FM 34-60 COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
Section I. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
AACCO Army Central Control Office acct account
ACE Analysis and Control Element ACofS Assistant Chief of Staff
ACR armored cavalry regiment
ADA air defense artillery
ADP automated data processing
ADPSSEP automatic data processing system security enhancement program
AI area of interest
AKA also known as
AO area of operations
AR Army regulation
ARNG Army National Guard
ARSOF Army Special Operations Forces
ASAS All-Source Analysis System
ASP ammunition supply point
ASPP Acquisition Systems Protection Program
AWOL absent without leave
BBDA battle damage assessment
BE basic encyclopedia
BI background investigation
BOS Battlefield Operating System
BSA brigade support area
CC 2 command and control
C 3 command, control, and communications
CA Civil Affairs
CARVE criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, and effect
CFSO CI force protection source operations
CG commanding general
C-HUMINT counter-human intelligence
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CIAC CI Analysis Center
CIAS counterintelligence analysis section
CIDC Criminal Investigation Command
C-IMINT counter-imagery intelligence
CINC Commander in Chief
COA course of action
COMINT communications intelligence
COMSEC communications security
CONUS continental United States
CP command post
C-RISTA counterreconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition
C-SIGINT counter-signals intelligence
CI scope polygraph
DDA Department of the Army
DACAP DA Cryptographic Access Program
DCID Director of Central Intelligence Directive
DCII Defense Central Index of Investigations
DCSINT Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence
DF direction finding
DHS Defense HUMINT Services
DI deception indicated
DIA Defense Intelligence Agency
DIAM Defense Intelligence Agency Manual
DIS Defense Investigative Service
DISCOM Division Support Command
DIVARTY division artillery
DM Deutsche Mark
DOD Department of Defense
DODD Department of Defense Directive
DPA Data Processing Activity
DPOB date, place of birth DS direct support
DSO defensive source operations
DTAC CP division tactical CP
DTG date-time group
DTOC Division Tactical Operations Center
EEA electronic attack
EAC echelons above corps
ECB echelons corps and below
EEFI essential elements of friendly information
ELINT electronic intelligence
ELSEC electronic security
EO executive order
EOB electronic order of battle
EP electronic protection
EPB electronic preparation of the battlefield
EPW enemy prisoner of war
ES electronic warfare support
EW electronic warfare
FFBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
FEBA forward edge of the battle area
FIS foreign intelligence service
FLOT forward line of own troops
FM field manual; frequency modulation
FORSCOM United States Army Forces Command
FSC foreign SIGINT collector
GG2 Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence)
G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans)
G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics)
G5 Assistant Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs)
GS general support
HHA humanitarian assistance
HHOC headquarters, headquarters and operations company
HPT high-payoff target
HQDA Headquarters, Department of the Army
HUMINT human intelligence
HVT high-value target
II&S intelligence and surveillance
I&W indications and warning
ICF intelligence contingency funds
IEW intelligence and electronic warfare
IFF identification, friend or foe
IMFR Investigative Memorandum for Record
IMINT imagery intelligence
INS Immigration and Naturalization Service
INSCOM United States Army Intelligence and Security Command
INTSUM intelligence summary
IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield
IPW prisoner of war interrogation
IR information requirements
IRR Investigative Records Repository
J2 Intelligence Directorate
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
J-TENS Joint Tactical Exploitation of National Systems
JTFCICA Joint Task Force CI Coordinating Authority
KKIA killed in action
LLAA limited access authorization
LEA law enforcement agency LIC low-intensity conflict
LLSO low-level source operation
LNO liaison officer
LOS line of sight
LZ landing zone
MBA main battle area
MDCI multidiscipline counterintelligence
MDCISUM MDCI summary
METT-T mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, and time available
MI military intelligence
MIJI meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference
MO modus operandi
MOS military occupational specialty
MP military police
MRE meals ready to eat
MSE mobile subscriber equipment msg message
MTI moving target indicator
MTOE modification table of organization and equipment
NNAC national agency check
NAI named areas of interest
NATO North Atlantic Treaty
NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical
NCIS Naval Criminal Investigation Service
NCO noncommissioned officer
NDI no deception indicated
NGIC National Ground Intelligence
NKSOF North Korean Special Operations Forces
NO no opinion
NRT near-real time
OOB order of battle
OCONUS outside continental United States
OJE on-the-job experience
OOTW operations other than war ops operations
OPLAN operations plan
OPORD operations order
OPSEC operations security
OSI Office of Special Investigations
PPCS permanent change of station
PFC private first class
PIR priority intelligence requirements
PL phase line
PSG platoon sergeant
PSI personnel security investigation
PSYOP psychological operations
RRAF Royal Air Force
RC Reserve Components
RDTE research, development, test, and evaluation
REC radio electronic combat
RF radio frequency
RII request for intelligence information
RISTA reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition
SS2 Intelligence Officer (US Army)
S5 Civil Affairs Officer (US Army)
SA special agent
SAEDA Subversion and Espionage Directed Against US Army and Deliberate Security Violations
SALUTE size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment
SAP special access program
SATRAN see FM 34-5 (S) for classified identification
SCA special category absentees
SCARF standard collection asset request format
SCI sensitive compartmented information
SCO sub-control office
SIGINT signals intelligence
SIGSEC signals security
SJA Staff Judge Advocate
SLAR side looking airborne radar
SM service member
SMU special mission unit
SOFA Status of Forces Agreement
SOP standing operating procedure
SSB single sideband
SSBI single scope background investigation
SSN social security number
STANAG Standardization Agreement
TAO tactical agent operation
TDA Tables of Distribution and Allowances
TDY temporary duty
TEB tactical exploitation battalion
TOC tactical operations center
TOE tables of organization and equipment
TRRIP Theater Rapid Response Intelligence Package
TSCM technical surveillance countermeasures
TTP tactics, techniques, and procedures
UUAV unmanned aerial vehicle
UCMJ Uniform Code of Military Justice
US United States (of America)
USAF United States Air Force
USAI United States Army Intelligence
USAIC&FH US Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca
USAR United States Army Reserve
USMTF US message text format
VVCR video cassette recorder
Section II. TERMS
Analysis - A stage in the intelligence cycle in which information is subjected to review in order to identify significant facts and derive conclusions therefrom.
Assessment - Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned intelligence activity.
Collection Intelligence Cycle - Acquisition of information and the provision of the information to processing or production elements. Communications Intelligence (COMINT) -Technical and intelligence information derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients.
Communications Security (COMSEC) -The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Communications security includes- cryptosecurity; transmission security; emission security; and physical security of communications security materials and information.
Compromising Emanations - Unintentional intelligence-bearing signals which, if intercepted and analyzed, disclose national security information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by an information-processing system.
Counterintelligence (CI) - Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs. Synonymous with Foreign Counterintelligence.
Counterintelligence (DOD, NATO) (JCS Pub 1) - Those activities which are concerned with identifying and counteracting the threat to security posed by hostile intelligence services or organizations, or by individuals engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion, or terrorism.
Counterintelligence (Inter-American Defense Board) (JCS Pub 1) - That phase of intelligence covering all activity devoted to destroying the effectiveness of inimical foreign intelligence activities and to the protection of information against espionage, personnel against subversion, and installations or material against sabotage.
CI Liaison - The establishment and maintenance of personal contacts between CI liaison officers and personnel of organizations which have missions, responsibilities, information resources, or capabilities similar to those of US Army intelligence. It is conducted to promote cooperation, unity of purpose, and mutual understanding; coordinate actions and activities; and to exchange information and viewpoints. OCONUS CI liaison also includes overt collection of foreign intelligence and CI; acquisition from foreign sources of material and assistance not otherwise available; and the procedures used to gain access to individuals whose cooperations, assistance, or knowledge are desired.
Countermeasures - That form of military science that by the employment of devices or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity.
Counter-Signals Intelligence (C-SIGINT) -Those actions taken to determine enemy SIGINT capabilities and activities, the assessment of friendly operations to identify patterns and signatures, and the resulting vulnerabilities for subsequent development and recommendation of countermeasures. Recommendations to counter the foreign SIGINT collector (FSC) and EW threat are provided to the G3 by the G2. They can include offensive measures such as electronic attack, to include jamming or deception; or targeting for fire or maneuver.
Critical Node - An element, position, or communications entity whose disruption or destruction immediately degrades the ability of a force to command, control, or effectively conduct combat operations.
Cryptosecurity - The component of COMSEC which results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use. Deception - Those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce them to react in a manner prejudicial to their interests.
Doctrine - Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application.
Electronic Protection (EP) - That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Formerly known as electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM).
Electronic Attack (EA) - That division of electronic warfare involving the use of the electromagnetic or directed energy to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability. Formerly known as electronic countermeasures (ECM).
Electronic Deception - The deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information and to deny valid information to an enemy or to enemy electronics-dependent weapons. Among the types of electronic deception are: manipulative electronic deception, simulated electronic deception, and imitative deception.
Electronic Jamming - The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of disrupting enemy use of electronic devices, equipment or systems.
Electronic Security (ELSEC) - The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, for example, radar.
Electronics Intelligence (ELINT) -Technical and intelligence information derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources.
Electronic Warfare (EW) - Military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum and action which retains friendly use of electromagnetic spectrum.
Emission Control - The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize C 2 capabilities while minimizing, for OPSEC, detection by enemy sensors; to minimize mutual interference among friendly systems; or to execute a military deception plan.
Emission Security - That component of COMSEC which results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crytoequipment and telecommunications systems.
Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI) - Key questions about friendly intentions and military capabilities likely to be asked by opposing planners and decisionmakers in competitive circumstances.
Foreign SIGINT Collector (FSC)/EW - A foreign entity employing electromagnetic and SIGINT techniques to target friendly forces for the purposes of detecting, exploiting, or subverting the C-E environment of the friendly commander.
f-stop - A camera lens aperture setting indicated by an f-number.
Human Intelligence (HUMINT) - A category of intelligence information derived from human sources.
Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) - The collected products of imagery interpretation processed for intelligence purposes.Indicator - (1) In intelligence usage, an item of information that reflects the intention or capability of a potential enemy to adopt or reject a COA. (2) Activities that can contribute to the determination of a friendly COA.
Intelligence - The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas.
Liaison - That contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military forces to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action.
Liaison Contact - The act of visiting or otherwise contacting a liaison source.
Liaison Officer - A CI special agent (SA) assigned the mission of conducting CI liaison.
Liaison Source - An individual with whom liaison is conducted. This term applies regardless of whether the individual furnishes assistance or is contacted on a protocol basis.
Mission - (1) The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore. (2) In common usage, especially when applied to lower military units, a duty assigned to an individual or unit to task.
Operations Security (OPSEC) - The process of denying adversaries information about friendly capabilities and intentions by identifying, controlling, and protecting indicators associated with planning and conducting military operations and other activities.
Patterns - Stereotyped actions which so habitually occur in a given set of circumstances that they cue an observer, well in advance, to either the type of military unit or activity, its identity, capabilities or intent. Stereotyping occurs in a variety of ways, such as communications deployment techniques or historical association. Patterns must be unique and detectable to be of military significance.
Profile - The picture formed through the identification and analysis of elements, actions, equipment, and details of military units or activity. Pattern plus signature equals profile.
Risk - A measure of the extent to which a recommended countermeasure has been historically effective in eliminating a vulnerability, given a certain level of susceptibility and threat.
Security - (1) Measures taken by a military unit, an activity or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or that may, impair its effectiveness. (2) A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences. (3) With respect to classified matter, it is the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security.
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) - A category of intelligence information comprising all communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and telemetry intelligence.
Signals Security (SIGSEC) - A generic term that includes both COMSEC and ELSEC.Signature - The identification of a military unit or activity resulting from the unique and detectable visual, imagery, electromagnetic, olfactory, or acoustical display of key equipment normally associated with that type unit or activity.
source - (1) A point of origin or procurement. (2) One that initiates.
Source - Any person who furnishes intelligence information either with or without the knowledge that the information is being used for intelligence purposes. In this context, a controlled source is in the employment or under the control of the intelligence activity and knows that the information is to be used for intelligence purposes.
SUBJECT - (1) A person who is the principal object of attention. (2) One who is under investigation. Susceptibility - The degree to which a device, equipment, or weapons systems is open to effective attack due to one or more inherent weaknesses.
Threat - The technical and operational capability of a FSC or EW system to detect, exploit or subvert friendly signals and the demonstrated, presumed or inferred intent of that system to conduct such activity.
Vulnerability - Characteristics of a friendly C-E system or cryptosystem which are potentially exploitable by FSC or EW systems. As applied in this manual, vulnerability is a susceptibility in the presence of a threat. Susceptibility in the absence of a threat does not constitute a vulnerability.
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