Chapter 2 - Responsibilites
C3CM functions at the joint force level primarily involve planning and evaluation. The highest C3CM planning level is the joint force commander and staff. The JFC provides guidance on land, air, and maritime operations. The JFC can issue guidance as a concept of operation which contains specifics for C3CM. The JFC must ensure the timely publication of guidance and priorities for the
C3CM plan so that components have enough time to develop supporting plans. The JFC's guidance should, at a minimum, include --
- A brief narrative assessment of the enemy's C3structure.
- The JFC's specific C3CM objectives.
- Development requirements for C3CM plans to meet joint force C2CM objectives.
- Guidance for planning use of resources.
- Assets retained at the joint force level which may be requested for C3CM, such as COMPASS CALL.
- Step 1. Monitor and evaluate the feedback of C3CM operations.
- Step 2. Recommend adjustments to current C3CM operations based on evaluation of feedback and current component capabilities.
- Step 3. Coordinate and issue approved adjustments to the joint force operations as required.
The joint force J2 and staff maintain an all-source intelligence collection effort; develop an intelligence data base for C3CM; and, in concert with the J3, develop a recommended C3CM target list, The J2 should focus the collection and analysis effort on enemy capabilities, enemy intentions, and the enemy's critical C2 nodes. In addition, the J2 --
- Plans, collects, processes, produces, and disseminates intelligence.
- Coordinates intelligence planning and operations of component commands.
- In coordination with J3 recommendations, validates and prioritizes intelligence collection requirements that need to be satisfied by other than assigned resources.
- Coordinates counterintelligence and recommended security measures that protect the joint force C2 nodes.
- Collects and updates enemy ground, air, and electronic order of battle and updates the current situation.
- Provides a list of prioritized targets and other intelligence data to the joint targeting coordination board (JTCB).
- Assists the J3 on the JTCB.
- Incorporates updated enemy intelligence reports to imagery intelligence (IMINT), human intelligence (HUMINT), signal intelligence (SIGINT), communications intelligence (COMINT), electronics intelligence (ELINT), instrumentation signals intelligence, measure and signature intelligence (MASINT), and counter-intelligence.
- Refines OPSEC planning guidance.
- Conducts intelligence activities to eliminate OPSEC vulnerabilities.
- Supports military deception operations.
- Incorporates combined operations input into the intelligence collection effort.
The J3 plans, conducts, directs, supervises, executes, and evaluates C3CM for the JFC. The J3 --
- Makes C3CM an integrated part of the operations planning process.
- Plans for personnel and recommends task organization assets to support
C 3CM priorities and objectives.
- Maintains constant coordination with the other component commanders.
- Monitors C3CM activities.
- Assists in developing C3CM priority intelligence requirements and EEFI to support the JFC's guidance and objectives.
- Reviews Component Operations Plans (OPLANS) to ensure they support the C3CM plan.
- Plans and conducts C3CM in operations and tactical training exercises.
- Ensures J2 intelligence and other appropriate intelligence agencies closely coordinate and support C3CM.
- Knows the quantity, operational status, and location of unique, dedicated, or specifically tasked C3CM support assets.
- Is responsible for the joint targeting coordination board.
- Promptly forwards appropriate intelligence to higher headquarters and national agencies.
The J6 develops the frequency management plan and the C 3protect plan and closely coordinates
C 3CM issues with the J3, J2, and JCEWS. The J6 is responsible for spectrum management and provides a representative to the JCEWS. The representative is responsible for publishing and maintaining the joint restricted frequency list after the J3 approves it. The J6 also ensures that the J3, J2, and JCEWS coordinate the TABOO, GUARDED, and PROTECTED frequencies (see glossary for definitions). In addition, the J6 --
- Ensures that EW, C3CM, and joint force communications are deconflicted.
- Ensures that EMCON procedures which authorize, control, or prohibit the use of electronic emission equipment, OPSEC, and deception do not interfere with one another.
- Ensures that operational codes are available at all commands.
- Provides components with frequencies, call signs, and COMSEC procedures.
- Works closely with the J2 and J3 on EW, C3CM, and targeting boards.
- Reviews component OPLANS to ensure they support the C3 protect plan.
The JFC should organize a joint C3CM cell to coordinate targeting information, provide targeting guidance and priorities, and prepare or refine joint target lists (JTLs). The J3 or his counterpart normally chairs the C3CM cell. The cell consists of representatives of the J2, J6, fire support element (FSE), and other staff elements and components as appropriate. The J3 normally conducts C3CM cell meetings daily to --
- Disseminate the JFC's targeting guidance and objectives.
- Monitor the effectiveness of targeting efforts.
- Coordinate and deconflict all joint task force (JTF) targeting operations.
- Validate no-fire areas.
- Approve new target nominations for inclusion in the JTL.
The JFC may organize a joint targeting coordination board to coordinate targeting information, provide targeting guidance and priorities, prepare or refine JTLs, and deconflict lethal and nonlethal assets for C3CM operations. The J3 or his counterpart chairs the JTCB. Other staff directorates and components provide representatives. The JTCB should, at a minimum, include component representation as well as representation from TACC and electronic combat (EC) planning cells. Input from the combined staff element, if applicable, is also used to prepare the C3CM JTL. The JTCB should meet daily to --
- Disseminate JFC targeting and EW guidance.
- Monitor the effectiveness of lethal or non-lethal targeting efforts.
- Coordinate and deconflict JTF operations.
- Confirm fire support coordination measures.
- Approve new target nominations for inclusion in the JTL.
C3CM operations are not only deconflicted, but also mutually supportive and focused on the JFC's overall campaign plan C3CM strategy. The JTCB is not intended to replace the joint commander's electronic warfare staff. However, the JCEWS should integrate the planning conducted by both lethal and nonlethal C3CM planners.
The JTCB should provide the following results to component or supporting forces:
- Additions or changes to fire support coordination areas and the JTL.
- Modifications to JTF C3CM targeting and EW operations.
- Summaries of combat assessments and BDA reports received from component or supporting forces.
The JCEWS, which is usually located in the joint operations center, assists the JFC and J3 in coordinating EW operations. It consists of, but is not limited to, elements of the J2, J3 , FSE, and J6. The JCEWS provides each component the flexibility to satisfy its EW requirements consistent with the need to avoid mutual interference with friendly systems.
The JCEWS coordinates with the J2, J3 , and J6, and other appropriate staff officers. In addition to advising and assisting the J3 in accomplishing EW operations to support the C3CM strategy, the JCEWS --
- Coordinates EW operations.
- Monitors the status of EW resources.
- Assists in deception planning.
- Coordinates with the J2 for SIGINT and electronic warfare support measures (ESM) data required for planning and coordinating EW operations.
- Coordinates with the J6 to ensure ECM do not interfere with friendly C3.
A focal point for deception planning and execution is crucial to successful deception operations. At the joint force level, the deception staff element (DSE) plans, coordinates, and monitors deception operations. The DSE is headed by a deception officer who reports directly to the J3 . Other joint force staff members required to plan a particular deception are assigned to the DSE as needed. For example, the DSE should include representatives from the joint force special operations component (JFSOC) when it is part of the deception plan. In addition, representatives from the component staffs would participate in DSE activities as required. The DSE is responsible for --
- Planning deception activities based on the commander's guidance.
- Coordinating deception operations among components.
- Monitoring ongoing operations in order to plan future deceptions.
- Integrating C3CM deception into overall theater campaign planning as requested by the C3CM planning cell.
The JFC keeps the details of deception planning to himself. He implements deception through direct orders to his staff and subordinate commanders. The staff and component commanders are never fully aware of the JFC's intentions. This technique has the advantage of high OPSEC and presents virtually all the support patterns of an actual commander's plan. Potential disadvantages are --
- The lack of full staff expertise during planning and execution.
- The chance of the staff working at cross-purposes and degrading the effectiveness of the deception and the actual operation.
The JFC details limited numbers of personnel from the joint staff to assist the deception officer in planning. The deception officer coordinates the completed plan with selected joint staff section heads and components and sends the plan to the JFC for approval. Expeditious handling and good OPSEC are advantages of this technique. However, the plan may fail to take full advantage of the collective expertise of the entire joint staff.
The JFC expands participation in the planning and execution to more elements of his staff. Additionally, deception officers from the component commands may also participate. This method uses the full resources and expertise of the joint and component staffs. Since more people are aware of the planned deception, OPSEC is more difficult.
The JFC executes C3CM through the various subordinate commanders assigned to the joint force.
Based upon the JFC's guidance, subordinate commanders develop their concept of operations, assign missions, and allocate resources. Specific component responsibilities for C3CM include --
- Coordinating C3CM objectives, priorities, and procedures with the JFC and other components.
- Developing intelligence requirements based on priorities.
- Collecting intelligence on enemy C3assets.
- Distributing intelligence on enemy C3 assets.
- Allocating available assets to support C3CM.
- Identifying and developing appropriate C3targets for lethal and nonlethal attacks.
- Requesting C3CM support from other component commands.
- Establishing procedures for monitoring and providing C3CM mission results to the JFC and to other components.
- Executing C3CM operations to support the JFC's concept of operation.
The Army component commander (ACC) serves at one of two levels: as the component working for the commander in chief (CINC) or as the Army component working for a component JFC (subunified or joint task force). The Army recognizes the warfighting potential of C3CM to enhance AirLand Battle combat effectiveness. Optimizing the synergistic effect of C3CM requires proper planning, coordination, and execution. At higher echelons, the Army Air-Ground System (AAGS) is found at the battlefield coordination element (BCE) or functional theater equivalent with its plans, operations, intelligence, and fusion sections. (See Appendix A for details.)
When the ACC receives a mission, he issues guidance to his staff. Each day, he determines the priorities for operations scheduled more than 96 hours in the future. He also updates and refines the priorities for the next day. The commander's guidance establishes three things: the commander's intent, a mission statement for the deep battle C3CM, and how the commander wants to divide the deep battle C3CM resources between the corps' deep operations and the component commanders deep battle. In his guidance, the commander sets priorities for the Army's deep battle C3CM requirements, The C3CM operations and assets to support deep attack are --
- Interdiction (which includes strategic and/or tactical air forces, artillery, and special operations forces).
- Offensive EW (which includes Army and Air Force assets).
- Maneuver (which includes ground maneuver units, attack helicopters, and airborne and air assault forces).
- Nuclear and chemical weapons.
A continuous two-way information flow between the Army force (ARFOR) operations center and the BCE permits the BCE to integrate ARFOR C3CM requirements. The BCE interprets C3CM requirements for the TACC. The AAGS handles the C3CM information exchange between the two components at the corps level and below. (See Appendix A, Figure A-2.)
JCS Publication 1-02 defines the joint force air component commander (JFACC) as follows:
The joint force air component commander derives his authority from the joint force commander who has the authority to exercise operational control, assign missions, direct coordination among his component commanders, and redirect and organize his forces to ensure unity of effort in the accomplishment of his overall mission. The joint force commander will normally designate a joint force air component commander. The joint force air component commander's responsibilities will be assigned by the joint force commander (normally these would include, but not be limited to, planning, coordination, allocation and tasking based on the joint force commander's apportionment decision) [to support C3CM missions]. Using the joint force commander's guidance and authority, in coordination with other component commanders and other assigned or supporting commanders, the joint force air component commander will recommend to the joint force commander the apportionment of air sorties....
Based upon the JFC's guidance, the JFACC may be assigned the responsibility to plan and conduct a C3CM operation. When given the responsibility, the JFACC will --
- Assign C3CM targets or objectives to component commanders.
- Plan and direct air support for C3CM.
- Request C3CM support from other component commands when required.
- Plan and coordinate C3CM efforts with other components.
- Allocate air assets to support C3CM.
The JFACC provides air assets to support the JFC C3CM plan. Based upon the JFC's guidance, the JFACC will plan and conduct the C3CM portion of the air campaign. This includes campaign
C3CM, campaign C3CM target priorities, and localized C3CM threat priority lists. Specific C3CM responsibilities of the JFACC include --
- Planning and directing air support for C3CM.
- Assigning C3CM target objectives to component asset commanders.
- Requesting C3CM support from other component commanders when required.
- Supporting other component commanders' C3CM requirements.
JCS Publication 3-0 defines the joint force special operations component commander (JFSOCC) as follows:
The commander within a unified command, component unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for making recommendations on the proper employment of special operations forces and assets, planning, and coordinating special operations, or accomplishing such operational/missions as maybe assigned.
Based upon the JFC's guidance, the JFSOCC plans and conducts the special operations portion of C3CM operations. Specific JFSOCC responsibilities for C3CM include --
- Planning and directing special operations support for C3CM.
- Assigning C3CM targets to component forces in priority established by the JTCB.
- Requesting C3CM support from other component commanders when required.
- Providing appropriate representatives to the JFC joint C3CM cell, JTCB, DSE, and TACC.
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