CMPB - China Maritime Police Bureau
The Chinese People's Armed Forces Guard Coast Guard forces are referred to as the marine police force. Pursuant to relevant provisions of the Ministry of Public Security, the marine police force has established and strengthened maritime law-enforcement agencies, augmented its law-enforcement personnel, refined its law-enforcement regulations, and improved its ships and equipment.
The China Maritime Police is a part of the Border Control Department, which is an elite subcomponent of the People’s Armed Police, under the Ministry of Public Security. The China Maritime Police operate speedboats and small cutters, often armed with machine guns or small cannons. It is worth emphasizing that this force is armed, because several of the other important maritime security agencies are unarmed, raising a host of complications.
The new standard small cutter for the Maritime Police is the Type 218 - 41 meters in length; with a beam of 6.2 meters; displacing 130 tons and developing a top speed of twenty-nine knots. It carries a crew of twenty-three; and mounts a single, 14.5 mm machine gun. A large Type 718 patrol cutter for the Maritime Police was apparently launched in 2006. It displaces 1,500 tons, and has a length of one hundred meters, a helicopter landing platform, and a 37 mm cannon. The Maritime Police also took possession of two older People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy Jianghu frigates, after they had been overhauled and renamed Haijing 1002 and Haijing 1003.
The border public security force, listed as a component of the People's Armed Police Force (PAPF), is an armed law-enforcement body deployed by the state in border and coastal areas and at ports. Its main responsibilities are as follows: border and coastal public security administration; ports and border inspection and surveillance; patrols and surveillance in areas adjacent to Hong Kong and Macao; patrols and surveillance along the demarcation line of the Beibu Gulf; and the prevention of and crackdown on illegal and criminal acts in border and coastal areas, such as illegal border crossing, smuggling and drug trafficking.
The border public security force has 30 contingents in provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the central government, except Beijing); 110 detachments in border and coastal prefectures (prefecture-level cities, autonomous prefectures or leagues) and 20 marine police detachments in coastal prefectures; 207 active-duty border inspection stations at open ports; 310 groups in border and coastal counties (county-level cities or banners); 1,691 border police substations in border and coastal townships (towns); 46 frontier inspection stations on major border routes; and 113 mobile groups deployed in important sectors in border areas.
The PAPF is the state's backbone and shock force in handling public emergencies. As a component of China's armed forces and subordinate to the State Council, the People's Armed Police Force (PAPF) is under the dual leadership of the State Council and the CMC. The PAPF consists of the internal security force and various police forces. The border public security, firefighting and security guard forces are also components of the PAPF. The PAPF is charged with the fundamental task of safeguarding national security, maintaining social stability and ensuring that the people live and work in peace and contentment.
With a borderline of more than 22,000 km and a coastline of more than 18,000 km, China is one of the countries with the most neighbors and the longest land borders. Among all China's islands, more than 6,500 are larger than 500 square meters each. China's island coastline is over 14,000 km long. China's armed forces defend and exercise jurisdiction over China's land borders and sea areas, and the task of safeguarding border and coastal security is arduous and complicated.
The border and coastal defense forces focus on combat-readiness duties, strengthen the defense and surveillance of major directions and sensitive areas, watercourses and sea areas in border and coastal regions, maintain a rigorous guard against any invasion, encroachment or cross-border sabotage, prevent in a timely fashion any violation of border and coastal policies, laws and regulations and changes to the current borderlines, carry out civil-military joint control and management, and emergency response missions promptly, and effectively safeguard the security and stability of the borders and coastal areas.
China practices an administration system of sharing responsibilities between the military and the local authorities in border and coastal defense. The armed forces are mainly tasked to safeguard the border, coastal and maritime security, and guard against, stop and subdue such activities as foreign intrusions, encroachments, provocations and cross-border sabotage. The main responsibilities of the border public security force are as follows: border, coastal and maritime public security administration, entry-exit frontier inspection at ports; prevention and crackdown on illegal and criminal acts in border and coastal areas, such as illegal border crossing, drug trafficking and smuggling; and organization of and participation in counter-terrorist and emergency-management operations in border and coastal areas.
Organs of maritime surveillance, fisheries administration, marine affairs, inspection and quarantine, and customs are responsible for ensuring legitimate rights, law enforcement, and administration. The State Commission of Border and Coastal Defense, under the dual leadership of the State Council and the Central Military Commission (CMC), coordinates China's border and coastal defenses. All military area commands, as well as border and coastal provinces, cities and counties, have commissions to coordinate border and coastal defenses within their respective jurisdictions.
The border public security force is an armed law-enforcement body deployed by the state in border and coastal areas, and at ports. It assumes important responsibilities of safeguarding national sovereignty, and maintaining security and stability in border, coastal and sea areas, as well as entry and exit order at ports. It carries out diversified tasks of maintaining stability, combating crimes, conducting emergency rescues and providing security in border areas. The border public security force establishes border control zones along the borderlines, establishes maritime defense zones in the coastal areas, establishes border surveillance areas 20 to 50 meters in depth along land border and coastline areas adjacent to Hong Kong and Macao, sets up border inspection stations at open ports, and deploys a marine police force in coastal areas.
In recent years, regular strict inspections, management and control in border areas and at ports have been carried out to guard against and subdue separatist, sabotage, violent and terrorist activities by the "three forces" or hostile individuals. The border public security force takes strict and coordinated measures against cross-border fishing activities, strengthens law enforcement by maritime security patrols, and clamps down on maritime offenses and crimes. Since 2011, it has handled 47,445 cases, seized 12,357 kg of drugs, confiscated 125,115 illegal guns, and tracked down 5,607 illegal border-crossers.
A new ship to safeguard Shanghai against terrorism, smuggling and marine disasters was named "Jinshan Naval Ship" during an April 2010 ceremony. The 63.5-meter patrol ship will be based at Jinshan's Marine Police Station, part of Shanghai Frontier Defense Armed Police Bureau. Leaders from the Frontier Defense Bureau of the Department of Public Security, Shanghai Police Station, and Jinshan District attended the naming ceremony. The ship has a range of 2,000 nautical miles and will help in marine search and rescue as well as patrol the coastline for smugglers and terrorists.
A joint cruise conducted by maritime safety administration, marine police and fishery administration in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region began 25 May 2010 as one of the China's largest patrol vessels "HAI XUN 31" was setting out from a wharf in Fangchenggang, Guangxi. This was the first joint cruise by three departments to maintain navigational order in key waters in recent years. According to Guangxi MSA, Guangxi Armed Police of Frontier Defense, Guangxi Aquatic Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Bureau and Guangdong MSA took part in the joint cruise. Force vessels: "HAI XUN 31" and "HAI XUN 191" from maritime authorities, "HAI JING 45041" from marine police,"ZHONG GUO YU ZHENG 45002" from fishery department and about 80 law-enforcement officers were involved.
The cruise covered ports, anchorages, construction waters, oil drilling platforms, major fishing areas in the Beibu Bay, and boundary waters between China and Vietnam. The cruise was focused on maritime safety in China-Vietnam boundary waters, fishing ships in moratorium, water traffic order, ship violations, navigational environment and pollution in waters around oil drilling platforms. Guangxi MSA said the joint cruise is not only a positive attempt to explore joint law-enforcement mode, but also a great move to build a "green channel" in the Beibu Bay. The cruise will help maritime authorities to grasp general maritime situation in the Beibu Bay and reinforce their deterrence in this area. Meanwhile, collaboration on law-enforcement at sea will be strengthened to enhance emergency response capacity.
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