FM 34-45: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Electronic Attack
Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain
This appendix discusses the difficulties and restrictions on ES and EA in MOUT environments. These problems are hard to overcome.
G-1. Buildings diffract radio signals, making DFs highly inaccurate, unless systems have LOS. This in turn makes the use of EA difficult without accurate antenna orientation towards the target. The diffraction also hampers the ES if signals are at the threshold levels for intercept but are not intercepted due to the diffraction.
G-2. Use of terrain to lay landlines not readily detectable by friendly forces, (for example, the use of sewer systems) prevents the use of ES or EA on those communications. Urban environments favor the use of couriers to maintain C2 channels. A modern adversary in an urban environment can make use of secure Internet service to pass information (for example, passing calls for fire via the Internet).
G-3. SIGINT teams use EOB to identify threat communications systems and their critical nodes. Development of the EOB begins with MOUT IPB in which analysts template the EM spectrum and describe how the threat uses it. National level SIGINT teams and assets provide additional information which analysts use to refine the EOB and to support future developments in the EOB. Other elements, such as PSYOP teams, may contribute to the development of the EOB by providing information on communications architecture and critical nodes of public information systems.
G-4. The EWO uses EOB information developed by the SIGINT team to develop HPTs for specific COAs, and during the targeting process to determine targets for EA. The EWO also determines the support necessary to engage targets with assets from higher. During MOUT, IPB analysts can expect to find three critical communications systems common to most MOUT environments.
G-5. Aggressive and focused use of EA is critical in a MOUT environment. The threat C2 nets are critical targets. These nets provide the threat the ability to shape the battlespace to their advantage. In this constrained environment, where the environment favors the defender, the added advantage of a strong C2 net causes numerous difficulties culminating in unacceptably high losses.
G-6. Hospitals, ambulances, fire fighters, and other agencies rely on the use of telephones and Internet services to provide humanitarian assistance to numerous noncombatants: to disrupt these and cause a high loss of life to noncombatants must be weighed against the mission priority. These resources must be left intact, if possible, to provide services to maintain the populace. Friendly forces must curtail their EA of communication resources due to the ROE and humanitarian constraints. Civilian Affairs must be consulted before any barrage EA engagements begin, if at all possible, and must examine the legal and ethical ramifications of disrupting the noncombatant use of EM.
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