FM 34-52: Intelligence Interrogation
Joint Interrogation Facilities
A conceptual void exists concerning the formation and use of a joint interrogation facility (JIF). This chapter provides general guidance to an EAC interrogation and exploitation (I&E) battalion commander on how to form a JIF (information on the organization of an EAC I&E battalion can be found in FC 34-124). STANAG 2033 provides the authority for the use of a JIF.
Many contingencies exist worldwide under which the use of US forces could become necessary. These procedures are in general terms and allow the I&E battalion commander the latitude necessary to form a JIF under those contingencies.
The JIF is not a TOE organization, but it is formed to meet specific requirements. It is task organized using I&E battalion assets. The personnel provided by other services and agencies will depend upon theater requirements.
Combined interrogation centers (CICs) are interrogation facilities which are manned by more than one nation and are not addressed. CICs, in the European theater, are established according to STANAG 2033. The operation of a CIC is determined by international agreement.
In the constantly changing environment of today's world, our military forces could be called upon to enter into armed conflict in any level of intensity, anywhere on the globe. Unified and specified commands are totally prepared and react as necessary to multilevel threats of combat involvement. An intelligence collection facility is required to provide support to these joint commands.
The JIF provides support to joint commands for collection, analysis, and reporting of intelligence information. The JIF provides this support through the interrogation of category A sources and exploitation of CEDs based on theater and national level intelligence requirements.
The intelligence collection facility is comprised of interrogators, CI personnel, and analysts from the US Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and from various other US national agencies as required. They are established under one commander to operate as a JIF in the exploitation of documents and personnel. The JIF is a field activity of the joint command organized to meet theater requirements during crises or contingency deployments.
The organization of a JIF is tailored to meet the specific requirements of crises, contingency deployments, or military assistance operations to host nations. The Army component commander is designated as the executive agent for the establishment, organization, and functioning of the JIF. The EAC MI brigade commander, associated with the theater in question, will exercise command and control of the JIF.
The JIF, in meeting the specific requirements of crises, contingency deployment, or military assistance operations to host nations, is responsible for the following functions:
- Develop guidance and operational procedures for the conduct and management of all JIF functions.
- Coordinate with participating agencies and units to develop personnel selection criteria and assignment procedures necessary for partial or complete activation of the JIF.
- Organize, direct, manage, and control resources assigned to or included within the JIF.
- Supervise and direct full or partial activation of the JIF for the conduct of screenings and interrogation of sources, translation and exploitation of CEDs, and debriefing of captured or detained US personnel released or escaped from enemy control.
- Coordinate through the Army component with the theater J2 to ensure compatibility of other service components' plans and actions pertinent to the establishment and operation of the JIF.
- Coordinate through the Army component with the theater J2 the selection of suitable JIF operational sites.
- Coordinate with the provost marshal for all site operations.
- Coordinate and satisfy the intelligence collection requirements of theater and service components from available sources
- Perform liaison to theater, service components, and other agencies and organizations as deemed appropriate
- As directed, provide personnel as replacement, backup, or augmentation for service component interrogation organizations destroyed or depleted.
- Develop contingency,plans for the evacuation of the JIF and the destruction of classified material. Selected sources, documents, and equipment will be evacuated with US forces.
During crisis, contingency deployments, or military assistance to host nations, components will forward collection requirements to the theater command J2. The J2 serves as the requirements control authority and is responsible for the registration, validation, and establishment of priorities for JIF collection requirements. The J2 exercises staff cognizance over JIF operations.
The JIF deploys mobile interrogation teams (MIT) to identify, screen, and interrogate category A sources to satisfy theater collection requirements and support service component interrogation operations. MIT interrogation reports are forwarded to the JIF, theater J2, and service components. In response to these interrogation reports, the theater J2 prioritizes and forwards additional collection requirements for specific sources to the JIF. The JIF directs the MIT to conduct further interrogations or coordinate evacuation of the source to the JIF for further interrogation.
Vital information derived by MIT through interrogation of sources or exploitation of CEDs is reported via secure communications to JIF and theater J2.
Based on collection requirements and MIT screening reports and interrogations, the JIF identifies EPWs for priority evacuation to the theater camp for JIF exploitation. The JIF prepares and dissseminates source knowledgeability briefs (KB) to theater and national-level agencies. The JIF continually reviews the requirement to exploit these selected sources.
MIT assist lower echelon interrogators and intelligence specialists in the examination and categorization of CEDs for evacuation to the JIF.
Reports are submitted on all information of intelligence value. Initial reports are submitted electronically whenever possible to ensure that the information reaches the analysts in the least amount of time. Written reports are prepared according to the format contained in Appendix G. Copies of SALUTE and interrogation reports pertaining to specific category A sources accompany them when they are evacuated to the JIF. In situations where time-critical data is involved, secure voice SALUTE reports to the theater J2 may be used to supplement procedures.
Initial MIT reporting includes the interrogator's assessment of the category A source intelligence value. This assessment addresses the category A source's intelligence, experience, cooperation, and reliability. Any areas of special knowledge possessed by the category A source is also identified.
Effective coordination between the JIF and numerous component, theater, and national and host-government assets is necessary to ensure the success of JIF operations.
Theater J2 and service components' intelligence staffs require interface and coordination with the JIF to ensure collection requirements are satisfied accurately and in a timely manner. The success of JIF operations depends in part upon the screening, interrogation, and debriefing operations of division and corps interrogation and CI elements. The JIF establishes and maintains working relationships with service component HUMINT collection managers and interrogation and document exploitation units at all echelons. Service component members attached to the JIF facilitate this interface.
Interface and coordination with component security and military police elements are required to ensure the timely evacuation and proper safeguarding and exploitation of sources.
The JIF is located in the immediate vicinity of the theater EPW camp. The location of the EPW camp is the responsibility of the military police EPW camp commander. Army component G2s and provost marshal staffs coordinate all EPW planning about location.
Security arrangements for the EPW camp and planning for the segregation and safeguarding of JIF sources are the responsibility of the EPW camp commander. Sources are identified, classified, and segregated according to their status, sex, nationality, languages, and intelligence category. JIF sources are segregated and safeguarded from other sources. Security of the JIF and control over the sources within the JIF are under the direction of the JIF commander.
Component security and military police units are responsible for the evacuation, safeguarding, and control of sources. JIF MIT at lower echelons coordinate with these units for access to a source and the source's subsequent evacuation to the JIF.
JIF coordination and interface with theater and service component CI elements are necessary at all times. CI teams located at the JIF and with the MIT facilitate this interface and coordination. The JIF and MIT assist CI elements in the identification and exploitation of all sources of CI interest.
JIF coordination and interface with PSYOP and CA units are facilitated by direct access to members of these units conducting operations in support of military police EPW camps. PSYOP analysis concerning motivational and cultural factors of sources is of direct benefit to JIF operations.
JIF coordination and interface with legal, medical, and chaplain activities and authorities supporting EPW camps are required to ensure compliance with the Geneva Convention concerning the treatment and care of sources.
National agency access and participation in debriefings and interrogations conducted by the JIF are coordinated in advance through the theater J2. National agencies may establish liaison officers at the JIF.
Access to or knowledge of JIF operations and activities by host governments is coordinated through the theater J2.
To effect required interface and coordination, the JIF requires secure communications with the theater J2, service components, and the MIT. Secure record and voice communications circuits and telephone switchboard trunks are used. Interface and compatibility with service component interrogation and CI team communications are required.
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