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Intelligence

FM 34-2: Collection Management And Synchronization Planning

CHAPTER 4
COLLECTION MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

This chapter uses two different scenarios to illustrate how the collection management process and tools may be applied to focus collection on fulfilling the commander's intelligence requirements.

The scenarios begin with a heavy corps planning an attack in an optimum collection environment in terms of weather, targets, and terrain (Figure 4-1 through Figure 4-19).

The second scenario highlights the collection considerations of a force projection brigade during a JTF deployment (Figure 4-20 through 4-34).

Both scenarios present intelligence collection challenges that call for a clear understanding of the collection management process and functions. The mission, echelon, and collection environment differ in each case, but the same process applies. The techniques and tools shown may be modified to suit any situation. This chapter offers the collection manager optional approaches to applying the collect ion management process; it does not provide "approved school solutions."

Scenario One - Corps Conventional Offense

Operation PLAINS PUSH calls for IV Corps as a part of the Army of the Red River to make the Theater's main effort in an offense to seize OBJ TOM. The enemy's forward defensive positions, thinly held by several mechanized infantry divisions, are backed up by strong reserves (see Figure 4-1).


After receiving the commander's initial guidance, the staff develops potential friendly COAs. One of these, COA CORMIER, is shown in Figure 4-2.


The staff then wargames each potential friendly COA against each potential enemy COA developed by the intelligence staff as part of the IPB process. During wargaming the staff identifies times and places where expected battlefield events will prompt decisions to engage targets or execute branches to the main COA. They record these decisions, and the event that triggers them, on the BOS synchronization matrix.

While wargaming COA CORMIER against the set of enemy COAs, the staff determines that key to mission success is delaying, disrupting, and then blocking any counterattacks by the enemy's operational reserves (see Figure 4-3). Accordingly, COA CORMIER includes several options for interdicting and then blocking the enemy's operational reserves. Four of these are shown on the partial BOS synchronization matrix (see Figure 4-4). The staff identifies the intelligence required to support these decisions as recommended PIR.



After comparing COA CORMIER to all other potential friendly COAs, the staff recommends its adoption to the commander. After he approves the recommendation, the staff begins detailed planning to implement his decision.

Collection management began in the mission analysis phase of the decision making process with initial requirements focused on intelligence to support IPB and development of potential friendly COAs. Collection management planning to support specific friendly COAs began during the staff wargaming (COA comparison). When the commander selected COA CORMIER as the command's COA, the collection manager began developing the details of the collection plan.

Referring to the BOS synchronization matrix, the requirements manager identifies the intelligence required to support each decision expected to occur during mission execution.

These become the basis of the corps' list of intelligence requirements. To the corps' own requirements are added those of higher and lower units. The requirements manager prioritizes the complete list, using the planned phases of COA CORMIER to "time phase" the requirements (see Figure 4-5).


To further develop the corps intelligence requirements, the requirements manager refers to the event template that supports COA CORMIER (see Figure 4-3). The NAIs it depicts tell him where to collect in order to satisfy each intelligence requirement, while the event matrix tells him what type of activity (indicator) is associated with each NAI (see Figure 4-6).


For each prioritized requirement, the corps requirements manager works with ACE analysts to identify SRs that will satisfy each indicator. SIRs, if satisfied, will answer the original requirement, potentially providing more, and more relevant, information than initially requested.

Using PIR #9 (see Figure 4-5) as an example, Figure 4-9 shows the relationship of PIR to indicators and SIRs as displayed on the corps collection plan.


The quality and completeness of the corps' threat data base and threat models contribute to building better focused SIRs. SIRs, in turn, provide the corps mission manager his starting point for asset evaluation.

The mission manager begins by evaluating the general ability of each collection discipline to satisfy each SIR. Again using PIR #9 as an example, Figure 4-7 depicts the asset evaluation worksheet the mission manager used to evaluate collectors against one SIR.


The mission manager then lists the assets to which he has access by discipline. At this point in the process, availability at a specific time is not the issue. Remember, the corps collection manager can often directly influence asset availability.

Operation PLAINS PUSH does not enjoy national systems collection priority; concurrent crises in other theaters have won the competition for coverage. Therefore, the mission manager does not "evaluate" that capability, although he may include "National" on the collection plan in case priorities change. The corps does, however, have NRT access to U-2 ASARS/Senior Spear data via TRAC and commander's tactical terminal (CTT).

The mission manager notes the capability of each system to satisfy the specific requirement to locate stationary heavy equipment transporters or associated activity that might tip off another collector. Target selection criteria, in termsof location accuracy and reporting timeliness, are key considerations in evaluating the collector's capability.

For example, GRCS could intercept a convoy movement controller's radio transmission indicating off-loading activity. This could cue the mission manager to redirect a UAV flight to determine the precise location of the off-loading activity.

Similarly, although Joint STARS fixed target indicator capability is limited, tracking moving targets into the TAI could help focus the ASARS high-resolution fixed target indicator capability. A direct cue from the GSM to TRAC makes this work. (A GSM remote workstation and the presence of the MI Brigade S3 in the ACE creates an optimum environment for this kind of dynamic cueing by significantly reducing reaction and retasking time.) Thus, in addition to evaluating individual asset capability, the worksheet can form the first outline of a collection strategy resulting in specific asset selection.

Now the mission manager must match the collectors best suited to satisfy the SIRs against the corps' operational and DP timelines. The ISM does just that (see Figure 4-8).


The mission manager plans for corps organic collectors (UAV, GRCS, and the ACR) to provide redundant coverage during scheduled theater missions. This significantly increases the opportunity for cueing and is resource-smart since striking the enemy's operational reserves early is critical to the corps commander's plan.

Once the collection strategy for all requirements is synchronized with the timelines of COA CORMIER, the mission manager develops the supporting SOR and assigns them to the assets he has entered on the collection plan. Figure 4-9 depicts one technique for distinguishing between capable and less capable collectors. The mission manager uses a "circle X" to easily recognize the sources and systems for which he plans to draft SORs.

The collector type and its required tasking format determine which data elements are required to initiate collection. In this example, the IV Corps mission manager executes IMINT and SIGINT MATMs (Figures 4-10 and 4-11) to task the UAV and GRCS. The MATM applies to Joint STARS as well, but U-2 ASARS requires use of a Form 1684. Specific direction in the intelligence annex takes the place of a machine-generated message format for tasking the corps' ACR.



Once the mission manager completes and transmits each task or request, the appropriate asset manager begins to plan and execute the collection operation that will satisfy each requirement. Subsequently, the CM&D section starts receiving results in system-specific formats. The UAV RECCEXREP and GRCS TACREP (Figures 4-12 and 4-13, respectively) provide confirmation of heavy equipment transporter dismount activity at TAI 999.



The requirements manager immediately passes this critical targeting information to the target nomination team. The corps commander has the intelligence he needs to execute the ATACMS strike. In this example, the time lag between report evaluation and dissemination disappears.

PIR #9 is an internal corps requirement; therefore, further dissemination is probably not required. The requirements manager notifies the mission manager that SIR 9.3.a remains active to support restrike options until LTIOV. This requires continued monitoring and revisiting the target area.

Let's look at another example not directly tied to a targeting decision. PIR #11.a (see Figure 4-5) concerns the potential counterattack OBJ of the enemy's operational reserves. Figures 4-14 through 4-16 demonstrate the collection management process as it progresses through the requirements and mission management functions.




Highlighting SIR 11.a.1 (see Figure 4-16) on reconnaissance activity, the mission manager recognizes the value of a long-range surveillance unit (LRSU) insertion in support of this requirement. NRT reporting and geolocational accuracy are not high priority capability criteria in this case. The mission manager evaluates and selects assets capable of collecting against mobile air and ground reconnaissance (Figure 4-14), synchronizes collection (Figure 4-15), and completes the collection plan (Figure 4-16).

The mission manager elects to use a FRAGO (Figure 4-17) to task the LRS company and specifies spot report as the reporting format (Figure 4-18). He updates the collection plan to reflect the changes in his collection strategy (Figure 4-19).



He intends to use the LRS company reporting to cue UAV and Joint STARS for bigger pictures of the OBJ area. When the report arrives (see Figure 4-18), the requirements manager evaluates it and determines that continued monitoring is required and disseminates the data within the ACE and to the Army of the Red River.


The IV Corps attack demands continuous coverage of fixed and moving targets across a wide area. The corps is equipped to conduct collection through efficient exploitation of the ISOS.

Scenario Two - Brigade Force Projection (Peacekeeping)

A diplomatic envoy from the United Nations (UN) has successfully negotiated a truce between the four warring factions of Outremer, a former satellite of the Soviet Union whose "national government" is crumbling. The month-old truce, however, is endangered by the actions of the warlord ruler of Reynald, a small but economically important province which controls Outremer's major port and trade routes (see Figure 4-20).


Regular plundering of trade between the provinces of Saracen and Saladin by Reynald's military has heightened regional tensions. These two Muslim provinces have threatened to re-invade Reynald and establish a corridor across the predominantly Christian province in order to safeguard their convoys. Because of the influence of religion on regional politics, any such move would force the Christian province of Baldwin to support Reynald, effectively re-igniting the four-year civil war that killed or starved 75,000 people.

Outremer military forces within the region consist of both regular and militia forces . Reynald's military consists of one active duty infantry regiment and two militia regiments. The active duty regiment is garrisoned in the two major cities on the coastal plain (Kerak and Montreal). Ostensibly responsible for maintaining law and order and protecting the province's borders, it is this regiment which interferes with trade between the two Muslim provinces. Although the two militia regiments in the mountainous regions of Reynald were demobilized a month ago, they could be quickly re-activated.

Baldwin's military includes the Tancred Brigade, a mechanized infantry brigade and the region's only "heavy" force, garrisoned at Fort Pilgrim in the western reaches of the province. The Tancred Brigade often deploys to the Alexis Training Area on Baldwin's border with Reynald, and at times trains within the mountainous regions of western Reynald.

The remainder of the forces in the region are the regular infantry regiments that Baldwin, Saracen, and Saladin post along their borders for security and early warning.

In a last-ditch effort to stave off war, the otherwise impotent "national government" of Outremer requested the use of UN forces in Reynald to monitor and enforce Reynaldian compliance with the terms of the truce, which include free trade across provincial boundaries.

1st Brigade will participate as part of a US JTF in this mission, deploying by air to Saladin City and then moving overland into Reynald as the JTF's initial entry force. 1st Brigade's mission is to prevent the two Reynald militia regiments from interfering with UN operations within the cities of Kerak and Montreal. Figure 4-21 depicts the JTF's organization and the 1st Brigade's intelligence architecture. The remainder of the JTF will deploy by sealift to the port of Hattin in Saladin over the next six weeks, moving overland to join the 1st Brigade in Reynald (see Figure 4-22). The mission of the 2d Brigade (ARFOR) and a Marine Brigade under NAVFOR control is to monitor the activities of the Reynaldian Regiment near Kerak and Montreal as well as to assist with UN operations within those cities (see Figure 4-23).




Figure 4-23. Operations graphics.

During predeployment planning, the JTF considered airlifting the MI Brigade processors to the staging area in Spain. However, the J2 decided to rely upon the in-place European theater processors (IPDS and EPDS) and to augment each brigade with a remote communications secondary imagery dissemination (SID) server. The 1st Brigade, as the early entry force, receives a Trojan Spirit equipped with an analytical software package that allows stand-alone operations until the MI Brigade ACE arrives.

The national system has been monitoring the major cities, Port Montreal, and Saladin City International Airport in support of UN negotiations. In preparation for the 1st Brigade and subsequent JTF deployment, the JTF collection manager "pulls" current photograph coverage of the area of operation (AO). In response to a 1st Brigade requirement, the JTF requests a DIA photographic mosaic of the terrain west of Kerak to assist in base camp planning.

After wargaming the force protection mission, the JTF collection manager seeks CI support from the theater MI Brigade for the intermediate staging area in Spain. Unfortunately, HUMINT collection in the target area is virtually nonexistent. The collection manager submits a time sensitive collection request for HUMINT support for operations in the target area.

These actions are all part of pre-deployment planning. The JTF collection manager and brigade S2 follow the collection management process, although they may not generate any traditional tools (asset evacuation worksheet, ISM, collection plan) at this stage.

During the IPB process, the brigade's S2 determined that Reynald would mobilize its militia if it intended to confront the JTF with force. Accordingly, he identified the avenues of approach that would allow the militia to move into the coastal zone (see Figure 4-24).


After wargaming potential friendly COAs against the possible COAs of Reynald's militia, 1st Brigade's commander plans to occupy BASE HOSPITLAR and BASE TEMPLAR (see Figure 4-23) while monitoring the activities of Reynald's military forces. Upon indications of intervention by Reynald's two militia regiments, 1st Brigade will respond by occupying battle positions and initiating a set of confrontation procedures designed to intimidate Reynald's government and avert armed conflict. Should this fail, the 1st Brigade will activate designated engagement areas and destroy any intervening forces. The location of the battle positions and engagement areas is keyed to the COA Reynald's forces adopt (see Figure 4-25).


In order to support the commander's decisions on which battle positions and engagement areas to activate, the S2 gets the commander's approval to implement the intelligence requirements shown in Figure 4-26.


The S2 then develops a collection strategy designed to determine whether Reynald's militia regiments intend to intervene with UN operations within the province. Figure 4-27 illustrates the partial ISM which depicts his strategy for accomplishing this in AA PETER.


For the same area, the S2 refines the event template to focus his collectors to specific areas within the avenue of approach (see Figure 4-28). The locations of the NAI are carefully chosen to provide enough information to satisfy the requirements while also giving the commander enough time to make a decision and move forces to appropriate battle positions.


He then develops detailed taskings for collection assets to implement the collection strategy described above. He reflects these taskings in the collection plan shown in Figure 4-29.


The brigade S2 coordinates with the JTF J2 to ensure that he is planning intelligence collection against the Tancred Mechanized Brigade. After corrdinating with the J2, the S2 uses the Trojan Spirit to issue an exploitation requirement prioritizing theater IPDS read out imagery of the Tancred Mechanized Brigade in garrison and in the Alexis Training Area (Figure 4-30). The IPDS responds with an Imagery Interpretation Report (IIR) (Figure 4-31) that indicates the Tancred Mechanized Brigade is conducting routine garrison operations.



After each of the brigade's subordinate collection assets receive their taskings, they in turn develop detailed R&S plans to accomplish their taskings. The brigade S2 collects these plans, verities that they will indeed satisfy his taskings, and publishes them as a consolidated R&S plan (see Figures 4-32 and 4-33). This ensures that each asset is aware of the others' activities and informs the friendly force of the location of these deployed assets, significantly reducing the risks of fratricide.



After executing these plans for 12 days, a remotely monitored battlefield sensor system (REMBASS) operator delivers the report shown at Figure 4-34 to the brigade's S2 officer on duty:


In response, the S2 duty officer coordinates with the S3 to air insert the brigade scouts into landing zone (LZ) SOUTH and have them conduct reconnaissance along ROUTE C to further investigate activities in NAI P2 (see Figure 4-33). He also diverts an ongoing UAV mission to the NAI. The UAV reports "no significant activity" in NAI P2. The scouts report the only activity in the area to be grazing by a large number of sheep and request permission to conduct foot reconnaissance through NAI P1 on their return to base. The S2 recommends approval of their request and coordinates for their passage through NAI P1.

The next day the S2 queries the CI teams working the villages near NAI P2 and learns that sheep are often permitted to graze the mountain pass in the evenings. Accordingly, he updates his collection plan to include visual observation of NAI P2 in order to avoid constant false alarms.



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