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Intelligence

Chapter 6

Human Intelligence

DEFINITION

6-1. HUMINT is the collection by a trained HUMINT Collector of foreign information from people and multimedia to identify elements, intentions, composition, strength, dispositions, tactics, equipment, personnel, and capabilities. It uses human sources as a tool and a variety of collection methods, both passively and actively, to gather information to satisfy the commander's intelligence requirements and cross-cue other intelligence disciplines.

ROLE

6-2. The role of HUMINT Collectors is to gather foreign information from people and multiple media sources to identify adversary elements, intentions, composition, strength, dispositions, tactics, equipment, personnel, and capabilities. It uses human sources and a variety of collection methods to gather information to satisfy the commander's intelligence requirements, and cross-cue other intelligence disciplines.

HUMINT FUNCTIONS

6-3. HUMINT functions are interrelated, mutually supporting, and can be derived from one another. No single function or technical capability can provide a full understanding of our adversaries. HUMINT functions are defined below and shown in Figure 6-1.


Figure 6-1. HUMINT Roles and Functions.

 

COLLECTION

6-4. HUMINT collection methods and operations include:

Debriefings. Debriefings are the systematic questioning of individuals to procure information to answer specific collection requirements by direct and indirect questioning techniques. Sources for debriefings are categorized as friendly forces, US and non-US civilians to include refugees, displaced persons, and local inhabitants.

Screening. Screening is the process of evaluating and selecting human and media sources for the prioritized collection of information in support of commander's PIRs and IRs. Screening categorizes and prioritizes sources based on the probability of a particular source having priority information and the degree of difficulty of extracting that information from the source. While screening is not in itself an information collection technique, it is vital to the rapid collection of information.

Liaison. HUMINT elements conduct liaison with US, multinational, and HN military and civilian agencies, to include NGOs. Liaison is conducted to obtain information of interest and to coordinate or deconflict HUMINT activities.

HUMINT Contact Operations. HUMINT contact operations are tactically oriented, overt collection activities that use human sources to identify attitude, intentions, composition, strength, dispositions, tactics, equipment, target development, personnel, and capabilities of those elements that pose a potential or actual threat to US and multinational forces. These forces provide early warning of imminent danger to US and multinational forces and contribute to the MDMP.

Document Exploitation (DOCEX). DOCEX is the systematic extraction of information from all media formats in response to collection requirements.

Interrogation. Interrogation is the systematic effort to procure information to answer specific collection requirements by direct and indirect questioning techniques of persons who are in the custody of the forces conducting the questioning.

UNIT SUPPORT TO HUMINT COLLECTION

6-5. Small units contribute to HUMINT collection through a number of different ways.

Tactical Questioning

6-6. Tactical questioning can provide critical information for situational understanding. Tactical questioning is the expedient initial questioning for information of immediate tactical value. Soldiers conduct tactical questioning based on the unit's SOP, ROE, and the order for that mission. Unit leaders must include specific guidance for tactical questioning in the order for appropriate missions. The unit S3 and S2 must also provide specific guidance down to the unit level to help guide tactical questioning. For a more detailed discussion of tactical questioning, see 6-7. Through observing and interacting with the local environment during the conduct of missions, handling EPWs/detainees, and handling captured documents, soldiers serve as the commander's "eyes and ears" whether-

  • Performing traditional offensive or defensive operations.
  • Performing a patrol in a stability operation.
  • Manning a TCP or a roadblock in a support operation.
  • Occupying an observation post.
  • Passing through an area in a convoy.
  • Performing any operation that involves observing and reporting on elements of the environment and activities in the AO.

ISR Operations

6-8. The information that the soldier reports as a result of completed missions up the chain of command forms a vital part of planning and operations. Careful and quick handling of EPWs/detainees and documents also helps the ISR effort. Unit headquarters must ensure that the reports they receive and forward contain all the subtle detail provided by the small unit. For tactical operations, there are four levels of reporting:

  • Immediate reporting of information of critical tactical value, based either on predetermined criteria or common sense.
  • Normal reporting, submitted before the unit S2 section performs the debriefing.
  • Debriefing performed by the S2 section.
  • Follow-up reporting, submitted after the unit S2 section performs the debriefing.

6-9. The four levels of reporting facilitate the unit S2 section capturing all the fine details of the small unit's activities for all-source analysis and future planning. The unit S2 must ensure that information of HUMINT and CI value is reported to the G2X.

ANALYSIS

6-10. IPB, all-source, and single-source analysis are used to template adversarial OB. HUMINT elements analyze operational taskings to determine the best collection methods to employ in satisfying CCIRs (PIRs and FFIRs) and IRs. As information is collected, it is analyzed for completeness and accuracy to identify significant facts for subsequent interpretation and inclusion in intelligence products, and passing to other collectors. This analysis also helps to identify collection gaps and focus or refocus collection efforts. Analysis provides the commander with situational understanding of the battlespace to execute operations. Raw information, open-source material, and finished intelligence products are analyzed in response to local and national requirements. Analysis occurs at all levels from tactical to strategic.

  • At the tactical level, HUMINT teams focus their efforts on supporting mission requirements and contributing to the all-source COP.
  • Operational analysis is used to assess adversary intentions, capabilities, dispositions, and their regional impacts.
  • Strategic analysis supports national and Army programs through compilation of local and regional analysis into global assessments; identifies technology development trends and patterns in military activities and capabilities.

6-11. HUMINT products consist of, but are not limited to, target nomination, input to threat and vulnerability assessments, intelligence estimates, and intelligence information reports. Finalized intelligence derived from HUMINT activities is incorporated into joint and national intelligence databases, assessments, and analysis products. HUMINT products are also incorporated into the COP to support situational awareness. HUMINT production takes place at all levels.

  • Operational and tactical production includes tactical alerts, spot reports, and current intelligence; input to threat and/or vulnerability assessments tailored to specific activities, units, installations, programs or geographic areas, and target studies to support contingency planning and major exercises; studies of military activities and capabilities.
  • Strategic products include assessments supporting national and Army information requirements on foreign technology development; worldwide assessments of the organization, location, funding, training, operations capabilities and intentions of terrorist organizations; analyses of the capabilities of international narcotics trafficking organizations.

OPERATIONAL EMPLOYMENT

6-12. Army HUMINT must support the full spectrum of military operations. Commanders require a well-trained HUMINT force consisting of AC, RC, civilian government, and contractor personnel. The HUMINT force is focused on and dedicated to the collection of data and information relevant to the commander's PIRs and IRs. Effective employment of Army HUMINT elements in all phases of operations and at all levels from tactical to strategic will remain paramount to ensuring that commanders have the best pictures possible of their adversaries. HUMINT Collectors use the following collection methods.

LEVELS OF EMPLOYMENT

6-13. Strategic and Departmental. Strategic and departmental operations will be conducted by HUMINT elements supporting national, DOD, and DA required missions (for example, support to NATO and special operations and missions). The Army strategic HUMINT force resides in DHS. Trained Army HUMINT professionals must be available to augment DOD HUMINT efforts and coordinate between Army and Joint or DOD elements during crisis and war. Strategic HUMINT activities are generally carried out by departmental level HUMINT elements or Army HUMINT assets directly assigned to DOD and Joint positions. The Army overt HUMINT capability at the strategic level will be deployed and under operational control (OPCON) of the Army Service Component Commander (ASCC).

6-14. Operational. HUMINT operational missions must support combatant commanders, generally in geographic AORs. Operational HUMINT assets provide capabilities to support theater requirements for HUMINT collection. Operational HUMINT elements will focus on threat identification and capabilities. As with all levels of employment, HUMINT activities and functions will include DOCEX, collection, operations, analysis, and production. HUMINT elements must be capable of quickly transitioning from a peacetime mission to crisis operations to support combatant commander requirements. Operational elements may also be deployed to support or reinforce tactical forces in CONOPS.

6-15. Tactical. Army HUMINT play a crucial role in supporting tactical forces. HUMINT teams conduct operations throughout the battlespace during CONOPS. CONOPS support activities include debriefings, screenings, contact operations, and interrogations. HUMINT activities in CONOPS focus on the threat and assisting the senior intelligence officer (SIO) and commander in understanding the threat's decisionmaking process. During peacetime, organic tactical HUMINT teams conduct activities pursuant with approved regulations and command guidance.

SUPPORT TO CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS

6-16. Initial Phase. The initial phase of operations from peacetime military engagement (PME) to major theater war (MTW) lays the foundation of future team operations. In general, the priority of effort focuses inward on security of operating bases, areas of troop concentration, and C2 nodes to identify the collection threat to US forces that could be used by adversarial elements to plan hostile acts against US activities and locations.

6-17. Continuation Phase. Once security of the operating bases has been established, the operational focus of HUMINT teams shifts outside the operating base to continue to detect, identify, and neutralize the collection threat to US forces as well as to provide I&W of hostile acts targeting US activities. The HUMINT team uses several collection methods, to include HUMINT contact operations, elicitation, and liaison, to answer the supported commander's requirements.

6-18. HUMINT Team. A key element to the HUMINT team's success is the opportunity to spot, assess, and develop relationships with potential sources of information. Operating as independent teams, without being tied to combat assets, enables the HUMINT team's maximum interaction with the local population, thereby maximizing the pool of potential sources of information. A second key element of a HUMINT team's success is its approachability to the local population. A soft posture enables a HUMINT team to appear as non-threatening as possible. Experience has shown that the local population in general is apprehensive of fully and openly armed patrols and soldiers moving around population centers. During some operations civilian attire or non-tactical vehicles may be used to lower the HUMINT team profile. NOTE: In some special situations, these measures are taken to make the operation less visible to the casual observer. Also, in some cultures, sharing food and beverages among friends is expected; exceptions to restrictions or general orders should be considered to facilitate successful HUMINT team operations, many of which are geared towards developing relationships with potential sources of information.

SUPPORT TO INSTALLATIONS AND OPERATING BASES

6-19. Commanders may restrict personnel to base camps and installations during the initial stages of operations (PME to MTW), when the operational environment is being assessed, or as a temporary expedient when the threat level exceeds the ability to provide reasonable FP. Operational restrictions minimize the risk to the HUMINT team, but minimizing its collection potential may increase the risk to the force as a whole. While confined to an installation or a base camp, the HUMINT team can maintain a limited level of information collection by:

  • Screening locally employed personnel.
  • Debriefing combat and ISR patrols.
  • Debriefing friendly force personnel who are in contact with the local population.
  • Conducting limited local open-source information collection.
  • Contributing to the threat and vulnerability assessments of the base camp.

TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

6-20. At the HUMINT team level, team members conduct mission analysis and planning specific to their AO. Backwards planning and source profiling are used extensively to choose HUMINT targets. To verify adequate area coverage, the HUMINT team may periodically develop and use HUMINT target overlays and other HUMINT analytical tools that illustrate the HUMINT situation, identify gaps, and help refocus the collection effort.

6-21. The HUMINT team is also in constant contact with the supported S2 and the other ISR assets (Scouts, PSYOP, CA, and MPs) in order to coordinate and deconflict operations and to cross-check collected information. The supported unit S2, with the help of the HUMINT team, regularly and systematically debriefs all ISR assets.

6-22. The HUMINT team must be integrated into the supported unit's ISR plan. The HUMINT operational management team (OMT) chief will advise the supported unit on the specific capabilities and requirements of the team to maximize mission success.

OPERATIONAL RISK MITIGATION

6-23. The employment of HUMINT teams includes varying degrees of contact with the local population. As the degree of contact with the population increases, both the quantity and quality of collection increases. In many instances, however, there is a risk to the team inherent with increased exposure to the local population. The decision at what level to employ a team is METT-TC dependent. The risk to HUMINT assets must be balanced with the need to collect priority information and to protect the force as a whole. ROE, SOFA, direction from higher headquarters, and the overall threat level may also restrict the deployment and use of HUMINT teams. The commander should consider exceptions to the ROE to facilitate HUMINT collection.

6-24. Risks are minimized through the situational awareness of HUMINT team members. They plan and rehearse to readily react to any situation and carry the necessary firepower to disengage from difficult situations. If it becomes necessary to call for assistance, adequate and redundant communications equipment is critical. These scenarios and actions should be trained prior to deployment into a contingency area and rehearsed continuously throughout the deployment.

6-25. A supported unit commander is often tempted to keep the HUMINT team "inside the wire" when the threat condition (THREATCON) level increases. The supported commander must weigh the risk versus potential information gain when establishing operational parameters of supporting HUMINT teams. This is necessary especially during high THREATCON levels when the supported unit commander needs as complete a picture as possible of the threat arrayed against US and multinational forces.

6-26. When it is not expedient to deploy the HUMINT team independently due to threat levels or other restrictions, the team can be integrated into other ongoing operations. The HUMINT team may be employed as part of a combat, ISR, or MP patrol or used to support CA, PSYOP, engineer, or other operations. This method reduces the risk to the team while allowing a limited ability to collect information. It has the advantage of placing the team in contact with the local population and allowing it to spot, assess, and interact with potential sources of information. However, this deployment method restricts collection by subordinating the team's efforts to the requirements, locations, and timetables of the unit or operation into which it is integrated and does not allow for the conduct of sensitive source operations. This method of employment should be considered a last resort.

HUMINT EQUIPMENT

6-27. Basic C2, transportation, and weapons requirements do not differ significantly from most soldier requirements and are available as unit issue items. However, HUMINT teams have unique communications, collection, processing, and mission-specific requirements.

COMMUNICATIONS

6-28. Dedicated and secure long-range communications are key to the success of the HUMINT team mission. HUMINT team operations require a secure, three-tiered communications architecture consisting of inter/intra-team radios, vehicle-based communications, and a CI and HUMINT base station.

6-29. The HUMINT team must have access to existing communications networks such as the tactical local area network (LAN). The HUMINT team must also be equipped with its own COMSEC devices. It is imperative that the HUMINT team acquire access to the public communication system of the HN. This can be in the form of either landlines or cellular telephones. Such access enables the HUMINT team to develop leads which can provide early indicators to US forces.

Interoperability

6-30. Communications systems must be equipped with an open-ended architecture to allow for expansion and compatibility with other service elements, government organizations, NGOs, and multinational elements to effectively communicate during CONOPS. All ISR systems must be vertically and horizontally integrated to be compatible across all BOSs and with Legacy and Interim Force elements.

Satellite Communications On-The-Move (SOTM)

6-31. To provide real time or NRT information reporting, HUMINT elements must have the capability to transmit voice, data, imagery, and video while on the move. HUMINT teams must be able to transmit while geographically separated from their parent unit while operating remotely. This broadband requirement can only be achieved through a SATCOM capability and must be achievable while mobile.

HUMINT COLLECTION AND PROCESSING SYSTEMS

6-32. The HUMINT team must rely on automation to achieve and maintain information dominance in a given operation. With time, effective collection planning and management at all echelons, the HUMINT team can collect a wealth of information. The sorting and analysis of this information in a timely and efficient manner is crucial to operations. Automation helps the HUMINT team to report, database, analyze, and evaluate the collected information quickly and to provide the supported unit with accurate data in the form of timely, relevant, accurate, and predictive intelligence.

6-33. Automation hardware and software must be user friendly as well as interoperable among different echelons and services. They must interface with the communications equipment of the HUMINT team as well as facilitate the interface of audiovisual devices. Technical support for hardware and software must be available and responsive.

6-34. The demand for accurate and timely HUMINT reporting, DOCEX, and open-source information has grown tremendously. Biometric (physiological, neurological, thermal analysis, facial and fingerprint recognition) technologies will allow rapid identification; coding and tracking of adversaries and human sources; and cataloging of information concerning enemy prisoners of war (EPWs), detainees, and civilians of HUMINT interest on the battlefield. Biometrics will also provide secure authentication of individuals seeking network or facility access.

6-35. HUMINT teams work with multinational forces, and other foreign nationals, and require the ability to communicate in their respective languages. Often HUMINT personnel have little or no training in the target language, and lack of skilled interpreters can hinder HUMINT activities. HUMINT teams require textual and voice translation devices, source verification, and deception detection machines (biometrics) to improve collection capability and accuracy.

6-36. HUMINT teams require dynamic machine language translation (MLT) tools that provide both non-linguists and those with limited linguist skills a comprehensive, accurate means to conduct initial screenings and basic interviews in a variety of situations. HUMINT elements will focus on in-depth interviews and communications with persons of higher priority. MLT tools will minimize reliance on contract linguists and will allow soldiers to concentrate on mission accomplishment.

MISSION SPECIFIC

6-37. The HUMINT team may conduct night operations and must be equipped with NVDs for its members and photographic and weapons systems. The HUMINT team also may operate in urban and rural areas, where the threat level can vary from semi-hostile to hostile. The safety of the HUMINT team can be enhanced with equipment that can detect, locate, suppress, illuminate, and designate hostile optical and E-O devices. In addition, high power, gyro-stabilized binoculars, which can be used from a moving vehicle, also increase the survivability of the HUMINT team. It also gives the team another surveillance and collection device.

6-38. Some of the HUMINT team missions may require the documentation of incidents. The teams can use the following equipment in their open-source collection efforts.

  • Small, rugged, battery-operated digital camcorders and cameras which are able to interface with the collection and processing systems as well as communication devices.
  • GPSs that can be mounted and dismounted to move in the AO efficiently.
  • Short-range multichannel RF scanning devices that can also identify frequencies which enhance their security.

6-39. In some cases HUMINT teams require a stand-off, high resolution optical surveillance and recording capability that can provide target identification at extended ranges to protect the intelligence collector while avoiding detection by the adversary target. An advanced optical capability provides intelligence collectors the ability to locate and track adversarial targets (passive and hostile) for identification, collection, and target exploitations.

INTEGRATION OF LINGUISTS

6-40. Integrating linguists into the HUMINT team should take place as soon as possible. Security clearances and contractual agreements will help the team determine the level of integration.

6-41. Along with the basic briefing of what is expected of the civilian linguists as interpreters, HUMINT teams should be informed about the civilians' chain of command and the scope of their duties beyond interpreting. The HUMINT team leader must ensure that linguists are trained and capable of completing all tasks expected of them.

BATTLE HAND-OFF

6-42. HUMINT teams are always engaged. A good battle hand-off is critical to smooth transition and mission success. The battle hand-off can directly contribute to mission success or failure of the outgoing team, but especially of the incoming team. The battle hand-off begins the first day the HUMINT team begins to operate in an AO. Regardless of how long the team believes it will operate within the AO, it must ensure there is a seamless transition to an incoming team, other US unit, or agency. The HUMINT team accomplishes this transition by establishing procedures for source administration, database maintenance, and report files.

6-43. Teams must plan and implement a logical and systematic sequence of tasks to enable an incoming team to assume the operations in the AO. Adequate time must be allotted for an effective battle hand-off. In some environments, a few weeks may be necessary to accomplish an effective battle hand-off. Introductions to sources of information, especially HUMINT contact operations sources, are critical and teams must prioritize their time. During this time the outgoing HUMINT team must familiarize the new HUMINT team with all aspects of the operation, which includes past, present, and planned activities within the AO. Area orientation is critical. These include major routes, population centers, potential hot spots, and other points of interest (such as police stations, political centers, and social centers).

ORGANIZATION

6-44. HUMINT activities require a complex C2 relationship to ensure that the requirements of the supported commander are fulfilled while balancing the need for strict integrity and legality of HUMINT operations. This complex relationship balances the role of the SIO as the requirements manager and the *2X as the mission manager with the MI commander as the asset manager. ("*2X" indicates 2X functions at all levels.)

COMMAND VERSUS CONTROL

6-45. ARFOR will normally deploy as part of a joint and/or multinational operation. In all cases, commanders at each echelon will exercise command over the forces assigned to their organization. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using resources, planning for and employment of forces, and ensuring that forces accomplish assigned missions. Leaders and staffs exercise control to facilitate mission accomplishment.

6-46. While the MI commander supervises subordinates and produces reports, the *2X synchronizes activities between intelligence units and provides single-source processing and limited analysis. While the MI commander takes care of the operators executing missions, the *2X obtains the data and reports from higher echelons required to execute the missions.

STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTIONS

*2X Staff

6-47. The *2X staff is responsible for the integration, correlation, and fusion of all Human Sensor information into the Intelligence BOS within the *2X AOIR. The *2X is also responsible for analyzing adversary collection, terrorist and sabotage activities, developing countermeasures to defeat threat collection activities, identifying and submitting collection requirements to fill collection gaps, and providing input to the all-source picture regarding adversary intelligence activities.

*2X Staff Officer

6-48. The *2X Staff Officer provides CI and HUMINT collection expertise. The *2X:

Is the single focal point for all matters associated with CI and HUMINT in the AOIR.

Is the CI and HUMINT advisor to the G2 and commander.

Is an extension of the collection manager and ensures that the best asset or combinations of assets are used to satisfy information requirements.

Along with his subordinate elements (CICA, HOC, OSC, CI Analysis Cell [CIAC], and HAC), exercises technical control over his assigned Army CI and HUMINT elements in the designated AOIR.

Is the principal representative of the G2 and the commander when coordinating and deconflicting CI and HUMINT activities with national or theater agencies operating in the AOIR.

Supports specific RM efforts in conjunction with the requirements manager through:

  •   Planning and coordinating CI and HUMINT operations.
  •   Reviewing and validating HUMINT requirements.
  •   Recommending assignment of tasks to specific collectors.
  •   Conducting liaison with non-organic HUMINT collection. This liaison includes national level and multinational force assets for source deconfliction and special activities outside the *2X AOIR.

Will provide OMTs with capability to reach back to current database information, technical information and guidance, and source deconfliction necessary to monitor the collection activities of the HUMINT teams.

The HUMINT Analysis Cell (HAC)

6-49. The HAC is the single-source fusion point for all HUMINT reporting and operational analysis. It determines gaps in reporting and coordinates with other analysis teams and technical controllers to cross-cue other collection sensor systems. The HAC:

  • Uses analytical tools to develop long-term collection plans and provides reporting feedback that supports all HUMINT and CI entities in the supported command's AOIR.
  • Produces and disseminates HUMINT products and provides input to intelligence summaries.
  • Uses analytical tools found at the ACE or JISE to develop long-term analyses and provides reporting feedback that supports the J/G/S2X, HUMINT operations section, OMTs, and HUMINT teams.
  • Produces country and regional studies tailored to HUMINT collection.
  • Compiles target folders to assist J/G/S2X assets in focusing collection efforts.
  • Analyzes and reports on trends and patterns found in HUMINT reporting.
  • Analyzes source reliability and credibility as reflected in reporting and communicating that analysis to the collector.
  • Develops and maintains databases specific to HUMINT collection activities that directly support the collection efforts of HUMINT teams and are directly accessible by HUMINT teams.
  • Provides collection requirements input to the HOC.
  • Supports RM through the development of HUMINT SIRs based on command PIRs.
  • Answers HUMINT-related RFIs.

6-50. For intelligence reach operations, HUMINT products are available and disseminated in a variety of forms. It is incumbent on the requestor to ensure that the HUMINT product can be transmitted over the available communications systems. This includes verifying the appropriate security level of the communications systems.

HUMINT Operations Cell (HOC)

6-51. The HOC in the *2X coordinates and synchronizes all HUMINT activities in the AOIR. The HOC exercises technical control over all HUMINT entities in the designated AOIR and deconflicts HUMINT activities with higher, lower, and adjacent HUMINT elements. The HOC accomplishes all responsibilities through coordination with the operational units and the CICA and operations support cell (OSC). The HOC tracks all HUMINT activities in the AOR. The J/G2X uses this information to advise the SIO on all HUMINT activities conducted within the AO. The HOC-

  • Exercises technical control of all HUMINT assets and coordinates and deconflicts HUMINT activities in the deployed AO.
  • Establishes and maintains a HUMINT source database.
  • Coordinates and supervises HUMINT FP source operations conducted by all services and components in the AO.
  • Develops and manages collection requirements for HUMINT in coordination with the requirements manager.
  • Develops and provides the HUMINT portion of the intelligence synchronization plan to the J/G/S2X and requirements manager for inclusion in the intelligence synchronization plan.
  • Coordinates the activities of HUMINT collectors assigned or attached to interrogations and debriefing facilities.
  • Expedites preparation of intelligence information reports and their distribution to consumers at all levels.
  • Performs liaison with HN and US national HUMINT organizations.

Operations Support Cell

6-52. The OSC in the *2X staff maintains the source registry for all HUMINT activities in the designated AOIR. The OSC provides management of intelligence property book operations, source incentive programs, and ICFs.

6-53. Integrating linguists and DOD emergency-essential civilians, such as technical support contractors, into the HUMINT team should take place as soon as possible. Security clearances and contractual agreements will help the team determine the level of integration.

6-54. Along with the basic briefing of what is expected of the civilian linguists as interpreters and the emergency-essential civilians as support personnel, HUMINT teams should be informed about the civilians' chain of command and the scope of their duties beyond interpreting and technical support. The HUMINT team leader must ensure that linguists and emergency-essential civilians are trained and capable of completing all tasks expected of them.

Counterintelligence Coordinating Authority

6-55. The CICA coordinates all CI activities for a deployed force. There can be only one CICA in a theater of operations. When multiple echelons exist, the highest echelon has the CICA and subordinate G2X offices have a CICA. Depending on the size and scope of the operation, the CICA could be the unified command's CI staff officer; the CI or HUMINT staff officer from corps or division; or a senior warrant officer or branch CI officer designated by the unified command CI staff officer or task force commander. For more information about the CICA functions, see Chapter 11.

HUMINT TEAM STRUCTURE

Operational Management Team

6-56. The OMT is a four-person team consisting of a warrant officer (WO), two noncommissioned officers (NCOs), and a junior enlisted soldier. Civilians may be inserted into this structure when appropriate. Rank structure and standards of grade for OMTs vary depending upon the skill sets required and mission focus. HUMINT OMTs provide operational guidance for two to four HUMINT teams, depending on mission focus and operational tempo. When two or more HUMINT teams are deployed in DS of a maneuver element, an OMT also deploys to provide technical control. The OMT works closely with the supported S2 and analysis and control team (ACT) to furnish current threat information and answer the supported commander's PIRs and IRs. OMTs coordinate with the supported 2X and manage subordinate HUMINT team echelons to:

  • Provide guidance and technical control of operational activity.
  • Provide the collection and operational focus for HUMINT teams.
  • Provide quality control and dissemination of reports for subordinate HUMINT teams.
  • Conduct single-discipline HUMINT analysis, and assist in mission analysis for the supported commander.
  • Act as a conduit between subordinate HUMINT teams, the HOC, and supported unit headquarters.
  • Provide administrative support for subordinate HUMINT teams, to include reporting mission and equipment status to the HOC and the supported unit headquarters.
  • Educate the supported commander on the capabilities of the HUMINT teams.
  • Integrate the HUMINT teams directly into the maneuver commander's ISR planning.

HUMINT Team

6-57. The HUMINT team is a four-person team consisting of two NCOs and two junior enlisted personnel. Civilians may be inserted into this structure when appropriate. Rank structure and standards of grade for HUMINT teams vary depending upon the skill sets required and the mission focus. HUMINT teams are trained to execute the full range of HUMINT functions as defined in HUMINT FUNCTIONS section. However, they may be assigned to mission-focused elements such as DOCEX, interrogation, debriefing, or contact operations.

 



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