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Intelligence

FM 34-45: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Electronic Attack

Chapter 3

Electronic Attack in Targeting: Key Personnel, Organizations, and Coordination

Targeting is the process of selecting targets and matching the appropriate response to them on the basis of operational requirements and capabilities. The DECIDE, DETECT, DELIVER, and ASSESS methodology directs friendly forces to attack the right target with the right asset at the right time.

The targeting process provides an effective method for matching the friendly force capabilities against a threat's targets. Another important part of the targeting process is to identify potential fratricide situations and perform the coordination necessary to positively manage and control the targeting effort. The targeting team and staff incorporate these measures into the coordinating instructions and appropriate annexes of the operations plans (OPLANs) and/or operations orders (OPORDs).

Targeting is a dynamic process; it must keep up with the changing face of the battlefield. The staff must continually update the tools and products described in this manual based on changing plans, situation development, and combat assessment. As a participant in the staff targeting process, the EWO ensures that EA is thoroughly integrated within targeting. This includes integrating EA into all the appropriate annexes and products.

ELECTRONIC ATTACK IN THE TARGETING METHODOLOGY

 

3-1. The modern battlefield presents many targets with different vulnerabilities exceeding the number of resources available to acquire and attack them. The commander must determine which targets are most important to the threat and, of those targets, which ones he must acquire and attack to accomplish his mission. Then as the operation unfolds friendly forces must identify, track, engage, and assess the results on priority threat targets.

DECIDE

 

3-2. DECIDE, as the first step in the targeting process, provides the overall focus, a targeting plan, and some of the priorities for intelligence collection. The targeting team must plan targeting priorities for each phase and critical event of an operation. Initially, the targeting team does not develop EA targets using any special technique or separately from targets for physical destruction. However, as the process continues these targets are passed through intelligence organizations and further planned using collection management (CM) procedures. The EA plan (from DECIDE) is integrated into the standard targeting products (graphic or text-based). Some of the most critical products that involve EA are the—

  • High-payoff target list (HPTL).
  • AGM.
  • EW annex.

3-3. Different personnel and organizations perform five processes as part of or in conjunction with the MDMP in order to plan EA:

  • Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB).
  • Target Development.
  • Requirements Management (RM).
  • Mission Management (MM).
  • Asset Management (AM).

DETECT

 

3-4. DETECT is a critical function in the targeting process. ES and EA assets deploy to detect HPTs (based on what the targeting team identified as HPTs during DECIDE). The intelligence operating system cross-queues assets based on a collection plan and the threat situation. It is critical that ES assets are deployed and work closely with EA assets. In order for EA assets to effectively perform EA, they need critical data like the location, signal strength, and frequency of the HPT. ES assets will find the "weak link" (with the support of the target assessment and signals intelligence [SIGINT] teams) in threat communications that the EA asset can attack.

DELIVER

 

3-5. DELIVER is the execution of EA against the targets identified in the HPTL, AGM, and EW annex once friendly forces identify, locate, and track HPTs. EA assets must satisfy the attack guidance developed during DECIDE. Executing EA requires close coordination between ES and EA assets when the EA asset is jamming the HPT. Recommend EA assets use maximum power based on mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, and time available-civilians (METT-TC). The commander makes the ultimate decision on how much power EA assets will use to accomplish the mission. Essential to this is the synchronization of lethal fires and nonlethal fires (EA). This synchronization is accomplished through AGMs, intelligence synchronization matrixes (ISMs), and EW annexes.

ASSESS

 

3-6. Combat assessment (CA) is the determination of the effectiveness of force employment during military operations. CA is composed of three elements:

  • Munitions effects assessment (MEA).
  • Battle damage assessment (BDA).
  • Reattack recommendations.

3-7. MEA and BDA (when combined by the staff) inform the commander of effects against targets and target sets. Based on this information, the G2 continually analyzes the threat's ability to conduct and sustain operations (sometimes expressed in terms of the threat's centers of gravity). The bottomline is to either recommend reattack or not. The specific assessment of EA involves all three of the elements of CA as an integrated part of the targeting effort. One unique part of MEA for EA is the close coordination between ES and EA assets necessary to perform an operator evaluation (based upon the jamming effectiveness).

3-8. BDA is the timely and accurate estimate of damage resulting from the application of military force (either lethal or nonlethal) against a target. BDA in the targeting process pertains to the results of any attack. Producing BDA is primarily an intelligence responsibility, but requires coordination with operational elements to be effective. BDA requirements may be translated into priority intelligence requirements (PIR) or information requirements (IR) if it is linked to the commander's decisions. The G2 answers BDA requirements by providing the commander a series of timely and accurate "snapshots" of the effects on the threat. The "snapshots" include an estimate of the threat's combat effectiveness, capabilities, and intentions. This helps the commander determine if their targeting effort is accomplishing their objectives and if reattack is necessary.

KEY ELECTRONIC ATTACK PERSONNEL AND ORGANIZATIONS

 

3-9. The main CP is the critical location that plans and, to a large extent, controls EA for division operations. This CP is functionally organized to support the coordination needed to synchronize targeting (EA is thoroughly integrated within these operations). Tailoring the structure and relationship of the staff sections is necessary to ensure a cohesive coordinated targeting effort. Figure 3-1 shows the key EA personnel and organizations.


Figure 3-1. Key EA Personnel and Organizations

THE COMMANDER

 

3-10. The commander issues guidance on the concept of operations for close, deep, and rear operations as well as for future operations. He defines the mission, the concept of operations, his intent, and supporting tasks. His intent and targeting objectives guide the actions of the targeting team.

TARGETING TEAM

 

3-11. The targeting team is an ad hoc organization, which is driven by mission. Generally, the team will consist of the Deputy Fire Support Coordinator (FSCOORD), Air Liaison Officer (ALO), EWO, and representatives from the G2, G3, Air Defense Artillery (ADA), Engineers, and Army Airspace Command and Control (A2C2) element. The G3 adds additional members as necessary (for example, Deception, PSYOP, Civil Affairs, or IO).

3-12. Targeting team members go through the target list and decide (with the guidance of the G3 representative) which targets to attack and with what type of fire (lethal and nonlethal). This task includes requesting support from higher echelons (for example, coordinating USAF support through the Battlefield Coordination Detachment (BCD) at the Air Operations Center [AOC]). The chief of staff is responsible for supervising the targeting processes, chairing targeting meetings, and leading the targeting team. The targeting team—

  • Develops HPTs from the high-value targets (HVTs).
  • Works with the G2 to perform target development.
  • Develops the HPTL, AGM, and BDA requirements.
  • Updates these products as the situation changes.

3-13. The Deputy FSCOORD is a key player in the targeting team. He provides the latest status of FS resources and plans their use in support of the operation. Specifically, he—

  • Coordinates the functions of the targeting team.
  • Recommends methods of attack for HPTs.
  • Develops timelines and accuracy guidelines for the target selection standards (TSSs) (in coordination with the G2 section).
  • Monitors changes in the situation and reassesses the HPTL, AGM, TSSs, and BDA requirements.
  • Coordinates subordinate units' attack requirements.
  • Receives BDA and determines if the desired effects were achieved or if additional attacks are required (with the G2 and G3).
  • Ensures the air tasking order (ATO) supports target nomination in accordance with SOPs.

G2 PLANS OFFICER

 

3-14. The G2 Plans Officer—

  • Maintains HVTs (with the targeting team analysis and control element [ACE] and field artillery intelligence officer [FAIO]).
  • Uses the targeting team ACE to template potential HPTs.
  • Recommends named areas of interest (NAIs) and target areas of interest (TAIs) to the G2 to support targeting.
  • Coordinates with the collection manager to ensure adequate intelligence collection to support the targeting plan.

ELECTRONIC WARFARE OFFICER

 

3-15. The EWO—

  • Helps the targeting team determine EA requirements against specific HPTs.
  • Ensures EA can meet the targeting effect (in terms of the targeting objective).
  • Coordinates with the SIGINT team (ACE) through the collection manager to satisfy ES and EA requirements.
  • Prepares the EW annex.
  • Provides EA MM for the division.
  • Prepares and coordinates the EW annex for OPLANs and OPORDs.
  • Determines and requests EAC EA support.
  • Recommends to the G3/G2 whether a target should be engaged with EA.
  • Expedites meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference (MIJI) reports to the ACE for targeting.

ANALYSIS AND CONTROL ELEMENT

 

3-16. The ACE provides support for EA missions through the collection manager, SIGINT team, targeting team, all-source team, and FAIO. This organization fuses intelligence to identify the best target inside a target set.

COLLECTION MANAGEMENT TEAM (ACE)

 

3-17. This team—

  • Passes specific information requirements (SIR) that support EW to the SIGINT team.
  • Works with the EWO, MI battalion, and SIGINT team to ensure that the collection plan and ISM are synchchronized with the AGM and EW annex.
  • Either develops EW tasking for organic or supporting EW assets or requests EW support from a higher echelon (with the EWO and SIGINT team).

TARGETING TEAM (ACE)

 

3-18. This team—

  • Interacts with the G2 Plans Officer, the FAIO, and the EWO to support EA as an integrated part of target development and targeting.
  • Produces and compares target overlays to IPB products and current intelligence. (NOTE: This is a critical part of critical nodes analysis.)
  • Nominates HPTs in support of the G2 Plans Officer.

FAIO

 

3-19. The FAIO—

  • Collocates with the ACE specifically near the targeting team (ACE), collection management team, and all-source team.
  • Supports the G2 Plans Officer (as necessary).
  • Supports the targeting team (as necessary).
  • Provides input concerning the threat, TSSs, attack guidance, and list of HPT types (as necessary).
  • Is the threat artillery expert in the ACE.
  • Provides feedback to the ACE, the targeting team, and artillery BDA via the division artillery S2.

SIGINT TEAM

 

3-20. This team—

  • Identifies and tracks targets (to include EA targets).
  • Performs MM and controls EA to include tasking EA and ES assets.
  • Provides technical data to the ES and EA assets.
  • Provides graphic depictions of line of sight (LOS) and threat target emitters.

DIVISIONAL MI BATTALION

 

3-21. The divisional MI battalion is responsible for conducting EW operations within the framework of the division commander's intent. To facilitate its mission, the G2 section provides the MI battalion the HPTL, AGM, EW annex, and the collection plan. The MI battalion is responsible to deploy the ES and EA assets and to provide training, maintenance, logistics, and AM. These ES and EA assets normally operate in general support (GS) to the division.

MI BATTALION COMMANDER

 

3-22. The MI battalion commander plans and directs the employment of his subordinate intelligence and intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) assets. The commander—

  • Coordinates with the G2, G3, and collection manager.
  • Acts as the asset manager. Employs assets in accordance with the OPORD (to include the EW annex).

GS MI COMPANY COMMANDER

 

3-23. The company commander directs the employment of his ES and EA assets. The commander—

  • Coordinates with the collection manager for the deployment of ES and EA assets for preplanned missions.
  • Provides service support to ES and EA teams.
  • Ensures the training of ES, EA, and target assessment teams.
  • Conducts signals intelligence/electronic warfare (SIGINT/EW) operations in accordance with tasking.
  • Performs rapid SIGINT analysis of collected data to determine which position will conduct tasking.

PLATOON OPERATIONS CENTER

 

3-24. The platoon operations center (POC) is the control point for ES and EA assets. The POC is comprised of a—

  • Transcription and analysis (TA) team.
  • Collection and jamming (C&J) platoon leader.

3-25. The POC is collocated with the brigade analysis and control team (ACT) and will assist the ACT in maintaining the enemy situation picture, MM, and AM of ES and EA.

C&J PLATOON LEADER

 

3-26. The C&J platoon leader is responsible for his ES and EA assets. The C&J platoon leader—

  • Coordinates with the G2 and the G3 for movement and secure routes in a GS role. While in a direct support (DS) role coordinates with the commander and/or S2.
  • Runs the POC which contains the TA team.
  • Ensures that teams are resupplied and that their service support requirements are met.

EA TEAM

 

3-27. EA teams provide operators and equipment to perform the actual EA mission. They—

  • Orient on targets and conduct EA.
  • Monitor targets when tasked by the SIGINT team.

ES TEAM

 

3-28. ES teams provide operators and equipment to perform ES mission. They—

  • Cue EA systems to targets.
  • Develop targets for EA.
  • Perform direction finding (DF) of targets for orientation of EA systems.

KEY ELECTRONIC ATTACK COORDINATION

 

3-29. The EWO coordinates with the following key staff members in order to plan and execute EA.

3-30. The G6—

  • Performs spectrum management to include deconflicting EA (in the form of the restricted frequency list [RFL]).
  • Coordinates closely with the Chief of Staff, G3, and other targeting team members to help develop the targeting plan.

DEEP OPERATIONS COORDINATION CELL

 

3-31. The Deep Operations Coordination Cell (DOCC) is an emerging organization that can be employed on a stand-alone or ad hoc basis. It is located at the main CP and plans, coordinates, and synchronizes the corps or division deep operations. Making deep operations work requires the full-time efforts of several personnel (FSCOORD, G3 plans, G2, and aviation officer). Additional assistance from other staff agencies (Deputy FSCOORD, EWO, ADA officer, ALO, G3 air, and PSYOP) are included as required. The chief of staff directs the DOCC and approves all deep operations. The DOCC, which has robust communication links—

  • Acts as the deep operations C2 node in order to support the successful execution of deep operations.
  • Stays abreast of the status of close and rear operations and continually assesses its relationship with deep operations.
  • Is responsible to confirm and validate the original DECIDE criteria for a deep operation target.
  • Allocates and controls the attack resource to engage the target.

3-32. With the DOCC in place, the C2 process is continuous and interactive. The DOCC ensures the commander's intent, missions, and events drive the process.

3-33. The G3—

  • Ensures the HPTL, AGM, and BDA requirements are integrated with the decision support template (DST) (by coordinating with the targeting team).
  • Ensures the plan to include targeting reflects the commander's concept of operation.
  • Determines if the desired effects were achieved or if reattack is required (with the Deputy FSCOORD and G2).

3-34. The G3 Air—

  • Supervises the A2C2 element.
  • Deconflicts the division's airspace. (NOTE: This is an important aspect of planning and execution if you plan to use EA from an air platform.)



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