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FM 34-2: Collection Management And Synchronization Planning

CHAPTER 5
COLLECTION MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

The collection management process does not dramatically change with echelon or operation (joint, combined, or interagency). Organization, terminology, and tools may vary, but the steps stay the same.

The following covers considerations in applying the collection management process at different echelons and during different types of military operations.

Joint, Combined, and Interagency Operations

JOINT OPERATIONS
Joint intelligence is rapidly evolving into a "pull down" system . . . when the JTF pulls, the strings reach to the top.

                  --Joint Pub 2-01

Organization

    There is no standard collection management organization at existing joint-level commands. There are CM&D sections that perform the CRM and COM functions. This section often interfaces with a Joint Reconnaissance Center (JRC) for the conduct of airborne collection during operations other than war. Another approach is the Collection Coordination Center (CCC), organized by intelligence disciplines.
    The JTF is the primary organization for joint operations, especially during force projection. The JTF performs missions of short duration with specific, limited objectives. The JTF draws units from theater components and may receive out-of-theater augmentation in terms of units, intelligence capabilities, and communications.
    The collection management organization includes component collection management sections, the JTF headquarters CM&D, and JIC collection managers. Since the organization is not fixed, but is tailored to each mission, collection managers must quickly learn and become proficient at using the systems available to the JTF.

Operations

    JTF service component commanders employ forces to accomplish operational tasks, including intelligence collection. There is a tasking relationship, therefore, between the JTF CM&D and service components.
    The JTF also relies upon national collectors and production agencies to fill intelligence gaps. The JTF sends collection requirements and requests for intelligence to the JIC. If the JIC determines that a new collection requirement is warranted, the collection requirement goes to the National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC) for resolution.

COMBINED OPERATIONS

Organization

    If a coalition or alliance enters into combined operations, command and control may remain essentially national or it may integrate. Either way, intelligence remains a national responsibility. US units subordinated to a non-US headquarters may require augmentation with translators and interpreters and "front end" terminals (MITT, FAST-I) or complete processors (IPDS, EPDS) to ensure their continued connectivity with US theater and national collection systems.

Operations

    Intelligence collection operations in a combined environment are affected by the confusion factors of language, differing tasking and request channels and formats, information classification and releasibility concerns, and national sensitivities.
    Collection managers must be familiar with allied and coalition collection and communications systems and the tasking and request channels they require. A proven technique is the use of intelligence liaison personnel to formulate effective collection strategy and facilitate rapid dissemination.
    Another complication is the disparity in the collection capabilities of the US and other nations. While other nations often have greater HUMINT resources within a given region, there usually exists a large technological disparity between US and non-US collection capabilities. A combined unit commander must establish a system that optimizes each nation's contributions and provides all units a high quality intelligence picture.
    US units subordinated to non-US headquarters may face unique problems in disseminating intelligence. If a direct channel is available to the next higher US headquarters, the tactical US unit may have better and more current intelligence than its controlling non-US headquarters. In that instance, liaison personnel have a responsibility to disseminate intelligence both up and down, while adhering to restrictions that deal with the release of intelligence to other nationals.

INTERAGENCY OPERATIONS

Organization

    The primary consideration from an organizational and leadership standpoint is the absence of a formal command structure. Non-DOD agencies often operate with management and direction vice command, complicating any attempt at maintaining unity of effort. Each non-DOD agency--
    • Will have its own collection management structure.

    • May have been augmented with special collection assets.

    • Will most likely enjoy exceptional access to national systems.
    An excellent example of a joint headquarters operating in an interagency environment is US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and a variety of economic development agencies exercise non-DOD elements of national power throughout the region.

Operations

    Interagency operations require a robust liaison environment to make things work. Additionally, in the absence of command unity, commanders and agency chiefs should establish formal agreements to ensure all parties clearly understand their responsibilities and relationships within the system.
    In the collection management arena, formal agreements should specify tasking and request relationships, timelines, and formats. They should identify who, or which agency, has PIR and collection plan approval authority. The responsibility for collection platform readiness and scheduling and the elements of availability should be clearly defined.

Collection Management at Various Echelons

ECHELONS ABOVE CORPS

Organization

    The EAC MI brigade establishes support elements at the corps Analysis and Control Company to effect the ISOS "push-pull" concept. This organization is the Corps Military Intelligence Support Element (CMISE).
    The EAC structure also supports Theater Army collection management with personnel from the echelon above corps intelligence center (EACIC) of the MI brigade.

Equipment

    The EAC MI brigade provides Army all-source collection capability at the theater level. Overt and controlled collection HUMINT programs, SIGINT collection and analysis systems, measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) and technical intelligence (TECHINT) teams, and a variety of IMINT collection and exploitation systems form a formidable family of collectors. The brigade is tailored to meet the intelligence needs of the theater and may have organic tactical exploitation of national capabilities (TENCAP) processors, airborne reconnaissance low (ARL), Joint STARS, TRACKWOLF, and single source processing-SIGINT (SSP-S). The brigade may also have access to automated collection management applications, including system-specific software.

Operations

    Aside from the CMISE and theater staff augmentation, the brigade performs the asset management function in response to external tasking. The theater collection management organization exercises tasking authority through the brigade S3.
    National assets and agencies provide significant support to EAC, and the theater collection manager leverages national level collectors and producers on behalf of the corps. For further discussion on EAC operations, see FM 34-37.

CORPS

Organization

    The scope of corps operations requires a robust collection management structure within the ACE. In addition to requirements managers, mission managers, and the MI brigade S3, there may be liaison personnel from organic collection units, such as the aerial exploitation battalion.
    The CMISE serves as a "smart bridge" between echelons. CMISE collection managers assist the corps in pulling collection schedules, strategies, and posture reports, and in ensuring product dissemination from EAC. They also serve as subject matter experts on EAC collection system capabilities and tasking mechanisms.
    During deployments, the CMISE will provide continuing direction to potential stay-behind processors such as IPDS or EPDS. They maintain focus on the corps AI while the corps is in transit and support the forward CM&D section from garrison.

Equipment

    The corps has an impressive array of collection and exploitation systems and units. HUMINT collectors include the ACR, the LRS company, and CI and interrogation teams. The principal SIGINT collector is GRCS. There are TENCAP processors (EPDS, IPDS) to link the corps with national systems. Mobile terminals like the Joint STARS GSM and MITT provide mixed and redundant coverage to the corps on the move. The corps may have access to automated collection management applications, including system-specific software.

Operations

    The corps conducts detailed collection management planning, resulting in "tools" (such as IEW synchronization matrix, collection plan, asset evaluation worksheets) tailored to the commander's needs. While the corps enjoys a good mix of organic collection and processing assets, collection capability is finite and must be carefully balanced between many competing missions (such as target and situation development and BDA). The corps collection manager generally tasks organic assets to satisfy the majority of his intelligence requirements, relying on requests to fill remaining voids. With a number of subordinate units, the. dissemination responsibility grows. This includes secondary imagery dissemination for those corps with an organic imagery exploitation system.
    The corps collection manager requires automation and mission management applications to optimally exercise these functions. He also must have direct connectivity to organic asset managers to continuously monitor collector readiness and performance in a fast-paced operational environment. For more discussion on corps operations, see FM 34-25.

DIVISION

Organization

    The division collection management structure also fits within the ACE. It is a scaled-down version of the corps organization, retaining separate requirements and mission management functions. There is no EAC augmentation element at division level.

Equipment

    The division has fewer organic assets than its higher headquarters. The division's cavalry squadron, LRS detachment, and CI and interrogation teams provide HUMINT support. There is ground-based and limited aerial SIGINT collection. The UAV and Joint STARS GSM will provide the IMINT capability divisions currently lack. "Front-end" terminals (such as MITT, FAST-I) allow the division to "pull" IMINT and electronic intelligence (ELINT) from corps and EAC.

Operations

    Division collection management operations resemble those at corps. Again, it is a question of scale and level of detail. The division collection management organization generates an ISM and collection plan. Asset evaluation worksheets may not be as important due to the reduced number of assets. The division collection manager ensures he develops specific and prioritized intelligence requirements for transmission to corps for action, following through until each requirement is satisfied. For further discussion on division operations, see FM 34-10.

DIVISIONAL MANEUVER BRIGADE

Organization

    At division level and higher, the collection management process is shared among several elements. At brigade level the same personnel in the S2 section will usually perform all six steps of the collection management process.

Equipment

    The Joint STARS GSM provides the brigade with a link to the intelligence provided by division and higher level assets. For HUMINT resources, brigades rely on their battalions' scouts and augmentation with CI and interrogation teams from division. Light brigades also receive GSR and REMBASS support.

Operations

    Although the collection management process remains the same, the brigade S2 section may not generate a separate IEW synchronization matrix; consolidation with the brigade's BOS matrix may suffice. Similarly, SORs are usually less developed with SIRS often passed directly to collection assets. The brigade's collection plan is usually supplemented with graphics in the form of a consolidated R&S overlay.
    The consolidated R&S overlay is the collection plan in graphic form. Its foundation is the event template, a result of the brigade's IPB and decision making process. The event template is modified to depict, as a minimum, the deployed or planned deployment of the brigade's R&S assets and control measures associated with their operations. Control measures normally include--
    • Friendly boundaries.

    • R&S limit of responsibility.

    • Movement controls (start points, release points, and check points).

    • Sectors of scan for sensors.

    • Locations of primary, alternate, and supplementary positions.

    • Graphics depicting route, area, or zone reconnaissance.
    It can also include any information which will help R&S assets plan and conduct their intelligence collection missions. For example, it might include the known locations of obstacles and minefields as well as information from the enemy situation templates. Most units also duplicate the written collection plan in the form of a matrix within the overlay's margins.
    For additional information on event templates and R&S planning, see FM 34-2-1 and FM 34-130.

BATTALION

Organization

    Like brigades, the battalion S2 section performs requirements and mission management. Depending on local SOPs, the battalion S2 may also serve as the asset manager of some or all of the battalion's collection assets.

Equipment

    In addition to the scouts, the battalion S2 might integrate GSR and REMBASS into his R&S planning. Frontline troops and combat patrols are other sources of organic collection.

Operations

    At battalion level, intelligence requirements generally appear on the BOS synchronization matrix rather than on a separate intelligence matrix. The collection plan is normally presented graphically in the form of a consolidated R&S overlay.
    Depending on local policies, the S2 may have or share responsibilities for planning collection missions and coordinating transportation, fire support, and logistical support.



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