1997 Congressional Hearings
LIEUTENANT GENERAL JAY M.
|Army Close Range UAV Requirements|
|Tgt Location Error||<100m||<100m|
|Endurance||3 hours (4 hours)||3 hours|
|Launch/Recovery||Unprepared Surface/ Large Deck Amphib||Unprepared Surface/ 30mX75mX10m|
|Mobility||2 HMMWV/1 Trlr||2 HMMWV/1 Trlr|
|Data Link||Analog (Digital)||Analog|
The requirements for the Tactical UAV were based in large measure on the Army's requirements for a brigade commander's UAV (referred to as the "Close Range" UAV). These brigade commander UAV requirements are founded in operational concepts. For example, 50 km range provides stand-off distance to maintain a launch/recovery area out of range of primary threat artillery. 3 hours on-station endurance is associated with the need to maintain a loitering system during the crucial period of a brigade fight. Mobility and deployability requirements are derived from the need to maintain a force projection capability at the brigade level. The EO/IR payload requirement stems from the lesson learned in combat and other operations that commanders require responsive "eyes-on" capability to take advantage of precision weapons and avoid excessive collateral damage. The requirements associated with propulsion, data link, and target location error are examples of getting the best capability available for a reasonable cost. Finally, the launch/recovery requirement stems primarily from a Navy/Marine Corps need to be able to recover an air vehicle on a large deck amphibious ship without disrupting other flight operations. Although clearly interested in keeping the launch/recovery area as small as possible, the Army has instead emphasized the requirement for an "unprepared landing strip" to avoid, when possible, needing engineer support to build the UAV's launch/recovery area. The Army would prefer to be able to use "soccer field-size" landing areas because of their proliferation throughout the world, but does not feel constrained by that size landing area. Instead, putting a tactical UAV in the hands of commanders and soldiers in the field, as we are doing under the auspices of the Tactical UAV ACTD, will help the Army further define its operational concepts, its requirements, and its UAV tactics, techniques, and procedures.
Tactical UAV Synergy
As field units begin to employ tactical UAVs, tactics, techniques, and procedures are becoming clearer. Synergy between cueing systems, UAVs (as confirming systems), and shooting systems is significantly reducing sensor-to-shooter timelines and ensuring increased "one shot, one kill" situations. The example of teaming brigade-owned UAVs with Air Force Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft highlights this synergy in a joint scenario. UAVs are dispatched to known areas of interest or cover sectors in an economy of force role when other sensors or assets are not available. They provide long-term coverage and datalink the information gathered to the battle command through joint-compatible digital communications. This information enables the ground commander to direct the Air Force CAS aircraft to the enemy force. Through proper use of airspace management procedures (vertical and horizontal separation), the UAVs and Air Force aircraft combine to destroy the threat force. Throughout the joint operation the UAVs update the enemy situation in real-time, assisting in the avoidance of threats and providing information on the current disposition of the target. The UAVs then corroborate pilot reports regarding battle damage assessment from the operation, enabling the ground commander to expeditiously reengage the adversary or recue the UAV to another area or target.
The above example is but one in a continuum of operations that Force XXI and Army After Next forces will conduct. Commanders require systems that exhibit the qualities of adaptability, agility, versatility, and flexibility, whether supporting the main attack on a digitized, lethal battlefield or conducting peacekeeping operations. The Tactical UAV, working with other systems, will offer complementary performance to help ensure mission accomplishment, while saving soldiers' lives.
The Army concept of UAV operations supporting division and corps commanders includes responsive employment of the Predator UAV system. The Predator UAV, flown by the Air Force, will operate throughout the battlefield area, forward of the line of troops, day and night, and in most weather conditions. It will provide corps and division commanders realtime target acquisition, battle damage assessment, reconnaissance, battlefield surveillance, and detailed information on potential enemy courses of action. The Air Force has indicated its commitment to meeting the Army's command and control timelines for Predator, acknowledging the challenge of "dynamic retasking" (retasking--in a timely manner--the Predator UAV from the unit preplanned in the Air Tasking Order (ATO) to the unit requesting immediate, unplanned support).
The Army currently views responsive and relevant information provided by the Predator UAV as an important part of the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) mix supporting tactical ground force commanders. The Army remains committed to working out, with the other services, the joint concept of operations and joint tactics, techniques and procedures that will enable the Predator UAV to support gaining information dominance on the battlefield.
Global Hawk UAV
High Altitude Endurance (HAE) Global Hawk UAVs are expected to provide imagery support to the Joint Force Commander and theater commander. In addition, the Global Hawk UAV will provide direct imagery information to corps commanders through the Tactical Exploitation System (TES). Availability of these endurance systems to meet tactical ground commanders' battlefield needs will continue to be addressed through joint exercises, simulations, and concept of operations discussions. The Army will continue its efforts, in conjunction with the other Services, to develop coherent operational concepts and tactical procedures that employ UAVs in a complementary manner with each other and with capable and equally necessary manned systems.
Tactical UAV, Predator UAV, and Global Hawk UAV form a complementary, synergistic family of UAVs that will support Army commanders from brigade through JFC. As we pursue this family, though, the Army's priority remains clear--field as quickly as possible a cost-effective, tactical UAV with real-time day/night video capability that is responsive to the brigade commander.
Thank you for the opportunity to provide my views regarding this most important capability of the Force XXI Army.
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