The Largest Security-Cleared Career Network for Defense and Intelligence Jobs - JOIN NOW

Intelligence

Threat Intelligence:  A Critical Element Of TAMPS
AUTHOR Major Roy D. Bryant, USMC
CSC 1991
SUBJECT AREA - Intelligence
		      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
TITLE:  THREAT INTELLIGENCE:  A CRITICAL ELEMENT OF TAMPS
    While air power is glamorous and sensational, a tremend-
ous amount of detailed, time-consuming planning takes place
before each mission is flown.  The focus of this preparation
is the enemy's Integrated Air Defense System (IADS).  The
Tactical Aircraft  Mission Planning System (TAMPS) is a
computerized tool that helps shorten the planning process.
    It is essential that the TAMPS data base contains the
most up-to-date information available concerning the locations
of enemy weapon systems.  The actical Electronic Reconnais-
sance  Processing  and  Evaluation  System  (TERPES),
developed to aid Marine EA-6 aircrews in mission preparation
and post-mission analysis, maintains  just such a data base
which is kept up-to-date by the fusion of data from a variety
of intelligence sources.  At the present, the Marine Corps does
not have a timely and reliable method to keep the TAMPS threat
location data base current.  However, the information to update
TAMPS is resident within TERPES and we need to  fully develop
a computer-to-computer communications interface between
TAMPS and TERPES to pass that information.
    A major flaw in TAMPS is the way the threat data base is
maintained.  It  is updated monthly by computer tape but relys
on manual updates for any changes that occur in between tape
deliveries.  We needs to keep the TAMPS threat data current
with real-time or near-real-time information.
    TERPES has developed the capability of being a data fusion
center, combining intelligence data gathered from multiple
sources to produce a more accurate threat data base for the
area of interest.  We need to be able to electronically transfer
this  information from TERPES to TAMPS in a form that can
be readily used.
    In July of 1990, a proof of concept test was conducted in
which data was successfully transferred  between TAMPS and TERPES
through a direct wire interface.  While  this would need to be
developed into something more robust, it is a starting point.  A
logical  follow on to the direct wire interface between TAMPS and
TERPES would be a communications interface that  would allow 
an information exchange between TAMPS and TERPES systems
that were not collocated.
    Capabilities that  currently exist  in TERPES make it a logical
choice to provide data base updates to TAMPS, but we need to connect
the two systems through a communications interface and capitalize on
these capabilities.
	THREAT INTELLIGENCE:  A CRITICAL ELEMENT OF TAMPS
			    OUTLINE
Thesis Statement.  At the present, the Marine Corps does not
have a timely and reliable method to keep the TAMPS threat
location data base current.  However, the information  to
update TAMPS is resident within TERPES and we need to fully
develop a computer-to-computer communications interface
between TAMPS and TERPES to pass that information.
I.      PENETRATING ENEMY INTEGRATED AIR DEFENSE (IADS)
	A.      Function of IADS
	B.      Proper Mission Planning
		1.      Time Consuming Process
		2.      TAMPS:  Computerized Planning
			Tool
II.     THREAT DATA BASE
	A.      Need for Accurate Threat Data
	B.      Current Data Base Maintenance
	C.      Need for Near-Real-Time Updates
III.    TERPES CAPABILITIES
	A.      TERPES Development
	B.      TERPES-TRE Interface
	C.      Data Fusion Center
IV.     TAMPS-TERPES INTERFACE
	A.      Proof of Concept
	B.      Future Communications Interface
    Air power,  without a doubt, is the most glamorous and
sensational of  modern combat  forces.  During the opening
days of  Operation Desert Storm, the world watched in awe as
allied air forces bombarded their targets with intimidating
accuracy and  devastating lethality.   However, there is much
more to  an air  strike than that which occurs between take-
off and  landing.   A tremendous amount of detailed planning
takes place before each mission is flown.  The focus of this
intense preparation is the enemy's Integrated Air Defense
System (IADS) whose  primary  responsibility  will  be  the
elimination of our ability to fly into enemy airspace.  With
the  recent    addition  of  the  Tactical  Aircraft  Mission
Planning System  (TAMPS) to  the inventory,  Marine aircrews
now have  a computerized  tool to aid in this time-consuming
planning process.
       Yet, while TAMPS can cut the required planning time
tremendously, the solutions obtained are only as good as the
information  used.  The adage "garbage in/garbage out"
certainly applies.  It  is absolutely essential  that  the
TAMPS data  base contains  the most accurate and up-to-date
information available concerning  the locations of enemy
weapon systems.  The Tactical  Electronic Reconnaissance
Processing and Evaluation System (TERPES), developed to aid
Marine EA-6 aircrews in the preparation and the post-mission
analysis of  their missions, maintains just such a data base
which is  kept up-to-date  by the  fusion  of  data  from  a
variety of  intelligence sources. (1)  At  the present,  the
Marine Corps  does not  have a timely and reliable method to
keep  the  TAMPS  threat  location  data  base current.(5)
However, the  information to update TAMPS is resident within
TERPES and  we need  to fully develop a computer-to-computer
communications interface between TAMPS and TERPES  to pass
that information.
       Because of  the tremendous power available  in  the
aggregate air  forces of  all branches of the United States
military, any sophisticated enemy  that we will face  will
posses an  IADS intent  on neutralizing our air power.  This
IADS  will   include  a  network  of  early  warning  RADARs,
reporting stations,  Surface to  Air  Missile  (SAM)   sites,
Anti-Aircraft Artillery  (AAA) sites,  and fighter air bases
that are  linked to  his command  and control  system.  The
primary  mission  of  friendly  strike  groups  will  be  to
penetrate enemy  air space  to destroy assigned targets.  At
the same  time, the  focus of  the enemy's  IADS will  be on
shooting these aircraft down.
       Although we  have an  impressive ability  to jam  enemy
RADARs and  degrade the ability of the IADS to function, one
of the best ways to defeat an enemy's air defense is through
the proper  planning of  the mission.   A  mission commander
will greatly enhance the survivability of his strike package
if he  selects a  route of  flight that  avoids enemy weapon
systems to  the extent  possible and uses terrain masking to
exploit weakness  in the  enemy's defenses.  If  the  enemy
can't  see  you, he  can't shoot  you.  However, just  the
procedure of  plotting enemy  weapon system  locations on  a
chart and  computing  the  areas  where  these  systems  are
"blinded" because  of the  surrounding terrain can consume a
considerable amount  of valuable  time.   The  speed  of  a
computer  is   a  superb  asset  in  this  process.   TAMPS
represents a concept that is long overdue.
       But, more important than reducing the required planning
time  is  ensuring  that  the  intelligence  data  used  in
constructing the plan is timely and accurate.   No matter how
quickly a  strike mission  is planned,  it is of little or no
value if  the enemy  Electronic Order  of Battle   (EOB)   and
Missile Order of Battle (MOB) that are used are out of date
and inaccurate.  The quality of any mission plan hinges on
the planner knowing the types and locations of his threats.
       A major flaw in  TAMPS is  the way in which the threat
location data  base is  maintained.  TAMPS is an offshoot of
the computerized  mission planning system that was developed
for cruise  missiles.   Being a  strategic asset, the cruise
missile  planners  receive  their  threat data  via  the
Consolidated Air  Defense Order of Battle (CADOB) data base,
a Strategic Air Command (SAC) intelligence product.  Because
of the  developmental ties  between  TAMPS  and  the  cruise
missile program,   CADOB is also the primary source of threat
intelligence  data    for  TAMPS. (5)   This  information  is
received on a monthly basis via magnetic tape and is used to
bring  the  TAMPS  data  base  up  to  a  "current"  status.
Unfortunately,   given  the  time  required  to  gather  the
intelligence, build  the data  base tape, and distribute the
product, the  information is  already dated the day the tape
is received.
       Rather than  relying on monthly tape deliveries, Marine
aviation needs  some method of keeping the TAMPS threat data
base current  with real-time  or near-real-time information.
Unfortunately, this  does not exist. In an age of high-tech
data links  and instant  information flow,  the TAMPS system
manager must  resort to  manually entering  any changes that
occur in the enemy's EOB/MOB.  What's worse is that he won't
even know  that his  system  is  "broken"  unless  he  sifts
through a  pile of secret message traffic and discovers that
something has moved.  The worst possible indication that the
TAMPS data  base is  not current  would be for a  pilot  to
report back  that his  wingman was shot down by an uncharted
SAM.   In today's highly mobile battlefield, mission planners
should expect that even the "fixed site" weapon systems will
be moving to alternate prepared positions.
       Intelligence information  that is  such a vital element
to  the  effectiveness  of  TAMPS  is  being  collected  and
processed almost continuously by a variety of platforms.   As
one might well expect, technology is in place to disseminate
the resulting  product to  the intelligence  community.  The
key is  to be  able to rapidly pass the most current EOB/MOB
data to  the mission  commander on the TAMPS machine as soon
as it is available.
       For a  solution to  this problem,  let's  look  to  the
electronic warfare  assets of  the wing, the EA-6 community,
and their primary computer support system.
       TERPES  is  a  support  system  that  was  originally
developed  in  the  970's  to  process  intelligence  data
gathered during both Electronic Surveillance Measures (ESM)
missions and RADAR jamming missions conducted by Marine
EA-6's.   Even more  than TAMPS users, EA-6 mission planners
using TERPES  need to  have the clearest possible picture of
the enemy's EOB.  In that effort, TERPES receives data tapes
produced by  the Naval Intelligence Processing System (NIPS)
that are  very similar  in content and distribution schedule
as the  CADOB tapes  used by TAMPS.(1)  Additionally, TERPES
has the  immediate  benefit  of  the  intelligence  gathered
during local EA-6 ESM missions.
       More significant is the recent increase in intelligence
capabilities  gained  through  the incorporation  of  the
Tactical Receive  Equipment (TRE)  into  the  TERPES  suite.
Through data-link  technology, TRE  provides  near-real-time
threat  data  that  has  been  collected  by  a  variety  of
intelligence  gathering platforms.   This  near-real-time
intelligence  is  ported  into  TERPES  via  a   recently
operational TERPES-TRE  interface.  This information allows
the TERPES  signal intelligence  analysts to  rapidly update
the threat data bases in a much timelier fashion.
       Thus, TERPES  has developed  the capability  of being a
data fusion  center, combining  intelligence  data  gathered
from multiple sources to produce a more accurate threat data
base  for   the  area  of  interest.(1)   Armed  with  this
information, aircrews  can plan  their missions  with a much
clearer picture of the current battlefield.
       Yet, to  benefit TAMPS  users, we still need to be able
to electronically  transfer this  information from TERPES to
TAMPS in a form that he can readily use.
       During July  of 1990,  a  proof  of  concept  test  was
conducted at  the Pacific  Missile Test  Center, Pt.  Mugu,
CA.(4)   Among other demonstrations in this test, a TAMPS and
a TERPES  were connected  through a  direct wire  interface.
EOB data  was successfully  passed from  TERPES to TAMPS and
used to  update the  threat data  base in TAMPS.   Similarly,
strike mission  flight path routing was passed from TAMPS to
TERPES.   While this  interface would  need to  be developed
into something  more robust, it provides a starting point in
the solution  of a  very real  problem.  It  is  much  more
responsive than  transporting the  updated  information  via
magnetic tape.   And it is light years ahead of updating the
data base  with information  on a computer printout that has
to be manually entered.
       A logical  follow  on  to  the  direct  wire  interface
between TAMPS and TERPES would be a communications interface
that would  allow an  information exchange between TAMPS and
TERPES systems that were not collocated.
       While TAMPS  is  a  positive  move  toward  easing  the
mission planner's  workload and increasing the survivability
of Marine  aviation, we  must ensure  that the  TAMPS threat
data bases  are accurately  maintained.   Capabilities  that
currently exist  in TERPES  make  it  a  logical  choice  to
provide data  base updates  to TAMPS, but we need to connect
the two  systems through a communications interface.   Marine
aviators deserve the most current threat data available when
they plan  their missions.   We  just need  to capitalize on
current capabilities.
			BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.      Carter,  T. L.,  CWO-2 USMC,  OIC TERPES Weapons System
Support Activity,  Pacific Missile Test Center, Pt. Mugu, CA.  Personal
interview about TERPES developmental issues, April 1, 1991.
2.      Cruise Missile Project (PMA-281), NAVAIRSYSCOM, Washington,
D.C.,  "Modified  Interface  Requirements  Specification for  the TAMPS,
TEAMS, TERPES Interface," (Draft), prepared by Science Applications
International Corporation, May 1990.
3.      Fry, D. R., LtCol USMC, Head, Intelligence Section, MAGTF
Integration Team, Marine Corps University, Quantico, VA,   notes from
TAMPS Advisory Group Meeting, May 1-3 1990.
4.      Rowell,  M. O.  Maj USMC, Marine Corps Liason Officer to EA-6B
Software  Support Activity,   Pacific Missile Test Center, Pt. Mugu, CA.
Personal  interview  about TERPES/TEAMS developmental issues, February
12, 1991.
5.      Womble,  A.M., Capt  USMC, Chairman, TAMPS Fleet Project
Team, Naval  Strike Warfare Center, NAS  Fallon,  NV.  Personal
interview about TAMPS developmental  issues,  April 1, 1991.
	 



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list