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FM 34-45: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Electronic Attack

Chapter 2

Electronic Attack in Information Operations

IO are actions taken to affect adversaries and to influence other audiences' military decisionmaking policies (MDMPs), information, and information systems, and defend friendly MDMPs, information, and information systems. EW is an integral part of IO; consequently, EA is closely tied to IO planning, integration, and execution.



2-1. IO consist of two supporting elements: offensive IO and defensive IO.



2-2. Offensive IO are the integrated use of assigned and supporting capabilities and activities, mutually supported by intelligence, to affect adversary decisionmakers or to influence neutral audiences to achieve or promote specific objectives. The capabilities and activities include, but are not limited to, operations security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP), EW, physical destruction, special information operations, and computer network attack (CNA).



2-3. Defensive IO are the integration and coordination of policies and procedures, operations, personnel, and technology to protect and defend friendly information and information systems. Defensive IO are conducted through information assurance, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-propaganda, counterintelligence, EW, and special IO.

2-4. Defensive IO ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access while denying adversaries the opportunity to exploit friendly information and information systems for their own purpose. Although they are not integral components of IO, public affairs and civil affairs are enabling activities that may contribute in the execution of IO tasks and promote attaining specific IO objectives.



2-5. The goal of Army IO is to achieve information superiority. Information superiority is a window of opportunity created by a focused effort that allows the actions or beliefs of the enemy commander to be influenced in support of decisive operations. It can be gained by the integration and synchronization of information management and IO. Information management is the directing of relevant information to the right person at the right time in a usable format to facilitate decisionmaking. It uses procedures and information systems to collect, process, store, display, and disseminate data and information. (See Figure 2-1.)

2-6. One of the friendly commander's IO instruments to achieve or promote specific objectives is EW. EA is a valuable offensive IO tool. When planned, coordinated, synchronized, and integrated with the friendly FS plan, EA becomes a combat multiplier. EA can effectively confuse the threat and disrupt the threat commander's operation. The only difference between traditional EA planning and EA in support of IO involves the specific IO objectives and targets. Specific IO objectives may differ significantly from tactical military objectives. Additionally, the commander may use EA in support of IO and/or solely to complement supporting activities of IO. IO targets may include, but are not limited to, adversary perceptions, knowledge, personnel, equipment, information systems networks, or population.

Figure 2-1. Information Superiority


2-7. The planning, coordination, and execution of electronic fires remains consistent with the same methodology (Decide, Detect, Deliver, and Assess) described in FM 6-20-10. During the DECIDE phase, the IO cell brings unique IO HVTs into the wargaming process. This results in unique IO HPTs that are integrated with all HPTs into the attack guidance matrix (AGM). The electronic warfare officer (EWO) provides the IO cell feedback on the outcome of EA, so that the IO cell can decide whether or not to nominate the target for reattack. Due to the nature of IO, however, feedback may not be immediate and it may require a significantly longer period to make an assessment.

2-8. Successful application of EA in IO depends on IPB. Once the targets are identified, developed, and integrated in the targeting process, EA is applied as an effective IO tool. EA is synchronized and applied in conjunction with other IO elements and supporting activities to maximize the effect of these operations.

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