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Intelligence

Appendix I

Interrogation Guides

EXAMPLE 1, QUESTION GUIDE FOR SUPPORT OF TACTICAL INTERROGATION

RIFLEMEN

Some of the specific topics on which a captured enemy rifleman may be questioned are-

  • Identification of source's squad, platoon, company, battalion, regiment, and division.
  • Organization, strength, weapons, and disposition of squad, platoon, and company.
  • Number of newly assigned personnel in unit within last 30 days.
  • Location and strength of men and weapons at strongholds, outposts, and observation posts in the source's immediate area.
  • Mission of the source immediately before capture as well as mission of source's squad, platoon, company, and higher echelons.
  • Location and description of defensive installations, such as missile sites, antitank ditches and emplacements, minefields, roadblocks, and barbed wire entanglements in source's area before capture. Description of weapons with which these locations are covered.
  • Names and personality information of small unit commanders known to the source.
  • Possible identifications of support mortar, artillery, and armored units.
  • Status of food, ammunition, and other supplies.
  • Morale of troops.
  • Casualties.
  • Defensive and protective items of NBC equipment, status of NBC training and defensive NBC instructions, and offensive capability of NBC operations.
  • Status of immunizations; new shots, booster shots more frequently than normal.
  • Stress on care and maintenance of NBC protective equipment.
  • Issuance of new or different NBC pro tective equipment.
  • Morale and esprit de corps of civilians.
  • Civilian supply.
  • Health of civilians and availability of medicine.
  • Night maneuvers, rehearsals, unit size, night vision devices, and special equipment.

MESSENGERS

Messengers are frequently chosen on the basis of above average intelligence and the ability to observe well and remember oral messages and instructions. Messengers, who have an opportunity to travel about w*thin the immediate combat zone, generally, will have a good picture of the current situation and are excellent prospects for tactical interrogation. The following topics should be included when questioning a messenger source:

  • Nature and exact contents of messages he has been carrying over a reasonable period of time, as well as the names of persons who originated these messages, and the names of persons to whom messages were directed. Description of duty positions of such personalities.
  • Information as to the extent to which messengers are used in the applicable enemy unit, routes of messengers, and location of relay posts.
  • Location of message centers and com munication lines.
  • Condition of roads, bridges, and alternate routes.
  • Location of CPs and the names of commanders and staff officers.
  • Location of artillery, mortars, and armor seen during messenger's movement through the combat area.
  • Location of minefields and other de fensive installations.
  • Location of supply and ammunition dumps.
  • Description of terrain features behind the enemy's front lines.
  • NBC weapons, installations, and units.
  • Morale and esprit de corps of civilians
  • Relocation or movement of civilians.
  • Civilian supply.
  • Health of civilians and availability of medicine.
  • Use of radio equipment in applicable enemy units.

SQUAD AND PLATOON LEADERS AND COMPANY COMMANDERS

Squad and platoon leaders, as well as company commanders, generally will possess information on a broader level than that discussed up to this point. In addition to the information possessed by the riflemen, they may be able to furnish information on the following subjects:

  • Plans and mission of their respective units.
  • Organization of their units as well as their regiment and battalion.
  • Number of newly assigned personnel in unit within last 30 days.
  • Disposition of companies, regiments, and reserves of each.
  • Identifications and general organization of supporting units such as artillery, armor, and engineer units.
  • Location, strength, and mission of heavy weapons units.
  • Offensive and defensive tactics of small units.
  • Quality and morale of subordinate troops.
  • Doctrine for employment of NBC weapons.
  • Doctrine for defense against NBC weapons.
  • Status of NBC defense SOP and current NBC training
  • Communications procedures and communications equipment.
  • Issuance of NBC detection equipment and detector paints or paper.
  • Morale of civilians.
  • Relocation or movement of civilians.
  • Civilian supply.
  • Health of civilians and availability of medicine.
  • Instructions on handling and evacuation of US and allied prisoners.
  • Night maneuvers, rehearsals, unit size, night vision devices, and special equipment.

RADIO AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS

Radio and telephone operators, like messengers, are frequently familiar with the plans and instructions of their-commanders. In general, they can be expected to know the current military situation even more thoroughly because of the greater volume of information which they normally transmit. Topics to be covered when questioning communications personnel are-

  • Nature and exact contents of messages sent and received during a given tactical situation.
  • Code names or numbers of specific enemy units, such as those appearing in enemy telephone directories, and in other SOI such as unit identification panel codes.
  • Major enemy units to your front and their code names.
  • Units and individuals in radio nets, their call signs, call words, and operating frequencies.
  • Names and code names of commanders and their staff officers.
  • Types, numbers, and basic characteristics of radios and telephone equipment used at company, regiment, and division level.
  • Identification and location of units occupying front line positions.
  • Location of artillery and mortar positions.
  • Information on enemy codes and ciphers.
  • Code names given to operations or to specially designated supply points such as supply points for special weapons.
  • Names and signals designating various types of alerts.

DRIVERS

Questions directed by the tactical interrogator to captured drivers should concern the aspects of the enemy situation which the prisoner would know because of his driving assignments. In dealing with EPW drivers of command and staff vehicles, supply vehicles, arid vehicles drawing weapons, the following topics should be examined:

  • Identification and location of command posts of higher, lower, and supporting units.
  • Names and personal character traits of commanders and staff officers.
  • Plans, instructions, orders, and conversations of commanders and staff officers.
  • Attitudes of commanders and staff officers toward each other, civilians, units under their command, and the general military situation.
  • Routes of communications and their condition.
  • Tactical doctrines of commanders.
  • Command and staff organization.
  • Supply routes and road conditions.
  • Location of supply points and types of military and civilian supplies.
  • Sufficiency or lack of both civilian and military supplies.
  • Types, numbers, and condition of military and civilian supply-carrying vehicles.
  • Location of artillery and mortar positions
  • Troop movements and troop assembly areas.
  • Location of truck parks and motor pools.
  • Organization of antitank and air defense artillery units, weapons, and strength.
  • Location of antitank and air defense artillery positions.
  • Names of commanders of antitank and air defense artillery units.
  • Mission of antitank and air defense artillery.
  • Types and status of ammunition.
  • Voluntary or forced evacuation or movement of civilians.
  • Morale and health of civilians.

PATROL LEADERS AND PATROL MEMBERS

The degree of patrol activity on the part of the enemy is often a good indication of enemy plans. Topics for questioning patrol leaders and members of enemy patrols upon their capture include-

  • Specific mission of the patrol.
  • Exact routes used and time of departure and return of patrol.
  • Location of enemy forward edge of the battle area, general outpost, combat outpost, and outposts.
  • Location of platoon, company, regi ment, or division headquarters.
  • Routes of approach and enemy positions.
  • Enemy strongholds and fields of fire.
  • Machine gun and mortar positions of the enemy.
  • Observation posts and listening posts.
  • Condition of bridges and location of fords.
  • Description of key terrain features.
  • Location and description of defensive positions such as antitank weapons, roadblocks, mines, barbed wire entanglements, gaps in wire and safe lines, trip flares, booby traps, tank traps, and ambushes.
  • Other reconnaissance objectives, agencies, and patrols.
  • Organization and equipment of tactical reconnaissance agencies in regiments and divisions.
  • Passwords and counter signs of patrols and line units.
  • Patrol communication system and range or radios.
  • Names of commanders, staff officers, and particularly of intelligence officers of enemy unit.
  • Coordination of patrol activities with other units such as rifle companies, mortar units, and artillery units.
  • Morale and esprit de corps of civilians
  • Morale and esprit de corps of civilians
  • Civilian supply.
  • Health of civilians and availability of medicine.

MEMBERS OF MACHINE GUN AND MORTAR UNITS

Members of machine gun and mortar units can be expected to know, on the basis of their experience or observation, the following:

  • Location of their own, as well as other, machine gun and mortar positions and projected alternate positions.
  • Organization, strength, casualties, and weapons of the source's unit.
  • Targets for machine guns and mortars.
  • Names of small unit leaders.
  • Status of weapons crew training.
  • Disposition of small rifle units, squads, and platoons.
  • Supply of ammunition to include type of ammunition in the basic load or on hand, for example, chemical and biological ammunition.
  • Location of forward ammunition points.
  • Characteristics of weapons used.
  • Food and other supplies.
  • Morale.
  • Effect of our own firepower upon their positions.
  • Availability of nuclear capability.
  • Number of newly assigned personnel in unit within last 30 days.

LIAISON OFFICERS

The liaison officer is the commander's agent for accomplishing coordination among the headquarters of lower, adjacent, and higher units. The liaison officer also may be called upon to effect coordination between infantry units and supporting or supported armor and artillery, engineer, and reconnaissance units. Topics to be covered when questioning a captured liaison officer are as follows:

  • Contents of field orders, such as composition of attacking forces; location and direction of attack; missions of individual units; objectives; plans for attack, defense, or withdrawals; and plans for communication and coordination among units.
  • Location of lower, adjacent, higher, and supporting unit CPs as well as location of supply and communications installations.
  • Locations of observation posts and outposts.
  • Assembly areas for troops and supplies.
  • Disposition of regiments, battalions, and companies of a division.
  • Identification and disposition of reserves.
  • Status of supplies of all types.
  • Civilian social and economic conditions.
  • Evacuation or movement of civilians.

ARMORED TROOPS

Topics to be covered when questioning captured armored troops are as follows:

  • Unit identifications.
  • Designation and strength of supporting or supported infantry units.
  • Types and characteristics of tanks employed.
  • Mechanical and tactical weaknesses of these tanks.
  • Means of communications between tanks and between tanks and infantry.
  • Missions and objectives.
  • Routes of approach.
  • Armored units in reserve.
  • Location of tank parks and assembly areas.
  • Location of impassable terrain features.
  • Methods of mortar, artillery, and tank coordination.
  • Location of tank repair depots and POL dumps (to include resupply and refueling techniques).
  • Effect of weather on tank operations.
  • Armored reconnaissance missions.
  • Number of newly assigned personnel in unit within last 30 days.
  • Morale and esprit de corps of civilians.
  • Relocation or movement of civilians.
  • Civilian supply.
  • Health of civilians and availability of medicine.
  • Status of ammunition and POL resupply.
  • Location of ammunition supply points
  • Ammunition supply to include type in the basic load or on hand, for example, chemical ammunition.
  • Measures for defense against NBC and radiological attack to include type of NBC defensive equipment installed in the tank.
  • Night maneuvers, rehearsals, unit size, night vision devices, and special equipment.

ARTILLERYMEN

Topics to be covered when questioning captured artillerymen are as follows.

Forward Observers

Topics for interrogation of forward observers include-

  • Location, organization, and number of guns of the battery or battalion whose fire the source was observing and directing.
  • Location of front lines, outposts, and observation posts.
  • Location of alternate observation posts.
  • Location and probable time of occupation of present or alternate gun positions.
  • Deployment of artillery.
  • Characteristics of guns, including caliber and range.
  • Targets for the various types of fire during different phases of combat.
  • Nature of the infantry-artillery communications net.
  • Type and location of artillery fire requested by infantry units.
  • Identification of corps or other supporting artillery units.
  • Plan of attack, defense, or withdrawal of enemy units.
  • Methods of coordinating artillery fire with infantry maneuver.
  • Mission and objectives of source's unit as well as of supported units.
  • Routes of approach and their condition. Characteristics of terrain features.
  • Methods of observing and directing artillery fire, including information such as types of aircraft employed.
  • Methods of counterbattery fire and methods of protecting enemy positions from counterbattery fire.
  • Use and location of dummy artillery positions.
  • Types of artillery ammunition used for various targets, new types of ammunition, and conservation of fires and reasons for conservation.
  • Location of artillery and infantry unit command posts.
  • Trafficability of routes appropriate for movement of heavy artillery.
  • Names of commanders, staff officers, and their attitudes toward each other and toward infantry commanders.
  • Number of newly assigned personnel in unit within last 30 days.
  • Effect of our artillery upon the enemy units.
  • Location and numbering of defensive concentrations.
  • Location of ammunition supply points. Radio channels used for fire control nets
  • Identification and location of support ing battalions.
  • Availability of nuclear fire support. Morale and esprit de corps of civilians.
  • Relocation or movement of civilians. Civilian supply. Health of civilians and availability of medicine.

Artillery Firing Battery Personnel

Interrogation of a source from a firing battery should cover the following topics:

  • Measures of defense against friendly artillery fire.
  • Counterbattery protection for artillery installations.
  • Effect of friendly counterbattery fire. Location of battery ammunition points.
  • Disposition of local security weapons.
  • Direction and elevation of fire.
  • Instructions concerning the use of ammunition.
  • Names of battery and other commanders.
  • Detailed description of artillery weap ons used.
  • Status of weapons crew training.
  • Information on food supplies and morale of military and civilians.
  • Measures for defense against NBC attack.
  • Types and amount of ammunition, to include chemical and nuclear ammunition, in the basic load or on hand.
  • Location of chemical and biological ammunitions.
  • Location of targets marked for chemi cal and biological fires.

Air Defense Artillerymen

Interrogation of a source from an air defense unit should cover the following:

  • Location and number of air defense weapons.
  • Detailed description and characteristics of air defense guns and missiles used.
  • Shape, size, and location of ground radars.
  • Organization of air defense units.
  • Types of areas defended.
  • Nuclear capability.
  • Methods of attack against friendly aircraft, by type of aircraft.
  • Avenues of approach and altitudes most and least advantageous to enemy air defense.
  • Methods of identifying unknown aircraft.

MEDICAL CORPSMEN

Although medical personnel are entitled to special protective measures under the provisions of international agreements, they can be, and are, interrogated without infringement of any existing laws or rules of warfare. Topics to be covered when interrogating enemy medical personnel are as follows:

  • Number of casualties over a given phase of combat operations.
  • Weapons accounting for most casualties.
  • Key personnel who have been casualties.
  • Conditions of health and sanitation in enemy units
  • Ratio of dead to wounded.
  • Commander's tactics in relation to the number of casualties.
  • Adequacy and efficiency of casualty evacuation.
  • Weapons most feared by the enemy.
  • Location and staffing of aid stations and hospitals.
  • Organization of division, regiment, and battalion medical units.
  • Status and types of medical supplies.
  • Use and characteristics of newly devel oped medicine or drugs.
  • Data on your wounded, sick, or dead in the hands of the enemy.
  • Skill of enemy medical personnel.
  • Information on mass sickness or epi demics in the enemy forces.
  • Types of treatment and medication for NBC casualties.
  • Supply and availability of materials used in the treatment of NBC casualties.
  • Special training or treatment of NBC casualties.
  • New or recent immunizations.
  • Morale and esprit de corps of civilians.
  • Relocation or movement of civilians.
  • Civilian supply.
  • Health of civilians and availability of medicine.
  • Location and present condition of civilian hospitals, factories producing medical supplies, and warehouses and stores containing medical supplies.

ENGINEER TROOPS

Topics for questioning of captured engineer troops are as follows:

  • Mission of supported unit.
  • Exact location and pattern of existing minefields, location of bridges, buildings, airfields, and other installations prepared for demolition, and types of mines or explosives used.
  • Doctrine pertaining to the use of mines and booby traps to include types of mines, characteristics of firing devices, and minefield patterns.
  • Location of roadblocks and tank traps and how constructed.
  • Condition of roads, bridges, and streams or rivers for trafficability of personnel, vehicles, and armor. Weight-carrying capacity of bridges and location and description of fords.
  • Location of engineer materials and equipment such as road material, bridge timber, lumber, steel, explosives, quarries, rock crushers, sawmills, and machine shops.
  • Location of dummy vehicles and tank and gun positions.
  • Location of camouflaged positions and installations.
  • Water supply and locations of water points.
  • Organization, strength, and weapons of engineer units.
  • Presence of other than organic engineer units at the front and mission of such units.
  • Number of organic trucks, tractors, and other engineer vehicles.
  • Location of new or repaired bridges.
  • Use of demolitions.
  • Morale and esprit de corps of civilians.
  • Relocation or movement of civilians.
  • Civilian supply.
  • Health of civilians and availability of medicine.
  • Location and present condition of civilian power plants, water works, and sewage disposal plants.
  • Night maneuvers, rehearsals, unit size, night vision devices, and special equipment.

RECONNAISSANCE TROOPS

Topics for questioning captured reconnaissance troops are as follows:

  • The reconnaissance plan, march order, time schedule, and specific missions of all elements, means of coordination and communication between elements, and the unit headquarters and higher headquarters.
  • Nature of orders received from higher headquarters.
  • Identification, organization, composition, strength, means of transportation, and weapons of the unit.
  • Routes of approach used by the unit.
  • Identification, composition, organization, strength, and disposition of the main body of troops and reinforcements. Routes to be used.
  • General quality of troops of the recon naissance unit and of the main body.
  • Radio communication equipment and frequencies used.
  • Night maneuvers, rehearsals, unit size, night vision devices, and special equipment.

LOCAL CIVILIANS

Civilians who have recently left enemy-held areas normally have important information and often give this information readily. This information is usually of particular importance to the CA and PSYOP personnel of the unit. The following topics should be included when questioning local civilians:

  • Location of enemy front lines and major defensive positions.
  • Location of artillery positions.
  • Location and nature of minefields in enemy rear area.
  • Description of key terrain.
  • Condition of roads, bridges, and major buildings.
  • Enemy policy and attitude toward local civilians.
  • Human and material resources of the area.
  • Morale and esprit de corps of local civilians.
  • Data on important civilian personali ties remaining in enemy areas.
  • Health and medical status of local populace.
  • Effect of friendly operations on civilian populace.
  • Instructions to prepare for defensive measures against NBC attack.
  • Recent immunizations.

POLITICAL AND PROPAGANDA PERSONNEL

Personnel recently acquired through combat operations and who are identified as being involved with political and PSYOP should be questioned. As a minimum, the following topics should be included:

  • Policy, plans, and objectives.
  • Organization and training.
  • Current and past activities, to include themes of any propaganda programs.
  • Enemy analysis of our weaknesses and strengths.
  • Target audiences for propaganda, including priorities.
  • Effects of friendly PSYOP.
  • Analysis of enemy weaknesses and strengths.
  • Enemy counterpropaganda activities.

GUERRILLA PERSONNEL

Topics for interrogation of captured guerrilla personnel are as follows:

  • Area of activities.
  • Nature of activities.
  • Strength.
  • Equipment.
  • Motivation.
  • Leadership.
  • Reliability.
  • Contacts
  • External direction or support.

EXAMPLE 2, QUESTION GUIDE FOR NUCLEAR BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL OPERATIONS

Some specific questions for information on NBC operations are as follows:

  • What items of NBC protective equipment have been issued to enemy troops? Is there any differentiation in issue of items for particular areas? If so, what items for what areas?
  • Are there any new or recent immunizations indicated by sources during interrogations?
  • What immunizations have enemy troop units received, as indicated in captured immunization records?
  • Are enemy troops equipped with protective masks? Is the individual required to carry the mask on his person? Are there any sectors where the mask is not required equipment for the individual? What accessory equipment is issued with the mask?
  • Is protective clothing issued to enemy troops? If so, what type of clothing or articles? If special clothing is used, is it for any particular geographic area?
  • Have enemy troop units constructed NBC protective shelters? If so, what type?
  • Are enemy fortifications, individual and collective, provided with overhead cover?
  • Are enemy troops issued any protective footwear or other means to provide protection against penetration by liquid agents?
  • Are enemy tanks or armored vehicles provided with specially installed protective equipment to protect the crew in case of chemical attack?
  • Are enemy troops issued any type of individual protective items, including antidotes or protective ointment, for first aid?
  • Are there any areas for which additional or unusual NBC safety precautions have been established?
  • What is the size and composition of enemy NBC specialist troop units? Where are they located? Why?
  • Have enemy troops been issued any special precautionary instructions concerning consumption of food and water or handling of livestock in areas that may be overrun by enemy forces?
  • What training, if any, have enemy troops received in the use of incapacitating-type agents and their dissemination?
  • What items of chemical detection equipment have been issued to enemy troops? Are the items operated constantly, irregularly, or not at all? Is there any differentiation made regarding their use in certain areas?
  • What type of radiation-measuring instruments are issued to enemy troop units and what is their range or limit? How are they distributed?
  • How many hours of training with radiation measuring instruments have enemy monitoring and survey personnel received?
  • How many hours of NBC training have enemy troops received? How many hours training are devoted individually to chemical, biological, and radiological operations? Have enemy troops received any special or accelerated training as opposed to what is considered routine? .
  • How many hours of NBC training have enemy troops received? How many hours training are devoted individually to chemical, biological, and radiological operations? Have enemy troops received any special or accelerated training as opposed to what is considered routine? .
  • Have sources observed decontamination stations or installations established in enemy areas? If so, what is their location and composition?
  • Are enemy troop units issued biological sampling kits or devices? If so, what is their type and composition?
  • Have sources observed any cylinders or containers which might contain bulk chemical agents?
  • Have sources observed any tactical aircraft equipped with accessory tanks which indicate a spray capability? Are sources aware of location of dumps of chemical-filled ammunition, bombs, clusters, and bulk chemical agents?
  • Do enemy artillery, mortar, or rocket units have chemical ammunition on hand?
  • At what radiological exposure or dose are troops required to relocate?
  • Are there any problem areas or shortcomings in NBC material?

The following PIR and IR are applicable for internal defense operations in appropriate theaters of operations?

  • What types of tunnels and caves and modification are used in defense against riot control agents and explosive gases?
  • What defensive material and instructions are issued for defense against riot control agents?
  • What defensive measures are taken against defoliation and anticrop agents?