Combating Ideological Sabotage
The Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution July 17, 1967 on the formation of independent units in the KGB under the Council of Ministers of the USSR and its bodies in the field to combat ideological sabotage of the enemy (5th department, on the ground Fifth departments - departments - administrations).
The 5th KGB administration, whose task was "organizing counterintelligence work to combat the shares of ideological sabotage on the territory of the country," was organized on the initiative of Andropov, reflected in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of July 17, 1967. To work in it Leading Party workers were sent, who had experience of ideological work.
The tasks of the five divisions were to identify, prevent and suppress the activities of intelligence services of foreign states, propaganda centers and foreign anti-Soviet organizations to undermine or weaken the USSR's moral and political potential, to prevent and neutralize hostile ideological and political influence on Soviet citizens; struggle with anti-Soviet elements within the country. But the main task was to fight against so-called ideological sabotage.
Ideological sabotage, according to party ideologists and KGB leaders, was an integral part of the policy of anti-communism and was directly based on the doctrine of "building bridges" put forward by the US administration whose main goal was "... if possible, to help put peaceful end of communism."
Intelligence of foreign states carried out an ideological diversion:
- In the form of propaganda, hostile from the point of view of the existing system, ideological and political influence on citizens of the socialist countries (subversive propaganda), as the conductors of which the KGB considered the "Radio Liberty Committee", the US Information Agency (USIA), the "People's Labor Union " and etc.
- In the form of creating within the Soviet society illegal groups and organizations acting against the existing system, providing them with the means necessary for the struggle (anti-Soviet activity). As one of the forms of ideological sabotage, the writing and use of materials of "ideologically-defective content" that were illegally distributed among the population or transmitted for dissemination abroad was considered.
The struggle against ideological sabotage of the enemy was carried out on the "external" and "internal" directions:
- the identification in the stream of foreigners of emissaries of foreign anti-Soviet centers trying to transport "ideologically harmful" literature in the USSR, their compromise and expulsion;
- the identification of anti-Soviet organizations and groups inside the country, preparing "provocative speeches."
The most acute and dangerous acts of ideological sabotage were classified as anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda (Article 70 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR), as well as organizational anti-Soviet activities (Article 72 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR). Stocks of ideological sabotage were considered in close relationship with espionage, since they were mainly based on materials extracted and inspired by political intelligence.
Over time, the task of combating hostile elements within the country, as well as those who criticized the foreign and domestic policies of the CPSU and the Soviet government, began to prevail over the discovery of intelligence and subversive activities of foreign special services and organizations.
In the fight against ideological sabotage, KGB bodies actively used measures to prevent crimes using the institution of prevention (an official conversation with a security official about the inadmissibility of the actions under consideration in the future, discussion of the "negative" offenses of a person in the work collective, in the media, etc. .). The initiators of granting the special services the right to "prevent" believed that this line of activity of the KGB authorities should lead to the complete eradication of politically harmful offenses and state crimes. However, as history showed, their expectations were not justified.
The KGB paid much attention to the fight against foreign anti-Soviet and nationalist organizations. The chekists managed to significantly reduce the activity of the "Supreme Liberation Committee of Lithuania", "Representatives of Estonians in Sweden", the organization of Latvian nationalists "Daugavas Vanagi", NTS ("People's Labor Union"), OUN ("Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists"), etc. In contrast from an earlier period when the KGB basically introduced agents from among the relatives of their members into similar organizations, after 1967 these activities were carried out by intercepting communication channels and re-deploying their agents.
The Russian "military dictionary" of ideological subversive activities, presented as "subversive actions, provocative propaganda acts against the socialist and developing countries, is one of the manifestations."
This edition stated that "the efforts of the ideologists of imperialism are aimed at undermining the unity and cohesion of socialism, countries and their armies in order to warm nationalist remains, to impose apoliticality, individualism, greed and other features of the bourgeoisie, ideology and morality. soldiers of an armed socialist, an attempt is made to discredit the main role of the Communist and Workers' Parties in armaments, to discredit the activities of commanders, political organizations, the Party and the Komsomol, the military in the spirit of high ideological conviction, patriotism and socialism. The militant community of socialists is subjected to special attacks on the country and their army.
In the "Counter-espionage Dictionary," published in 1972, it was argued that the ideology of the leak was "one of the main forms of intelligence intelligence and other intelligence services of the imperialist states, their ideological centers and propaganda representing propaganda or recognition and organizational actions. Special activities and operations aimed at inspiring, encouraging and using antisocial tendencies, processes and forces to undermine or weaken the state and social system in each country of socialism, as well as the unity and community of the socialist countries. The main idea of ??ideological sabotage is directed against the Soviet Union, the main and decisive force on the way to the predatory efforts of imperialism. ideological subversion against socialist countries, the anti-communist centers and intelligence services of the imperialist states are implemented in the form of subversive propaganda means hostile to ideological and political influence on citizens of the socialist countries (subversive propaganda) and under the form of creating in the socialist society illegal opposition groups and organizations to establish and build with their organizational ties and interaction, their propensity for subversion against the socialist system and providing them with the necessary means (intelligence and anti-Soviet organization).
These two types of ideological leakage are closely related. hostile to ideological and political influence on the citizens of the socialist countries (subversive propaganda) and the form of creating in the socialist society illegal opposition groups and organizations to establish and build with them organizational ties and interaction, their propensity to subversion against the socialist system and providing them with the necessary means (intelligence and an anti-Soviet organization). These two types of ideological leakage are closely related. hostile to ideological and political influence on the citizens of the socialist countries (subversive propaganda) and the form of creating in the socialist society illegal opposition groups and organizations to establish and build with them organizational ties and interaction, their propensity to subversion against the socialist system and providing them with the necessary means (intelligence and an anti-Soviet organization). These two types of ideological leakage are closely related.
The ultimate goal of ideological subversive activity was the desire to eliminate or weaken the social and political system of the socialist countries so that they can not resist the military aggression of imperialism. Ideological diversion encroaches on all spheres of social life of socialist countries - ideology, politics, economics, morality, law, culture, science. However, the incitement and propaganda of antisocialist tendencies and events in all these areas, enemy intelligence services subordinated to political goals, are aimed at undermining and weakening the socialist state. Therefore, in every ideological sabotage it is necessary to discover subversive political goals, which are often carefully disguised. Ideological sabotage is an illegal activity connected with interference in the internal affairs of the socialist countries. "
Vladimir Putin's career began with several years of work in the Fifth Department of the KGB, engaged in combating the ideological sabotage of the enemy. In 1985, Putin adopted the cover identity of a translator and transferred to Dresden, Germany.
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