10-1. TECHINT is intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of threat and foreign military equipment and associated materiel.
10-2. The strength of the US military lies, in part, to the diversity and extent of its technology base. While the US aspires to be the leader in integrating technology, the threat can achieve temporary technological advantage in certain areas by acquiring modern systems or capabilities. The world arms market is willing to provide these advanced systems to countries or individuals with the resources to pay for them. A concerted TECHINT program is vital to providing precise direction and purpose within the US R&D process to ensure quick and efficient neutralization of this advantage.
10-3. The role of TECHINT is to ensure that the warfighter understands the full technological capabilities of the threat. With this understanding, the warfighter can adopt appropriate countermeasures, operations, and tactics.
10-4. TECHINT has two goals within its role:
- · To ensure the US armed forces maintain technological advantage against any adversary.
- · To provide tailored, timely, and accurate TECHINT support to the warfighter throughout the entire range of military operations. This includes providing US forces intelligence, information, and training on foreign weapons systems to an extent that allows their use of CEE.
10-5. The G2/S2 must understand how TECHINT assets are organized in order to properly apply the intelligence process, as the majority of TECHINT assets are located at EAC.
DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
10-6. DIA manages and reviews overall TECHINT activities. The S&TI Directorate within DIA is the action element for TECHINT. This directorate coordinates with external TECHINT agencies on non-policy matters concerning the production of S&TI. The following organizations provide TECHINT support under the control of DIA:
- · Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC). AFMIC, based at Fort Detrick, MD, is a DOD intelligence production center under DIA control. AFMIC is responsible for exploiting foreign medical materiel. The director supports the Army Foreign Materiel Exploi-tation Program (FMEP) and Army medical R&D requirements. The director coordinates planning, programming, and budgeting with the Army Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence (DCS, G2).
- · Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC). MSIC, based at Redstone Arsenal, AL, is a DOD intelligence production center under DIA control and supports the FMEP. The MSIC acquires, produces, maintains, and disseminates S&TI pertaining to missile and space weapons systems, subsystems, components, and activities. The S&TI produced at MSIC also covers foreign state-of-the-art technology and research applicable to missiles.
- · Defense HUMINT Service. DHS conducts worldwide HUMINT op-erations in support of foreign materiel acquisition (FMA) and foreign materiel exploitation (FME).
10-7. The organizations and agencies discussed below constitute the Army TECHINT structure.
ARMY DCS, G2
10-8. The Army DCS, G2 exercises general staff responsibility for all Army TECHINT activities. The Army DCS, G2 forms policies and procedures for S&TI activities, supervises and carries out the Army S&TI program, coordinates DA staff and MSC requirements for TECHINT, and is responsible for the Army Foreign Materiel Program (FMP).
10-9. Under the direction of Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), INSCOM is responsible for peacetime TECHINT operations. HQ, INSCOM, fulfills its responsibilities through its TECHINT oversight function and manages the Army's Foreign Materiel for Training (FMT) Program and FMEP. It provides the interface with strategic S&TI agencies in support of FME and organizes, trains, and equips EAC TECHINT organizations during peacetime. TECHINT exploitation within INSCOM is performed by the following elements:
- National Ground Intelligence Center. HQ, INSCOM, exercises direct OPCON over the NGIC. NGIC produces and maintains intelligence on foreign scientific developments, ground force weapons systems, and associated technologies. NGIC analysis includes but is not limited to military communications electronics systems, types of aircraft used by foreign ground forces, NBC systems, and basic research in civilian technologies with possible military applications.
- 203d Military Intelligence Battalion. The 203d MI Battalion is a multi-component unit headquartered at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, and is the Army's sole TECHINT battalion. It performs the following functions:
- § Conducts TECHINT collection and reporting in support of validated S&TI objectives.
- § Acts as the HQDA executive agent for foreign materiel used for training purposes.
- § Conducts TECHINT training for DOD analysts and RC TECHINT personnel.
- § Supports INSCOM's FMA and FME operations as directed.
- § Analyzes and exploits foreign captured enemy documents (CEDs), equipment, weapon systems, and other war materiel.
- § Reports on the capabilities and limitations of enemy combat materiel.
- § Provides reports alerting the command to the tactical threat posed by technical advances in new or recently discovered foreign or enemy materiel.
- § Provides countermeasures to any enemy technical advantage.
- § Provides foreign or enemy equipment for troop familiarization and training.
- § Provides recommendations on the reuse of CEM.
- § Supervises evacuating items of TECHINT interest.
- § Provides task-organized battlefield TECHINT teams to support a subordinate command's TECHINT effort.
US ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND (AMC)
10-10. AMC plays a significant support role in TECHINT. Among AMC elements are a series of RDECs, the Army Research Laboratory System, and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM). Each conducts highly technical evaluations of foreign equipment. In peacetime, the AMC conducts FME on equipment purchased by each laboratory and RDEC for the intelligence community and for DOD as part of the International Materiel Evaluation Program (IMEP). AMC elements include:
- · The Foreign Ordnance Exploitation Team, which is located at the Fire Support Armaments Center (FSAC) in the Picatinny Arsenal. This team exploits foreign ground ordnance and develops render safe procedures (RSPs) for foreign ordnance. It also prepares detailed intelligence reports to support explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), MI, and US munitions developers.
- · The Science and Technology Center Europe and the Science and Technology Center Far East, which have the responsibility of collecting information on foreign technical developments by attending arms shows and technology exhibitions.
- · The Soldier Biological Chemical Defense Command, which is the headquarters for the US Army Technical Escort Unit (TEU). The mission of the TEU is to collect and escort (transport) chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) samples for testing and evaluation.
10-11. There are many other agencies with TECHINT responsibilities within the DOD. Refer to FM 34-54 for more information on TECHINT.
10-12. TECHINT collection usually begins when an organization or individual reports the recovery or acquisition of unusual, new, or newly employed threat materiel. However, there are often indications that the threat may be using materiel not yet associated with the threat among the myriad intelligence products available. Conversely, it may be known that the threat is using a particular item, the capabilities of which are unknown to US forces. It is in these cases that a unit may receive a TECHINT related ISR task. It is conceivable that such a task may be reflected in the PIR. An example of such a task is the identification or verification of suspected external modifications on a particular model of an enemy's main battle tank; the results of which are linked to a commander's decision.
10-13. TECHINT related ISR tasks should include a mission or target folder. At a minimum, this folder should include a description of the item, with its associated major combat systems, as well as handling instructions, reporting instructions, and a photograph or sketch of the item if available.
10-14. Additionally, the G2/S2 is responsible for ensuring the staff coordinates and establishes a plan for evacuating the desired materiel.
10-15. The G2/S2 must ensure that required TECHINT analytical assets, resources, and evacuation means are prepared to provide support. This includes verifying coordination effected with the task-organized battlefield TECHINT teams from the 203d MI Battalion. The G2/S2 must also ensure the means to report and disseminate TECHINT results to the unit and its soldiers are in place so that they can immediately adopt appropriate countermeasures, operations, or tactics in order to enhance their survival and mission accomplishment.
10-16. TECHINT collection includes capturing, reporting, and evacuating CEM. TECHINT collection begins when an organization or individual reports the recovery or acquisition of threat materiel. An item of materiel is exploited at each level, and continues on through succeeding higher levels until an appropriate countermeasure to neutralize the item's capabilities is identified or developed.
10-17. Army personnel (soldiers and civilian) and units will normally safeguard CEM and report it through intelligence channels to the first TECHINT element in the reporting chain. The location of this TECHINT element will be in accordance with the METT-TC factors; however, there will usually be TECHINT representation at the Corps G2 or the COCOM J2. The TECHINT representative or element will verify if the type of materiel is of intelligence value and determine its further disposition in conjunction with the unit's staff.
10-18. TECHINT processing starts (simultaneously with collection) with the capture of a piece of equipment of TECHINT value. This confirms that the enemy is indeed employing this materiel. In accordance with METT-TC factors, a TECHINT team may move to the location of the item at the capture site or wait until the item is evacuated before conducting a hasty exploitation. After hasty exploitation, the team decides if further processing is required. If it is, the items are sent to the first (or nearest) Captured Materiel Exploitation Center (CMEC). If the item is deemed to yield no immediate tactical intelligence value, it may still be evacuated to the S&TI centers in CONUS for further analysis if the systems represent a change in the technological posture of an enemy.
10-19. Battlefield TECHINT teams normally report initial and secondary examinations of CEM using either a preliminary technical report or a complementary technical report.
A preliminary technical report:
- § Includes a general description of the item reported and recommended RSP.
- § Alerts others to information that can be used immediately by tactical units.
- · A complementary technical report is more in-depth and:
- § Follows a secondary or an in-depth initial examination.
- § Allows the CMEC to compare new information with intelligence holdings.
10-20. At each successive echelon of exploitation, TECHINT analysts add to the overall body of information on an item by either adding to previous reports or by preparing new reports. The CMEC or other national level S&TI activities prepare more advanced technical reports and analyses. These reports include:
- · Detailed technical reports.
- · Translation reports.
- · Special technical reports.
10-21. Other TECHINT products include:
- · CMEC publications such as operator manuals, maintenance manuals, TECHINT bulletins, and tactical user bulletins.
- · S&TI analysis bulletins.
- · Foreign materiel exploitation reports.
10-22. TECHINT analysts use checklists established by S&TI agencies and the CMECs to analyze each type of the adversary's equipment for which requirements exist. Analysis always begins with what is, and what is not, known about the piece of equipment. TECHINT units maintain procedures and plans for sampling, analyzing, and handling materiel.
10-23. TECHINT of critical importance to the force, including answers to the PIR, is disseminated via the most expeditious means possible.
10-24. Routine TECHINT reports and products are usually transmitted through the unit's existing intelligence communications architecture in the format of an intelligence information report (IIR) format. For intelligence reach operations, TECHINT products are available and disseminated in a variety of forms. The requestor must ensure that the TECHINT product can be transmitted over the available communications systems. This includes verifying the appropriate security level of the communications systems.
10-25. The primary goal of the TECHINT assess function is to determine whether the results of TECHINT production meet the unit's PIR or intelligence requirements. The G2/S2 immediately assesses TECHINT products upon receipt for accuracy and relevance. He must inform the TECHINT producer of the extent to which the product answered the PIR or intelligence requirement. Providing feedback to TECHINT analysts helps improve the effectiveness and efficiency of TECHINT.
10-26. The G2/S2 also assesses the success of the unit's ISR effort in accomplishing any TECHINT associated ISR task and shares his assessment with the staff and the pertinent units or personnel.
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