Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


R-29R/R-2S / SS-N-18 STINGRAY

The R-29R missile is the first sea-based Soviet ballistic missile carrying 3 to 7 multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), with a range of 6,500 to 8000 km, depending on the number of reentry vehicles. It was deployed on the 667BDR Delta III ballistic missile submarine, which is equipped with the D-9R launch system and 16 R-29R missiles. The Delta III is the first submarine that can fire any number of missiles in a single salvo.

The R-29R, the R-29RL and the R-29RK were based on the R-29 single-warhead SLBM. The missiles incorporated the first two stages of the R-29 missile largely unchanged. However, instead of the single reentry vehicle and instrument module on the R-29, the R29R features a post-boost vehicle with either a single warhead or three or seven multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles. The single warhead missile has a maximum range of 8000 km, whereas the MIRVed missiles have a range 6500 km.

The R-29R missile is intended for the defeat of strategic targets at the intercontinental ranges. It is accepted for the armament the Navies in 1977. Rocket is placed on the nuclear-powered submarines of the project of 667[BDR] with the fire unit of 16 rockets.

New technical solutions, realized in the rocket included the creation of the divided head part with the individual guidance of combat blocks to the target; the possibility of equipping the rockets with different assemblies of head parts; the application of a system of complete celestial correction and a substantial increase in the accuracy of shooting; the creation of high-speed small combat blocks with the small scattering in the atmospheric trajectory phase.

Rocket R-29R has a two-step layout diagram in a single diameter with the liquid-propellant engines of first and second stages, placed in the fuel tanks, and the head part (combat step), which ensures arrangement on the rocket of three change assemblies of combat load (monoblock, by three- and semi-block). At present in accordance with the agreement SALT-1 on the rockets is placed three-unit type assembly. The housings of first and second stages consist of the tank cowlings of wafer construction, made from the aluminum-magnesium alloy, two-layered intermediate and single-layer rear and front bottoms.

As the power plant of first stage is used the two-unit type engine, which consists of the fixed basic building block and two, placed in the gimbal suspensions, the cameras of steering block. At the second step the single-chamber engine placed in the gimbal suspension is used. Control forces along the channels of pitch and hunting are ensured by rocking engine in the appropriate plane, and along the channel of bank - by redistribution of exhaust gases of the turbopump unit through the managers of the nozzle of bank. The stages of rocket by the separable energy of gases of the supercharging of first stage, the stiffening joints between the steps are removed by the elongated detonating charge. Servicing rockets with propellant components and ampulization of tanks are achieved at the plant.

The post-boost vehicle includes an instrument-assembly module, a guidance system and a propulsion system. The propulsion system of the post-boost vehicle consists of a four-chamber liquid-propellant rocket engine providing for independent warhead targeting. The combustion chambers of the engine are placed on an external conical support structure. The blunt shaped warheads, oriented at an angle of the centerline of the missile, are positioned opposite of the flight direction. They are positioned in a conical shaped internal cavity at the bottom of the forward second stage fuel tank. The bus also dispenses ballistic missile defense countermeasures.

The combat stage of the rocket consists of instrument, engine and combat compartments. The autonomous inertial system for control with the equipment of the celestial correction of the flight trajectory is arranged in the nose section of rocket in the airtight instrument compartment with the astrodome expendable in flight. Application on the rocket of the system of complete celestial correction, considering and compensating error of the navigation complex of submarine both in the determination of the course and the position of the shooting submarine, ensured a considerable increase in the accuracy of shooting.

Instrument compartment is structurally divided in two sections by airtight bottom. In the first section triaxial gyrostabilizer with the astroing-sight device is placed. Equipment of control system is installed on the frame without the application of individual amortization of the elements of equipment, and frame is attached to the frame of instrument compartment to the shock absorbers. This method of the installation of instruments made it possible to increase the density of their layout in the instrument compartment.

Engine of the combat step includes four-chamber liquid-propellant engine, fuel tanks, housing and provides the guidance of each block to the individual target, located in the zone of a significant radius. On the housing from the outer side they are established in the stabilization planes of the combustion chamber and engine nozzle, and from the internal - fuel tanks, prepared in the form of the parts of the torus. The elements of the automation of engine and steering drive are arranged in the center section of the section. Engine is executed according to open circuit with the turbopump propellant feed system. Control according to the channels of pitch and hunting is ensured by the redistribution of the thrusts of the pairs of cameras, which lie at the appropriate stabilization planes.

In the combat section are placed combat blocks [warheads], the frame, cable system, device of fastening and department of combat blocks; it is found in the volume, formed by the concave upper bottom of the fuel tank of the second step. Combat blocks are fixed on the frame and are separated in flight upon command from control system. Instrument cut off with the system of control - interchanged. The replacement of combat blocks and instrument compartment is achieved if necessary and without unloading of rocket from the mine.

Based on the D-9 launch system, the D-9R launch system was developed in the mid-1970s to provide a capability to launch MIRVed missiles. The launch of rocket can be produced from the underwater and above-water positions of submarine.

The flight tests of the R-29R missiles took place from November 1976 through October 1978 in the White and Barents Seas on board of the "K-441" Delta III submarine. Of the 22 missiles that were tested, 4 carried a single warhead, 8 carried three MIRVs and 12 were tested with seven MIRVs.

Fourteen 667 BDR Delta III submarines were outfitted with the D-9R launch system and R-29R missiles.

The SS-N-18 missile carrying seven MIRVs was not deployed. In compliance with the START-1 treaty all missiles are considered to carry four MIRVs.




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