State Oceanic Administration
In China, people have long used the term “nine dragons rule the waters” (jiu long zhi shui) to refer to the fragmented roles and responsibilities for managing the environment. A governmentwide reform plan released on March 19, 2018 announced a “State Council Institutional Reform Plan” that ordered extensive restructuring of the central government, across nearly the full range of existing ministries. The new plan in 2018 concentrated the scattered responsibilities of different government departments into two new ministries: the Ministry of Ecological Environment (MEE), and the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR). MEE adopted most of the responsibilities of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, and incorporated pollution-related functions from NDRC, the Ministry of Water Resources and the State Oceanic Administration, among others. MNR, on the other hand, merged the natural resources management responsibilities that used to belong to governmental bodies in charge of forestry, agriculture, land resources, etc. In the process, some existing government departments, such as the State Oceanic Administration, were eliminated, while others, such as the Ministry of Water Resources saw their mandate reduced. As part of the March 2018 “State Council Institutional Reform Plan,” China’s Coast Guard was transferred from civilian control within the now defunct SOA to the People’s Armed Police (PAP).
China would build and deploy seven law-enforcing vessels for its coast guard operations in its territorial waters and exclusive economic zones in the coming three years. The information was revealed in a program for the development of the country's oceanic industry conducted by the State Oceanic Administration on February 21, 2008. According to the program, China would build a law-enforcing vessel of 3,000 tonnages that carries a Z-9A domestic-made helicopter. The vessel is expected to largely improve its aerial ability of law enforcement in domestic waters. Other vessels include two 1,500 tonnage supervisory ships and four of 1,000 tonnage, all of which are regarded as constituting three-dimensional and all-weather supervision for oceanic law enforcement. Two land-based helicopters would also be built and deployed. The vessels would improve the abilities of finding, identifying, tracking and catching suspected targets on the water and provide effective administration in areas where illegal infringements frequently occur, said the program.
In March 2013, China decided that it would reorganize the four agencies, excluding “Haixun,” as the new State Oceanic Administration and that the new organization would carry out surveillance and other activities under the name of “”Zhongguo Haijing”. According to the PRC State Council 19 March 2013 decree "the on the management of State Bureau of ministries notification settings ", the State Oceanic Administration and its subsidiary China Marine Surveillance Corps, the former Ministry of Agriculture, China's fishery, the former Marine Police and the former Public Security Border Customs anti-smuggling police were integrated into the new State Oceanic Administration. The re-establishment of the State Oceanic Administration under the the Ministry of Land Management was carried out on behalf of China Sea maritime rights enforcement police, while accepting Ministry of Public Security operational guidance. It is believed that the State Committee of Border and Coastal Defense, under the guidance of the State Council and the Central Military Commission, is coordinating maritime activities by these maritime law-enforcement agencies and the Navy.
The newly reorganized State Oceanic Administration took command four of the five maritime law enforcement agencies in the form of the newly established Coast Guard Bureau. CMS, FLEC, CCG, and Customs were all under the command of this new bureau, which the Ministry of Public Security would provide professional consultation.
State Oceanic Administration primary duties
- undertake comprehensive coordination of marine monitoring, research, dumping, development and utilization of responsibility. National Oceanic and career development organizations to develop strategies and policies, organizations develop and supervise the implementation of the main functional areas of marine planning, marine information technology planning, marine science and technology strategic planning and Technology and the Sea, in conjunction with relevant departments to formulate and supervise the implementation of marine development and long-term planning, marine economic development planning.
- Marine Management is responsible for establishing and perfecting the system, the drafting of coastal zones, islands and waters under the jurisdiction of draft laws and regulations, in conjunction with relevant departments to formulate and supervise the implementation of the polar seas and international seabed area and other related supporting domestic policies and institutions dealing with international sea-related treaties, legal aspects.
- undertake marine economic operation monitoring, evaluation and information dissemination responsibilities. In conjunction with the relevant departments to optimize the structure of marine economy, adjusting the industrial layout suggestions, organization and implementation of economic and social development of marine statistics, accounting work, organize the conduct of marine areas of energy and climate change mitigation work.
- Normalize the waters under the jurisdiction with the order of responsibility. Waters according to the law to use the supervision and management according to law and to supervise the implementation of the preparation of the national marine function zoning, organization and implementation of sea use rights management, according to the provisions implementing the system of paid use of sea areas, organization and implementation of sea use assessment, evaluation and sea boundaries assigned and management, approval and management of submarine cable and pipeline laying.
- bear island ecological protection and the legitimate use of uninhabited islands responsibility. Organizations to develop the island protection and development planning, policy and supervise the implementation, organization and implementation, use and management of uninhabited islands, publish island opening up and protection list.
- Six) assume responsibility for protecting the marine environment. Uniform requirements by country, together with relevant departments to organize the formulation marine environmental protection and remediation plans, standards, norms, standards and development of pollutants into the sea total control system. Organization, management of the national survey of the marine environment, monitoring, surveillance and evaluation, publish special marine environmental information, monitoring land-sourced pollutants discharged into the sea, marine biodiversity and marine environmental protection, supervision and management of marine nature reserves and special protection areas.
- Organization of marine research, marine science and technology to promote innovation, organization and implementation of basic and comprehensive survey of the ocean, undertake water use and marine renewable energy research, application and management, management of marine series of satellites and ground application system, draft marine technical standards, measurement, standards and measures.
- observation and forecast the marine environment and marine hazard warning reporting responsibility. Organization and implementation of special marine environment and security system construction and daily operations management, release marine disasters and sea-level communiqué guiding the marine natural disaster impact assessment.
- organize international cooperation and exchanges, participation in global and regional maritime affairs organizations to fulfill relevant international maritime conventions, treaties, polar bear, on the high seas and international seabed related matters, supervision and management of foreign marine scientific research activities, to supervise foreign marine construction of the facility, submarine engineering and other development activities.
- protect national maritime rights and interests according to law, in conjunction with relevant departments to safeguard maritime rights and interests of policies and measures implemented in the waters under the jurisdiction of the cruise rights enforcement system regularly, investigate illegal activities, managing China ocean surveillance team.
- by the State Council and the Ministry of Land and other tasks.
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