. AED and the IOC APE mission have had a invaluable role in the success of these programs. AED continues to change with the changing emphasis in the ammunition programs. As environmental issues grew in importance AED trained and developed employees to understand and provide answers to munitions disposal problems, primarily in the area of incineration, but in many other areas as well. AED is called upon by customers world-wide to provide environmental predictive data for the destruction of ammunition, by burning, and open burning and open detonation, such as when obtaining permits to operate demil furnaces. AED utilizes the MERLIN computer program developed in-house for waste stream characterization during munition demilitarization. AED expertise in robotics, remote control systems, fabrication and testing is known nationwide in the ammunition community. AED designed and fielded over 150 of the 200 APE items currently in use.
In September 1998 Tooele Army Depot received notification from the Department of the Army to initiate a commercial activity study to determine whether the federal government or a private contractor should operate portions of the installation. Similar studies were simultaneously announced for six other Industrial Operations Command (IOC) installations located across the United States. This was in support of the Department of Defense (DoD) Quadrennial Defense Review initiatives to determine the most effective and cost efficient means to provide quality services. The study will be initiated immediately and should be completed no later than fiscal year 2000. Specifically, the study required the installation to determine whether base operational and ammunition demilitarization activities should be performed under contract with commercial sources or with continued use of Government facilities and personnel. A decision to convert to contract performance would be made only after a detailed cost comparison analysis was completed and only if the solicitation of commercial bids indicates that contracting out of the aforementioned activities is more cost effective. Should it be decided to contract out the installation's functions, displaced employees will be assisted in obtaining other employment. The contract would contain a provision requiring the contractor to provide affected Government employees with "right-of-first-refusal" for jobs for which they are qualified. Impacted employees could also be registered in the Priority Placement Program and could be offered preferential consideration within the Department of Defense and other federal agencies for vacancies for which they are qualified. Other placement assistance may also be provided through a variety of federal programs.
BRAC 1988 recommended the TEAD take over the general supply storage mission from Pueblo Army Depot Activity, Colorado, and BRAC 1993 recommended TEAD eliminate its troop support, maintenance, storage, and distribution missions The realignment of the maintenance and supply missions was completed in 1995. Since the 1993 BRAC decision that the TEAD Mission would be reduced, the Army has completed the first (of its type) Transfer of Fee Title of the surplus property to the Redevelopment Agency of Tooele (RDA). On January 19, 1999, the US Army Materiel Command, Chief of Staff, Major General Normal E. Williams, presented a ceremonial deed commemorating the transfer of 1700 acres and 258 buildings to Tooele City. This process was completed three years earlier than programmed.
On September 28, 1999, another mark in Tooele Army Depot history took place. Once again the mission of the Defense Non-Tactical Generator and Rail Center (DGRC), command and control, transferred to another Command - US Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM), Warren, Michigan.
Tooele is a TIER 1, Industrial Operations Command, ammunition storage site, responsible for storing training ammunition and war reserve ammunition. Tooele's Ammunition Equipment Directorate designs and manufactures ammunition peculiar equipment (APE) for all of DOD. TEAD also supports a non-tactical generator and rail equipment repair facility located at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. The Army has adopted a "tiered" ammunition depot concept to reduce infrastructure, eliminate static non-required ammunition stocks, decrease manpower requirements, increase efficiencies, and permit the Army to manage a smaller stockpile. The tiered depot concept reduces the number of active storage sites and makes efficiencies possible. A "tier 1" installation will support a normal/full-up activity level with a stockage configuration of primarily required stocks and minimal non-required stocks requiring demilitarization. Normal activity includes daily receipts/issues of training stocks, storage of war reserve stocks required in contingency operations and additional war reserve stocks to augment lower level tier installation power projection capabilities. Installations at this activity level receive requisite levels of storage support, surveillance, inventory, maintenance and demilitarization.
A portion of the Ammunition mission at Tooele Army Depot is to store ammunition and explosives until it is required for use by the soldier. Quality Assurance Specialists at TEAD periodically inspect all ammunition to assure it is safe for continued storage, and useable for the military. Unfortunately, some powders or other components deteriorate even while stored under the nearly ideal conditions in Utah. Deteriorated items then must be destroyed locally at TEAD, usually by open detonation.
The Army has invested several hundred thousands of dollars on equipment and testing to lessen the detonation impact on surrounding communities. This includes seismic testing at TEAD completed by the University of Utah in 1996. All testing has shown that other than a minor atmospheric overpressure wave, there is no impact. That, however, has not lessened the responsibility of the Depot to being a good neighbor. Voluntarily in 1996, TEAD decided to reduce the size of the detonations by 50%. This is now a part of the detonation permit issued by the State of Utah, which allows the Depot to operate on its demilitarization range located in the Southwest corner of the Depot.
During the mid-1990s, it was discovered that rarely, a wind shear occurs under ideal detonation weather periods. This was the case on October 26 and 27, 1999. It does not appear under any of the normal weather testing that is done before detonations are scheduled and so is currently is not a part of the criteria that has to be met. Ammunition Operations at TEAD is working with the National Weather Service in Salt Lake City and the meteorological station at Deseret Chemical Depot to develop a method of detecting these wind shear so their presence becomes a critical element in detonation decision making. The Depot committed to the surrounding communities in 1995 to reduce detonations 60% within 5 years. By 1999 the detonations had been reduced by nearly 75% over 1995 levels. More Resource, Recovery and Recycling (R3) technology, and partnering with industry to mitigate impacts and the maximum use of shipments to other installations for destruction have all played a part in the efforts to be a better neighbor of the community.
The Deactivation Furnace (Ammunition Peculiar Equipment 1236) upgrade, which began in 1997, consists of improving the Air Pollution Abatement System by removing the afterburner, the high and low temperature gas cooling blocks and the baghouse and replacing them with extended stainless steel ductwork and a ceramic baghouse. Other changes include upgrading and increasing the incineration feed list and installing new computer software. These modifications greatly enhance throughout capacity of the furnace and make it one of the premier incinerators in the United States. The Deactivation Furnace is a key element to both our organic and commercial partnership efforts. TEAD has signed a contract with Parson Brinckerhoff/Nordic Ammunition Company (PB/NAMMO) to incinerate fuzes and primers in support of the 5-year Industrial Operations Command contract. This program will be worth up to $3,000,000 annually and is a key alternative to open burning/open detonation of these items. Because of the new efficiencies of the furnace, hundreds of open detonations that would have been scheduled for the fuzes and primers will now be processed through the Deactivation Furnace. In doing so, the potential air emissions from open burning/open detonation of the fuzes and primers will be significantly mitigated in the Air Pollution Abatement System of the Deactivation Furnace.
During the months of April and May 2001, TEAD hosted an Army Reserve training exercise called Golden Cargo. This is the third Golden Cargo training exercise conducted at TEAD. Previous exercises were held in 1998 and 1999. The exercise served a number of purposes. It provided reserve personnel an exceptional real life training opportunity in the handling and transportation of ammunition. It served a Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) action by transferring obsolete ammunition from TEAD and replacing it with go to war stock. It integrated Reserve, National Guard, Active Army and Civilian personnel into a Total Army Team. Finally it provided valuable information on TEAD requirements to move large amounts of ammunition over a short period of time which is critical during mobilization. TEAD provided billeting, meal facilities and overall mission coordination. The Golden Cargo mission consists of three phases: 1. Load and transport ammunition from TEAD to a port in the state of Washington for shipment overseas to the warfighters; 2. Load and transport obsolete/non-mobilization ammunition from TEAD to Hawthorne Army Depot, Hawthorne, Nevada; 3. Load and transport mobilization ammunition from Hawthorne Army Depot to TEAD. Approximately 16,000 tons of ammunition was moved over the course of the exercise. Approximately, 1,750 reserve personnel from around the country will be participating. This was a conventional ammunition exercise only. It did not involve any chemical ammunition from Deseret Chemical Depot.
In its 2005 BRAC Recommendations, DoD recommended to realign Sierra Army Depot, CA, by relocating Storage to Tooele Army Depot. Capacity and capability for storage existed at numerous munitions sites. To reduce redundancy and remove excess from the Industrial Base, the realignment would allow DoD to create centers of excellence and remove inefficiencies.
In another recommendation, DoD recommended to close Hawthorne Army Depot, NV. It would relocate Storage and Demilitarization functions to Tooele Army Depot, UT. Capacity and capability for Storage and Demilitarization existed at numerous munitions sites. To reduce redundancy and remove excess from the Industrial Base, the closure would allow DoD to create centers of excellence and establish deployment networks that support readiness. Hawthorne Army Depot had infrastructure problems that severely limited the ability to offload. Environmentally, this recommendation would have an expected impact on air quality at Tooele Army Depot. Air Conformity analysis would likely be necessary.
In another recommendation, DoD recommended to close Deseret Chemical Depot, UT. It would transfer the storage igloos and magazines to Tooele Army Depot, UT. There was no additional chemical demilitarization workload slated to go to Deseret Chemical Depot. The projected date for completion of its existing workload was 2nd quarter of 2008. Because of the close proximity of Deseret Chemical Depot to Tooele Army Depot, the sophistication of the security system, the number and conditions of igloos and magazines, this recommendation would increase the storage and distribution deployment network capability at Tooele Army Depot at a minimal cost.
Tooele County, Tooele, Utah
2,483,000 sq ft
1,951,000 sq ft
532,000 sq ft