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Intelligence

FM 34-36: Special Operations Forces Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations

CHAPTER 8

INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT TO CIVIL AFFAIRS OPERATIONS

This chapter discusses the organization and mission of CA units, and the support CA operations provide to the CA units. It addresses the IEW support MI provides to IEW system.

MISSIONS

CA units support strategic, operational, and tactical missions across the operational continuum.

In strategic missions, CA units support the NCA when conducting missions for the theater CINCs in areas such as support to US nation-building efforts. CA units can also support US HUMINT.

In operational missions, CA units support the theater CINC by--

  • Supporting military intelligence efforts by means of US goals in a FID role. CA units provide advice and assistance in population and resource control (PRC) measures, civic action, and civil assistance.
  • Supporting other SOF in a UW environment. CA units provide advice and assistance in PRC measures, organization of auxiliaries, civic action, and political warfare.
  • Conducting civil administration missions. CA units--

    -- Assist a host government to meet its people's needs and to maintain a stable and viable civil administration.

    -- Support noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO).

    -- Establish a temporary civil administration to maintain law and order and to provide life-sustaining services until the host nation can resume normal operations. This must be done at the request of the host nation.

    -- Establish a civil administration in occupied enemy territory. This will remain in effect until the local authorities are capable of administering a system that is supportive of US and allied objectives. Autonomy is restored to civil authorities as directed by the NCA.

In tactical missions, CA units support the tactical commander by--

  • Identifying available local resources, facilities, and support.
  • Coordinating US requirements for and assisting in obtaining local resources, facilities, and support.
  • Minimizing civilian interference with US military operations.
  • Assisting the commander in meeting legal and moral obligations to the local populace by temporarily providing support of goods and services through the host government agencies to the local population.
  • Supplementing the intelligence effort by being a HUMINT collector.
  • Acting as the staff focal point for cultural aspects that impact on military operations.

The mission of the AC battalion is to support non-mobilization contingency operations that are directed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and to support Army and joint SOF.

The mission of the RC forces is to augment AC capabilities and to plan and conduct CA activities associated with the broad range of functional specialty skills identified in FM 41-10, Chapter 2.

CA support to the primary SOF missions includes minimizing civilian interference and controlling noncombatants during DA missions, civic action, civil defense and other developmental and stability activities in support of FID and UW missions. CA support to collateral SOF missions includes humanitarian assistance and CMO in the JSOA.

ORGANIZATION

The majority of CA units are in the US Army Reserve. These units are the major supporting elements for each of the warfighting unified commands. The US Army RC CA forces include 3 commands, 9 CA brigades or groups, and 25 CA companies. Unlike conventional forces, CA units are area oriented and must concentrate on a specific theater and its associated languages, cultures, and environments. There is only one CA battalion in the AC. This organization is discussed below.

CA COMMAND (RC)

CA commands are assigned to a theater army. They--

  • Plan, manage, and conduct CA operations. This is done in support of the theater army commander through the command of CA units and by conducting required staff support to other component services and the joint theater staff.
  • Provide interface between national civil authorities and US military forces.
  • Establish procedures for coordination of host-nation support to US requirements. Figure 8-1 shows a type of RC CA command.



CA BRIGADE (RC)

CA brigades can be assigned to a theater army when designated as the senior CA unit in theater. They--

  • Can also be assigned to a theater army area command (TAACOM) or a corps headquarters.
  • Plan, manage, and conduct CA operations in support of the TAACOM or corps through the C2 of attached CA units, and staff support to other component services and joint theater staff.
  • Provide CA units to support CMO of TAACOM, area support group (ASG), corps G5, corps support command, and division and brigade G5. Figure 8-2 shows a type of RC CA brigade.



CA BATTALION (GS) (AC)

CA battalions can be assigned to the theater army, SF group headquarters, headquarters CA command, headquarters CA brigade (when designated senior CA unit), JTF, or joint special operations task force (JSOTP) as required. They--

  • Function as a C2 element in multiple theaters for CA units assigned or attached to US joint, service, or functional component and combined commands for contingency and crisis.
  • Can deploy rapidly into any theater to provide C2 support to US joint service, or functional component and combined commanders.
  • Plan and conduct CA operations in support of SOF in FID and UW environments, and in support of general purpose forces.
  • Provide assistance to US military SOF FID missions coordinated as a part of a US security assistance program.
  • Facilitate the relationships between the military forces, civil authorities, and people of the nations in which the military forces are in country to execute CA-type activities.
  • Plan, train, and teach foreign nation military forces to execute CA-type activities supporting military civic action, population and resource control, civil defense, community relations, and other programs, as required.
  • Conduct CA activities in DS of SOF in the conduct of UW missions; they also accompany SF teams.
  • Train, advise, and assist other agencies about the cultural environment and ways to conduct and support military civic action projects in which operations occur or are anticipated.
  • Identify and assist in the acquisition of available local resources, facilities, and support to enhance the ability of the commander to accomplish the mission.
  • Provide in-country support and assistance to the US country team and other US government agencies, as required or directed (for example, the United States Agency for International Development, United States Information Agency).
  • Advise on the administration of refugee camps external but adjacent to the SF operational area in friendly nations.
  • Support SOF in UW operations; advise and assist indigenous resistance forces, when directed, in developing political infrastructures to extend influence and legitimacy in contested areas.
  • Provide technical advice and assistance to minimize local population interference with US military operations and conduct noncombatant evacuation operations to minimize adverse effects on mission accomplishment.
  • Provide humanitarian and civic assistance under US and foreign national laws or under international agreements in coordination with the staff judge advocate (SJA) to allow the commander to fulfill legal and moral obligations to the local population.
  • Supplement the intelligence cycle and psychological and informational operations activities at operational and tactical levels.
  • Provide a regionally oriented language capability.

Figure 8-3 shows the organization of the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne).



The AC battalion consists of an HHC and four regionally oriented companies. There is one company for each theater, with one company being responsible for two theaters.

CA unit intelligence activities address the full spectrum of cultural, social, political, and economic activity within the area of present or potential operations. It is only through a coordinated effort that CA and MI assets can provide all the information necessary for the commander to accomplish the CA mission.

ORGANIC INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT TO CIVIL AFFAIRS UNITS

Organic intelligence assets focus on collecting, processing, and disseminating intelligence. This intelligence includes--

  • All aspects of the civilian population.
  • Social institutions.
  • Government of an area.
  • The full spectrum of economic activity within a present or potential operational area.

CA personnel engaged in CMO can obtain first-person information from many local sources. CA personnel must maintain their "military diplomat" status through passive elicitation activities. Active intelligence collection by CA personnel would severely hurt other CMO if discovered.

COMMAND AND STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES

The commander directs the IEW process through the SIO and the S3. The commander relies on the SIO to provide intelligence and combat information. Accurate, complete, and timely CA intelligence enables the commander and staff to estimate, in advance, what effect CMO may have on the mission or COAs. Ongoing intelligence support about popular attitudes toward civic action projects allows the commander to free-tune projects to better meet area needs.

Intelligence on potential threat activities is critical. This includes possible terrorism, sabotage, and propaganda directed against planned or ongoing civic action projects. Such timely intelligence can allow for planning and implementing effective countermeasures.

SENIOR INTELLIGENCE OFFICER

The CA unit S2 is the SIO. The SIO and staff are the only MI assets organic to the CA unit. The SIO--

  • Establishes liaison with host-nation military and government agencies.
  • Coordinates with the chief of the security assistance organization and the area coordination center in each operational area to meet the commander's intelligence needs.
  • Supervises organic and attached intelligence assets.
  • Integrates CA intelligence efforts with other units and agencies.
  • Assesses enemy CA and PSYOP capabilities, potential COAs, and their effect.
  • Produces and disseminates CA intelligence and CA CMO estimates.

The SIO ensures area studies are available for each country and area where operations might be conducted. Area studies for locations where missions might be conducted and missions that support CONPLANs are given priority during the development process. The SIO uses IPB, with overlays, to reveal issues or items important to CA units. Some of these overlays are--

  • Demographics showing dominant racial, religious, cultural, or political population densities. The SIO uses these overlays to template prevailing attitudes and loyalties in nonhomogeneous populations.
  • Public utilities showing the location and capability or capacity of all public utility buildings (such as power stations and substations, pumping stations, phone company switches, and waste handling facilities). These overlays, when used in conjunction with maneuver overlays, project the impact combat operations will have on the local population's ability to maintain basic living conditions.
  • Health services support showing the location of private and public health service facilities (such as hospitals; pharmacies; and doctors, dentists, and veterinary offices). These overlays should reveal details such as capacity, age, capabilities, and equipment about each facility.
  • Population displacement. These overlays include--

    -- Projected overlays showing the routes most likely to be used by a displacing population given a set of projected conditions (for example, disruption of the food supply or destruction of the town).

    -- Current situation overlays showing routes currently being used by displacing populations, including the refugee camps that have developed or are beginning to develop.

NONORGANIC INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT TO CIVIL AFFAIRS

Since CA units have limited organic IEW support, non-organic IEW support is required. Nonorganic support enables the SIO to develop accurate, complete, and timely intelligence to help the commander estimate the influence of CA factors on the mission or potential COAs. When deployed, active duty CA units normally request this support through the SOC J2 or TASOSC DOI. While in CONUS, CA units request support through USASOC.

IEW SUPPORT FROM HIGHER HEADQUARTERS

The SOC J2 primarily is concerned with in-theater IEW policy formulation, planning and coordination. The SOC J2--

  • Ensures that sufficient intelligence support is available for each mission tasked by the SOC.
  • Relies on the theater service IEW organizations to collect, produce, and disseminate intelligence to meet CA requirements.
  • Tasks subordinate SOF units to collect and report information in support of CA intelligence requirements.

The SOC J6 coordinates to obtain secure SCI voice and data communications between the headquarters of the SOC, its component commands, and the TASOSC.

The TASOSC DIO provides all-source IEW support to all in-theater ARSOF. Complying with guidance from the SOC J2, the DIO validates, consolidates, and prioritizes standing and routine IR and RIIs. He then forwards them to the TASOSC ISE collocated at the theater Army MI brigade's EACIC.

Under the staff supervision of the TASOSC DOI, the ISE--

  • Responds to RIIs by integrating them into the EACIC requirements list.
  • Monitors RII status until the appropriate collection assets respond.
  • Maintains an intelligence data base to support ARSOF requirements.

OPORDs, OPLANs, campaign plans, and supporting CA and intelligence annexes contain specific CA intelligence requirements. Most of these requirements are validated and incorporated into CA and IEW collection plans. (See FM 34-1, Appendix H; and FM 34-2, Appendix A.)

In order to meet some of these requirements, SIOs may need to reinforce or refocus available IEW assets. Often, the CA or IEW SIO needs to enter the IEW system to access information or intelligence from other CS unit intelligence agencies; or sources at lower, adjacent, and higher echelons or national CA level.

This intelligence support helps the commander and staff determine the--

  • Conditions existing within an operational area.
  • Techniques and the degree of control to use on the local populace.
  • Identities and backgrounds of key personalities, groups, or regions.
  • Resources available from US forces host-nation resources.
  • Measures required to reestablish or develop viable political, economic, and sociological conditions.

CA units use the information and intelligence gathered from all the intelligence disciplines and from the EW and CI functional areas to meet IEW needs. The scope and nature of the mission determines the type of IEW support required. Examples of CA needs which may require nonorganic support include, but are not linked to, intelligence or information about the--

  • Topography, hydrography, climate, weather, and terrain (including land formation, drainage, vegetation, and soils).
  • Attitude of the population including ideological, religious, and cultural aspects.
  • Sociological factors including the real power structure in the area.
  • Educational philosophy, standards, and facilities; important cultural activities; and repositories.
  • Population census, location, ethnic composition, dietary habits, and health factors.
  • Political system, governmental structure, personalities, laws, and political heritage.
  • Communications, transportation, utilities, power, and natural resources.
  • Labor potential, including availability by type and skill; practices; and organizations.
  • Effects of war damage.
  • Resistance movements.
  • Organization and operation of forces in the area and the extent and degree of voluntary local support.
  • Structure, orientation, capabilities, and reliability of indigenous public safety and law enforcement organizations.
  • Foodstuffs, tobacco products, or alcoholic beverages peculiar to the area.
  • Documentary items including passports, visas, vehicle operator licenses, and birth and marriage records.
  • Hostile civilian activities including espionage, sabotage, and other factors of subversion and disaffection.
  • Economic system and state of development including principal industrial, scientific, and technical capabilities; commercial processes; banking structure; monetary system; price and commodity controls; and extent and nature of agricultural production.
  • State of technological advancement.
  • Existing conditions and programs relating all CA functional specialities.
  • Demographics showing dominant racial, religious, cultural, or political population densities. The SIO uses these overlays to template prevailing attitudes and loyalties in nonhomogenous populations.
  • Public utilities showing the location and capability or capacity of all public utility buildings (such as power stations and substations, pumping stations, phone company switches, and waste handling facilities). These overlays, when used in conjunction with maneuver overlays, project the impact combat operations will have on the local population's ability to maintain basic living conditions.
  • Health services support showing the location of private and public health service facilities (such as hospitals; pharmacies; and doctors, dentists, and veterinary offices). These overlays should reveal details such as capacity, age, capabilities, and equipment about each facility.
  • Population displacement. These overlays include--

    -- Projected overlays showing the routes most likely to be used by a displacing population given a set of projected conditions (for example, disruption of the food supply or destruction of the town).

    -- Current situation overlays showing routes currently being used by displacing populations, including the refugee camps that have developed or are beginning to develop,

INTELLIGENCE DISCIPLINES SUPPORTING CA OPERATIONS

There are primarily five intelligence disciplines which significantly support CA operations.

HUMINT Support

HUMINT is collected using a variety of methods. HUMINT collectors--

  • Interrogate EPWs and debrief or interview civilian internees, detainees, and refugees.
  • Debrief returned captured US personnel, escapees, and evaders.
  • Exploit CED and CEM.
  • Perform controlled collection.
  • Conduct LRSO, patrols, and OPs.
  • Conduct liaison with local military or paramilitary forces and the local populace; and obtain reports from friendly troops.

CA units use HUMINT to help determine the extent of war damage in threat-controlled areas. HUMINT can also help to locate key technical personnel who can be of use in repairing or operating key infrastructure once friendly forces arrive.

Interrogation support for CA operations is available from the supported command's MI brigade or tactical exploitation battalion. Otherwise, interrogators are collocated at EPW collection points and holding facilities at echelons, division, and above. Interrogation information then is incorporated into the all-source product. When CA units need information for mission planning that only interrogators might provide, they must coordinate their requirements with the command that has interrogators.

SIGINT Support

SIGINT is developed from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of information derived from intercepted electromagnetic emissions. SIGINT subdivisions include COMINT, ELINT, and FISINT. By integrating SIGINT with other resources, accurate targeting and threat data can be obtained. CA units can use SIGINT to pinpoint telecommunications and mass media facilities in target areas. Key facilities damaged during hostilities or natural disasters may have to be repaired and operated by US CA elements.

IMINT Support

CA units use IMINT in varied ways. IMINT helps locate and determine the operational status of key civil infrastructure in denied areas where US forces may be deployed.

This includes identifying and evaluating operational capabilities of transportation networks, factories, and other public structures or systems.

IMINT tasking is done through either FRAGO or intelligence annexes to the OPORD, SOP, or RII. Formats to request support from national systems are in the J-TENS Manual, Sections 3,4, and 5; and FM 34-2, Appendix C. IMINT systems controlled by a higher headquarters, other services, or national agencies respond to approved RII through appropriate channels,

The channels used depend on the requesting unit and the requirement, the agency receiving the request, and command procedures. Corps and division assets can provide IMINT when the target area falls within the range of their organic systems. Other services and national assets also can be tasked to provide dedicated IMINT support to SOF operations.

TECHINT Support

TECHINT consists of S&TI and battlefield TECHINT. TECHINT provides CA personnel with intelligence about foreign technological developments and the performance and operational capabilities of foreign materiel. Battlefield TECHINT, a subdivision of TECHINT, provides the tactical commander with countermeasures to neutralize and defeat enemy systems and materiel. CA units use TECHINT to identify key technical characteristics and specifications of threat construction equipment, industrial facilities, and utilities (for example, electric and gas) in target areas.

CI Support

CI detects, evaluates, counteracts, or prevents foreign intelligence collection, subversion, sabotage, and terrorism. It determines security vulnerabilities and recommends countermeasures. CI operations support OPSEC, deception, and force protection.

In CONUS, the security division, USASOC, conducts liaison with US and foreign intelligence and law enforcement agencies as appropriate. This liaison is an important element of CI support to CA units. CI supports OPSEC by providing MDCI information and products, such as the MDCI appendix, to CA OPLANs and OPORDs. Additional CI support is obtained from the CONUS CI group as required. Upon deployment, CI support is obtained from the appropriate theater MI brigade. For additional information on CI and HUMINT, see FM 34-60 and FM 34-60A.

OTHER NONORGANIC SUPPORT

Other nonorganic support includes weather and MC&G products. Weather is often the driving force behind CA missions. Severe weather such as hurricanes, tornados, and floods often require the deployment of US forces to assist in disaster relief efforts. Severe weather during combat and noncombat missions may require the diversion of resources to relief operations.

Regardless of the primary mission, CA units must have advanced knowledge of seasonal and nonseasonal weather patterns. Direct weather support should include, but not be limited to--

  • Weather advisories and warnings.
  • Long-range weather forecasts.
  • Precipitation patterns.
  • Wind patterns.
  • Tidal data.

CIVIL AFFAIRS SUPPORT TO THE INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEM

Although CA personnel are in an ideal position to collect a variety of intelligence and information, it is not their primary mission. Their job is to establish a close working relationship with the local populace in day-to-day operations. Thus, this places CA personnel in a favorable position to--

  • Collect intelligence information.
  • Assist intelligence personnel in civilian-related activities.
  • Identify local civilians with special skills or backgrounds that may aid the intelligence community.

Since CA personnel work closely with the host-nation populace, they can assist CI personnel by--

  • Screening civilian officials.
  • Identifying hostile agents among dislocated and local civilians.
  • Locating and apprehending war criminals and enemy military personnel posing as civilians.
  • Detecting and preventing sabotage.



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