FM 34-45: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Electronic Attack
Direct Support To The Brigade
Tactical SIGINT and EW units operate normally in GS of the parent regiment, division, or corps. This support relationship is the most effective for providing SIGINT support to the commander's deep battle and information operations campaign. In the division, however, EW assets often operate in DS of the subordinate maneuver brigades. This support relationship increases the combat power of brigades and the effectiveness of EA during entry, cross-FLOT, and close battle offensive operations.
F-1. Task organization is the process of allocating available assets to subordinate commanders and establishing their command and support relationships. Formal task organization begins during COA analysis when the division commander assigns tasks to subordinate commanders and defines command and support relationships. These relationships are stated in the division OPORD and its annexes.
F-2. The MI battalion commander uses the division OPORD to task organize the battalion's EW assets. Annex A (Task Organization), Annex B (Intelligence) and Annex T (Electronic Warfare) provide the commander the information needed to allocate EW assets and support. Normally, the task organization for organic EW assets is not stated in Annex A but expressed as requirements in Annex B and Annex T of the division OPORD. It is the MI battalion commander who lays out the EW task organization and relationships within the MI battalion OPORD.
F-3. Although FM 101-5 does offer other support relationships, the most common relationship for MI units places EW and intelligence assets in a DS role to the maneuver brigade. To provide DS EW support, the MI battalion commander has two basic options for command relationships: GS-reinforcing and DS.
F-4. The GS MI company commander retains command of the EW assets. Since effective EA requires proximity to the enemy, this command relationship requires the GS MI company commander to maneuver, control, and supply the EW assets over an extended AO. It does, however, support rapid redirection of support between GS and DS with minimum disruption to command and technical control. This relationship is appropriate for short duration offensive missions, during defensive operations, or when the size of the AO is small enough to enable effective C2.
F-5. The battalion commander attaches the EW assets from the GS MI company to the DS MI company. This relationship improves the synchronization of EA with the brigade FS plan. It also adds additional logistic burden on the DS MI company and increases the company's "footprint" (physical and communications) within the brigade's AO. This relationship is recommended for entry and cross-FLOT operations, movement to contact situations, and extended offensive operations where EA is a significant combat multiplier in the close battle.
F-6. When the MI battalion FRAGO or OPORD arrives, the GS MI company commander coordinates the linkup between the EW assets and the DS MI company. The commander issues a FRAGO to the EW assets that includes departure time, routes, linkup location and time, and pertinent command and signal instructions. Attachment is effective upon linkup between the EW assets and the DS MI company. The DS MI company commander integrates the EW assets into the unit and familiarizes the officer or NCOIC with the brigade's mission and AO. The attachment remains in effect until the MI battalion commander orders a change to the task organization or the EW assets complete the mission as specified by criteria (event, time, or location) in the OPORD.
ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS
F-7. EW assets attached to a DS MI company vary in size and capability based on the mission and unit. In heavy divisions, the MI battalion traditionally attaches a C&J platoon to the DS MI company supporting an armored or mechanized brigade. The C&J platoon consists of a headquarters element, a TA team, a voice intercept team, and an EA team. The headquarters element and the analysis team collocate with the DS MI company ACT. This physical collocation ensures that EW is integrated into the brigade's concept of operation and allows the S2 to leverage the combined analytic power of the ACT and the TA team. The DS MI company works with the brigade S3 to ensure intercept and EA positions are coordinated with brigade for terrain management and security purposes. Once coordinated, the intercept and attack teams use the same TTP described in Chapters 5 and 6 to move to and occupy sites.
F-8. The brigade uses the same process described in Chapter 4 to plan and execute EW operations. While the overall process remains the same, some roles and responsibilities are shifted and consolidated at brigade level. Some of these changes are discussed below.
ELECTRONIC WARFARE OFFICER
F-9. At brigade level, the C&J platoon leader assumes the special staff officer role and responsibilities of the EWO.
F-10. The TA team provides the ACT a scaled-down version of the ACE SIGINT team at division. The size of the team and the nature of brigade level operations limit the degree of EW target development that the team performs. At this level, the team's primary tasks are to assist the ACT in maintaining the enemy situation picture and MM of subordinate EW assets. Both tasks rely on the team's low-level analysis of C&J platoon's intercepts, broadcast reports received from the common ground station, and technical support from the ACE. The SIGINT analyst in the team performs target value analysis and target nomination based on the understanding of the current situation derived from these information sources. More detailed analysis of potential enemy electronic targets must come from the ACE. Since the team lacks an organic processor, it must receive ACE EOB, SIGINT templates, and EW targeting data from the ACE.
F-11. When required, operators of the intercept and EA systems perform the initial assessment of the effects of their EA missions. The operators pass the assessment and technical data to the TA team. The TA team consolidates the assessments and forwards them the C&J platoon leader. The C&J platoon leader, as the EWO, evaluates the operator assessments and provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of EA missions to the S2 and the FSCOORD. The S2 incorporates the evaluation into the BDA of the target while the FSCOORD rolls the information into the overall combat assessment. Based on the C&J platoon leader's evaluation and the S2's BDA, the FSCOORD makes a reattack recommendation to the commander.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|