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FM 34-8: Combat Commander's Handbook On Intelligence

Appendix C
Intelligence Training Tips for Commanders

1. Force on force free-play exercises between battalions will force both S2s to conduct IPB and collection planning against a thinking enemy.

2. Always include MI support (jammers, radio intercept, GSRs, and interrogation teams) in your training exercises - particularly for free-play exercises.

3. Always have your S2/G2 produce situation templates before developing an OPORD. Never accept just the enemy's probable COA - demand the set of possible enemy COAs, prioritized by likelihood, and make him explain why he selected the most probable COA.

4. Always have your staff wargame multiple enemy COAs against friendly COAs. Ensure they record the results of the session in a BOS synchronization matrix and a DST.

5. Always have your brigade S2/G2 develop an intelligence synchronization matrix to support your maneuver plan. (The brigade S2 could include it as part of the BOS synchronization matrix.)

6. Always hold your G2 and MI unit commander responsible for meeting the deadlines for obtaining intelligence when you need it.

7. Train your S2 and his analysts to make predictive analysis. Make them explain what they have done to confirm their predictions and to cover other enemy COAs.

8. Always think of your battle staff as a unified team. Scrutinize their logic when they present IPB, friendly and enemy COAs, staff recommendations, etc. Make them conduct the command estimate process often.

9. Teach your S2 and his staff friendly tactics.

10. Conduct staff after action reports (AARs) after free-play exercises. Make the S2 brief "what he thought happened" before the opposing force (OPFOR) commander briefs what really happened. Have the S2 thoroughly examine his mistakes in light of the ground truth. Give him a chance to learn from his mistakes.

11. Following your unit's AAR, have the S2 conduct an AAR for the supporting MI unit. What do they think happened?

12. At division and corps, include language training as a fundamental part of your training and command inspection programs. Know the language proficiency of your intercept operations and interrogators.

13. Have the S2 incorporate elements of a contingency threat in all training exercises.

14. Introduce civilian role players (sympathetic, neutral, and hostile) into your training exercises. Evaluate how well soldiers identify and deal with each type. Also evaluate how well your interrogators and CI personnel elicit tactically relevant information from them and report it in a timely manner.

15. Get your S2 "out on the line" often. Ensure that he is intimately involved in training and evaluating your scouts. Have him brief and debrief scouts, frontline commanders, and patrols whenever possible.

16. Ensure the S2/G2 gets to physically see the battlefield to facilitate his understanding of the terrain analysis process.

17. Incorporate BDA, synchronization, and intelligence reporting into as many training exercises as possible.

18. Ensure IPB does not become only the S2's product. Instead, insist that the entire staff contribute in their areas of expertise. You need to participate too.

19. Ensure the S3 briefs the DST when it is presented. This ensures a fully integrated concept of operations.

20. Make your S2 and S3 train together in the routine development of operations, plans, and measures to support deception operations.

21. Ensure a field artillery intelligence officer is fully integrated into the G2's targeting cell to incorporate changes in targeting priorities, to emphasize the employment of ECM, and to ensure prompt recognition of targeting priorities.

22. Require the integration of the G2 plans section, terrain detachment, and USAF weather detachment with the G3 plans section. Evaluate their ability to work as a team in effectively anticipating and creatively satisfying future requirements.

23. Ensure the S2/G2 and the MI unit commander work as a team. The S2/G2 is the senior partner with the MI commander directing the employment of his assets to satisfy the S2/G2's requirements.

24. Ensure the S2 proposes new PIR for your approval each time the situation changes, and that he doesn't enact PIR without your approval. The same applies to targeting priorities.

25. "Jump" the main command post frequently to train the S2 in measures required to keep track of the battle and execute battle handover with the TACCP.

26. Ensure you and the S3/G3 react to new intelligence provided by the S2/G2 and are prepared to change your concept of the operation based on that intelligence.

27. Check periodically with your S2/G2, MI unit, and other collection assets to ensure they are working on the same intelligence priorities--yours.

28. Reports from elements in contact rarely contain all the desired elements (SALUTE). Make reporting a priority training task.

29. Always make your S2/G2 answer the "so what?" test, and tell you the significance of the information or intelligence he is providing to your plan or concept of operation.

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