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Intelligence

FM 34-60 COUNTERINTELLIGENCE

Glossary

Section I. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

    A

    ACCO Army Central Control Office acct account
    ACE Analysis and Control Element ACofS Assistant Chief of Staff
    ACR armored cavalry regiment
    ADA air defense artillery
    ADP automated data processing
    ADPSSEP automatic data processing system security enhancement program
    aer aerial
    AI area of interest
    AKA also known as
    AO area of operations
    AR Army regulation
    ARNG Army National Guard
    ARSOF Army Special Operations Forces
    ASAS All-Source Analysis System
    ASP ammunition supply point
    ASPP Acquisition Systems Protection Program
    attn attention
    AWOL absent without leave

    B

    BDA battle damage assessment
    BE basic encyclopedia
    BI background investigation
    bn battalion
    BOS Battlefield Operating System
    BSA brigade support area

    C

    C 2 command and control
    C 3 command, control, and communications
    CA Civil Affairs
    CARVE criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, and effect
    cdr commander
    C-E Communications-Electronics
    CE counterespionage
    CFSO CI force protection source operations
    CG commanding general
    C-HUMINT counter-human intelligence
    CI counterintelligence
    CIA Central Intelligence Agency
    CIAC CI Analysis Center
    CIAS counterintelligence analysis section
    CIDC Criminal Investigation Command
    C-IMINT counter-imagery intelligence
    CINC Commander in Chief
    CM countermeasures
    cmd command
    co company
    COA course of action
    COMINT communications intelligence
    comm communications
    COMSEC communications security
    CONUS continental United States
    CP command post
    C-RISTA counterreconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition
    C-SIGINT counter-signals intelligence
    CSP
    CI scope polygraph

    D

    DA Department of the Army
    DACAP DA Cryptographic Access Program
    DCID Director of Central Intelligence Directive
    DCII Defense Central Index of Investigations
    DCSINT Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence
    demo demonstration
    DF direction finding
    DHS Defense HUMINT Services
    DI deception indicated
    DIA Defense Intelligence Agency
    DIAM Defense Intelligence Agency Manual
    DIS Defense Investigative Service
    DISCOM Division Support Command
    div division
    DIVARTY division artillery
    DM Deutsche Mark
    DOD Department of Defense
    DODD Department of Defense Directive
    DPA Data Processing Activity
    DPOB date, place of birth DS direct support
    DSO defensive source operations
    DTAC CP division tactical CP
    DTG date-time group
    DTOC Division Tactical Operations Center

    E

    EA electronic attack
    EAC echelons above corps
    ECB echelons corps and below
    EEFI essential elements of friendly information
    ELINT electronic intelligence
    ELSEC electronic security
    EO executive order
    EOB electronic order of battle
    EP electronic protection
    EPB electronic preparation of the battlefield
    EPW enemy prisoner of war
    ES electronic warfare support
    EW electronic warfare

    F

    FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
    FEBA forward edge of the battle area
    FIS foreign intelligence service
    FLOT forward line of own troops
    FM field manual; frequency modulation
    FORSCOM United States Army Forces Command
    FSC foreign SIGINT collector

    G

    G2 Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence)
    G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans)
    G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics)
    G5 Assistant Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs)
    govt government
    GS general support

    H

    HA humanitarian assistance
    HHOC headquarters, headquarters and operations company
    HPT high-payoff target
    HQ headquarters
    HQDA Headquarters, Department of the Army
    HUMINT human intelligence
    HVT high-value target

    I

    I&S intelligence and surveillance
    I&W indications and warning
    ICF intelligence contingency funds
    ID identification
    IEW intelligence and electronic warfare
    IFF identification, friend or foe
    IMFR Investigative Memorandum for Record
    IMINT imagery intelligence
    INCL inconclusive
    inf infantry
    INS Immigration and Naturalization Service
    INSCOM United States Army Intelligence and Security Command
    intel intelligence
    intg interrogation
    INTSUM intelligence summary
    IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield
    IPW prisoner of war interrogation
    IR information requirements
    IRR Investigative Records Repository

    J

    J jamming
    J2 Intelligence Directorate
    JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
    J-TENS Joint Tactical Exploitation of National Systems
    JTFCICA Joint Task Force CI Coordinating Authority

    K

    KIA killed in action

    L

    LAA limited access authorization
    LEA law enforcement agency LIC low-intensity conflict
    LLSO low-level source operation
    LNO liaison officer
    LOS line of sight
    LZ landing zone

    M

    M meter
    MC multichannel
    MBA main battle area
    MDCI multidiscipline counterintelligence
    MDCISUM MDCI summary
    METT-T mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, and time available
    MI military intelligence
    MIJI meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference
    MO modus operandi
    MOS military occupational specialty
    MP military police
    MRE meals ready to eat
    MSE mobile subscriber equipment msg message
    MTI moving target indicator
    MTOE modification table of organization and equipment

    N

    NAC national agency check
    NAI named areas of interest
    NATO North Atlantic Treaty
    NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical
    NCIS Naval Criminal Investigation Service
    NCO noncommissioned officer
    NDI no deception indicated
    NGIC National Ground Intelligence
    NKSOF North Korean Special Operations Forces
    NO no opinion
    no number
    NRT near-real time

    O

    OB order of battle
    OCONUS outside continental United States
    OJE on-the-job experience
    OOTW operations other than war ops operations
    OPLAN operations plan
    OPORD operations order
    OPSEC operations security
    OSI Office of Special Investigations

    P

    PCS permanent change of station
    PFC private first class
    PIR priority intelligence requirements

    PL phase line
    plt platoon
    PSG platoon sergeant
    PSI personnel security investigation
    PSYOP psychological operations

    Q

    qty quantity

    R

    RAF Royal Air Force
    RC Reserve Components
    RDTE research, development, test, and evaluation
    RECCE reconnaissance
    REC radio electronic combat
    RF radio frequency
    RII request for intelligence information
    RISTA reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition
    rqr requirement

    S

    S2 Intelligence Officer (US Army)
    S5 Civil Affairs Officer (US Army)
    SA special agent
    SAEDA Subversion and Espionage Directed Against US Army and Deliberate Security Violations
    SALUTE size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment
    SAP special access program
    SATRAN see FM 34-5 (S) for classified identification
    SCA special category absentees
    SCARF standard collection asset request format
    SCI sensitive compartmented information
    SCO sub-control office
    sec section
    sgt sergeant
    SIGINT signals intelligence
    SIGSEC signals security
    SJA Staff Judge Advocate
    SLAR side looking airborne radar
    SM service member
    SMU special mission unit
    SOFA Status of Forces Agreement
    SOP standing operating procedure
    spec specialist
    SSB single sideband
    SSBI single scope background investigation
    SSN social security number
    STANAG Standardization Agreement
    svc service

    T

    tac tactical
    TAO tactical agent operation
    TDA Tables of Distribution and Allowances
    TDY temporary duty
    TEB tactical exploitation battalion
    TOC tactical operations center
    TOE tables of organization and equipment
    TRRIP Theater Rapid Response Intelligence Package
    TSCM technical surveillance countermeasures
    TTP tactics, techniques, and procedures
    TV television

    U

    UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
    UCMJ Uniform Code of Military Justice
    US United States (of America)
    USAF United States Air Force
    USAI United States Army Intelligence
    USAIC&FH US Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca
    USAR United States Army Reserve
    USMTF US message text format

    V

    VCR video cassette recorder

    W

    wpn weapon

    X

    xplat exploitation

Section II. TERMS

    Analysis - A stage in the intelligence cycle in which information is subjected to review in order to identify significant facts and derive conclusions therefrom.

    Assessment - Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned intelligence activity.

    Collection Intelligence Cycle - Acquisition of information and the provision of the information to processing or production elements. Communications Intelligence (COMINT) -Technical and intelligence information derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients.

    Communications Security (COMSEC) -The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Communications security includes- cryptosecurity; transmission security; emission security; and physical security of communications security materials and information.

    Compromising Emanations - Unintentional intelligence-bearing signals which, if intercepted and analyzed, disclose national security information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by an information-processing system.

    Counterintelligence (CI) - Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs. Synonymous with Foreign Counterintelligence.

    Counterintelligence (DOD, NATO) (JCS Pub 1) - Those activities which are concerned with identifying and counteracting the threat to security posed by hostile intelligence services or organizations, or by individuals engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion, or terrorism.

    Counterintelligence (Inter-American Defense Board) (JCS Pub 1) - That phase of intelligence covering all activity devoted to destroying the effectiveness of inimical foreign intelligence activities and to the protection of information against espionage, personnel against subversion, and installations or material against sabotage.

    CI Liaison - The establishment and maintenance of personal contacts between CI liaison officers and personnel of organizations which have missions, responsibilities, information resources, or capabilities similar to those of US Army intelligence. It is conducted to promote cooperation, unity of purpose, and mutual understanding; coordinate actions and activities; and to exchange information and viewpoints. OCONUS CI liaison also includes overt collection of foreign intelligence and CI; acquisition from foreign sources of material and assistance not otherwise available; and the procedures used to gain access to individuals whose cooperations, assistance, or knowledge are desired.

    Countermeasures - That form of military science that by the employment of devices or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity.

    Counter-Signals Intelligence (C-SIGINT) -Those actions taken to determine enemy SIGINT capabilities and activities, the assessment of friendly operations to identify patterns and signatures, and the resulting vulnerabilities for subsequent development and recommendation of countermeasures. Recommendations to counter the foreign SIGINT collector (FSC) and EW threat are provided to the G3 by the G2. They can include offensive measures such as electronic attack, to include jamming or deception; or targeting for fire or maneuver.

    Critical Node - An element, position, or communications entity whose disruption or destruction immediately degrades the ability of a force to command, control, or effectively conduct combat operations.

    Cryptosecurity - The component of COMSEC which results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use. Deception - Those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce them to react in a manner prejudicial to their interests.

    Doctrine - Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application.

    Electronic Protection (EP) - That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Formerly known as electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM).

    Electronic Attack (EA) - That division of electronic warfare involving the use of the electromagnetic or directed energy to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability. Formerly known as electronic countermeasures (ECM).

    Electronic Deception - The deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information and to deny valid information to an enemy or to enemy electronics-dependent weapons. Among the types of electronic deception are: manipulative electronic deception, simulated electronic deception, and imitative deception.

    Electronic Jamming - The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of disrupting enemy use of electronic devices, equipment or systems.

    Electronic Security (ELSEC) - The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, for example, radar.

    Electronics Intelligence (ELINT) -Technical and intelligence information derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources.

    Electronic Warfare (EW) - Military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum and action which retains friendly use of electromagnetic spectrum.

    Emission Control - The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize C 2 capabilities while minimizing, for OPSEC, detection by enemy sensors; to minimize mutual interference among friendly systems; or to execute a military deception plan.

    Emission Security - That component of COMSEC which results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crytoequipment and telecommunications systems.

    Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI) - Key questions about friendly intentions and military capabilities likely to be asked by opposing planners and decisionmakers in competitive circumstances.

    Foreign SIGINT Collector (FSC)/EW - A foreign entity employing electromagnetic and SIGINT techniques to target friendly forces for the purposes of detecting, exploiting, or subverting the C-E environment of the friendly commander.

    f-stop - A camera lens aperture setting indicated by an f-number.

    Human Intelligence (HUMINT) - A category of intelligence information derived from human sources.

    Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) - The collected products of imagery interpretation processed for intelligence purposes.Indicator - (1) In intelligence usage, an item of information that reflects the intention or capability of a potential enemy to adopt or reject a COA. (2) Activities that can contribute to the determination of a friendly COA.

    Intelligence - The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas.

    Liaison - That contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military forces to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action.

    Liaison Contact - The act of visiting or otherwise contacting a liaison source.

    Liaison Officer - A CI special agent (SA) assigned the mission of conducting CI liaison.

    Liaison Source - An individual with whom liaison is conducted. This term applies regardless of whether the individual furnishes assistance or is contacted on a protocol basis.

    Mission - (1) The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore. (2) In common usage, especially when applied to lower military units, a duty assigned to an individual or unit to task.

    Operations Security (OPSEC) - The process of denying adversaries information about friendly capabilities and intentions by identifying, controlling, and protecting indicators associated with planning and conducting military operations and other activities.

    Patterns - Stereotyped actions which so habitually occur in a given set of circumstances that they cue an observer, well in advance, to either the type of military unit or activity, its identity, capabilities or intent. Stereotyping occurs in a variety of ways, such as communications deployment techniques or historical association. Patterns must be unique and detectable to be of military significance.

    Profile - The picture formed through the identification and analysis of elements, actions, equipment, and details of military units or activity. Pattern plus signature equals profile.

    Risk - A measure of the extent to which a recommended countermeasure has been historically effective in eliminating a vulnerability, given a certain level of susceptibility and threat.

    Security - (1) Measures taken by a military unit, an activity or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or that may, impair its effectiveness. (2) A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences. (3) With respect to classified matter, it is the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security.

    Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) - A category of intelligence information comprising all communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and telemetry intelligence.

    Signals Security (SIGSEC) - A generic term that includes both COMSEC and ELSEC.Signature - The identification of a military unit or activity resulting from the unique and detectable visual, imagery, electromagnetic, olfactory, or acoustical display of key equipment normally associated with that type unit or activity.

    source - (1) A point of origin or procurement. (2) One that initiates.

    Source - Any person who furnishes intelligence information either with or without the knowledge that the information is being used for intelligence purposes. In this context, a controlled source is in the employment or under the control of the intelligence activity and knows that the information is to be used for intelligence purposes.

    SUBJECT - (1) A person who is the principal object of attention. (2) One who is under investigation. Susceptibility - The degree to which a device, equipment, or weapons systems is open to effective attack due to one or more inherent weaknesses.

    Threat - The technical and operational capability of a FSC or EW system to detect, exploit or subvert friendly signals and the demonstrated, presumed or inferred intent of that system to conduct such activity.

    Vulnerability - Characteristics of a friendly C-E system or cryptosystem which are potentially exploitable by FSC or EW systems. As applied in this manual, vulnerability is a susceptibility in the presence of a threat. Susceptibility in the absence of a threat does not constitute a vulnerability.



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