DH-10 / CH-10 / CJ-10
Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM)
Hong Niao / Chang Feng / Dong Hai-10
Unlike ballistic missiles, cruise missiles are usually categorized by intended mission and launch mode (instead of maximum range). The two broadest categories are Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM) and antiship cruise missiles [ASCM]. Each type can be launched from an aircraft, ship, submarine, or ground-based launcher. A LACM is an unmanned, armed aerial vehicle designed to attack a fixed or mobile ground-based target. It spends the majority of its mission in level flight, as it follows a preprogrammed path to a predetermined target. Propulsion is usually provided by a small jet engine. Because of highly accurate guidance systems that can place the missile within a few feet of the intended target, the most advanced LACMs can be used effectively against very small targets, even when armed with conventional warheads.
LACM guidance usually occurs in three phases: launch, midcourse, and terminal. During the launch phase, a missile is guided using only the inertial navigation system. In the midcourse phase, a missile is guided by the inertial navigation system updated by one or more of the following systems: a radar-based terrain contour matching system, a radar or optical scene matching system, and/or a satellite navigation system such as the US Global Positioning System or the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System. The terminal guidance phase begins when a missile enters the target area and uses either more accurate scene matching or a terminal seeker (usually an optical or radar-based sensor).
Defending against LACMs will stress air defense systems. Cruise missiles can fly at low altitudes to stay below enemy radar and, in some cases, hide behind terrain features. Newer missiles are incorporating stealth features to make them even less visible to radars and infrared detectors. Modern cruise missiles also can be programmed to approach and attack a target in the most efficient manner. For example, multiple missiles can attack a target simultaneously from different directions, overwhelming air defenses at their weakest points. Furthermore, LACMs may fly circuitous routes to get to the target, thereby avoiding radar and air defense installations. Some developmental systems may incorporate chaff or decoys as an added layer of protection, though concealment will remain a cruise missile’s main defense.
China has developed land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs) for theater warfighting and strategic attack. These cruise missiles seem to have a relatively high development priority to ensure that Chinese forces will have greater conventional firepower. Long-range cruise missiles probably will also be used to bolster the viability of Chinese oncentional military deterrence. The first LACM design produced probably will be air-launched from Chinese bombers. China could develop a sea-launched version for use on either submarines or surface combatants. Some reports claim that a long-range land attack cruise missile will be fired from the torpedo tubes of the new Chinese Type 093 attack submarines.
The PLA first deployed new DH-10 ground-launched land attack cruise missiles (LACMs) in 2008, with 50-250 LACMs. As of April 2008 the PLA had 150-350 DH-10 ground-launched cruise missiles. China deployed 200-500 DH-10 ground-launched land-attack cruise missiles(LACM) by the end of 2009. By 2010, the PLA had 200-500 DH-10 LACMs with a range of 1,500+ km. The air-launched CJ-10 variant has been developed for deployment on the H-6M [four missiles] and H-6K [six missiles] bombers, which were entering service in small numbers in the 2010 timeframe. The DH-10 is believed to have a conventional warhead, while the CJ-10 may have both nuclear and conventional variants. The DH-10 / CJ-10 has a strong family resemblance to the YJ-62 / C-602 Anti-Shipping Cruise Missile [ASCM].
Chinese LACM R&D is aided by an aggressive effort to acquire foreign cruise missile technology, particularly from Russia. China also seeks enabling technologies and subsystems from the United States and other foreign countries. It has been reported that that China transported cruise missile production facilities from Russia to a location in the vicinity of Shanghai in 1993, and recruited cruise missile engineering specialists from Russia in 1995 and. It is also reported that China has obtained technical data concerning a Russian cruise missile guidance system.
The guidance system represents the most significant challenge for a long-range cruise missile program. China would require an extensive database of accurate topographic information to use terrain comparison (TERCOM) guidance. But TERCOM would probably be relatively ineffective in areas such as the South China Sea, which present few navigational reference points. Published reports suggest that GPS would initially be used as the primary guidance system, possibly to be supplemented subsequently with TERCOM.
The potential use of the American GPS system would render this system vulnerable to jamming of the unencrypted civil signal (CA code) from GPS satellites within view of the Chinese area of operations, or to local jamming and spoofing in the target area. Chinese cruise missiles could still find their targets using intertial navigation system [INS] technology, but without GPS updates they would be significantly less accurate.
The X-600 long range cruise missile project is believed to have started as early as 1977. In the mid-1980s, a 8359 Research Institute was established for cruise missile development, and also a Cruise Missile Institute of China. The Cruise Missile Institute is probably a new name for the Hai Ying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy, which had developed the Hai Ying -1 and Hai Ying-2 (Silkworm) family of anti-ship missiles.
Reports of uncertain reliability claimed in the late 1990s that China was working on several advanced ground-based LACMs: the Changfeng ["Long Wind"] CF-1 and CF-2 [also termed Chang Feng and Chang Feng-JIA], and Hong Niao (HN)-1 and HN-2 missile, with a range between 400 km and 1,800 km, with conventional and possibly nuclear warheads. The ground-launched Hong Niao missiles were said to be fitted with tandem solid-rocket boosters.
In 1995 it was reported that China was funding Israeli development of an air-launched cruise missile based on the Israeli Delilah anti-radiation attack drone, with a 230-mile range. The new missile reportedly was to be larger than the Delilah, while retaining its basic configuration. The range and CEP of the Chang Feng air-launched LACM are claimed to be 600km and 15m, respectively, and Chang Feng -JIA 1300km and 5m. Similar accuracy claims are made for the Hong Niao family of missiles, though these would appear to be rather optimistic.
In May 2001 an air-to-surface missile was reportedly launched from an H-6 bomber. The test, reportedly the first time China had launched the new cruise missile, was apparently deemed successful by US defense and intelligence agencies. The missile, reportedly an extended-range version of the C-802 anti-ship missile, was assessed as being capable of carrying a 500-kilogram warhead to a range of at least 150 kilometers.
The first operational long range Chinese cruise missile, the Hong Niao ("Red Bird") may have entered service as early 1992. The HN-1 was reportedly tested in mid-1999 to a range of 600km. The Hong Niao reportedly derived from the Russian KH-65SE/SD, a short-range version of the Russian Kh-55 [AS-15 KENT] 3,000-kilometer-range strategic cruise missile. The HN-1 apparently has straight folding wings at the mid-body, with a folding tailplane rear assembly. The engine is mounted in the rear of the missile, with an air inlet under the fuselage. Some sources suggest that this missile features inertial guidance with a terrain following radar altimeter, and scene-matching terminal guidance. The missile is variously reported to be able to carry a nuclear, high explosive, or cluster munition warhead.
Reportedly the HN-2 version, with an improved engine and range extended to at least 1,500 kilometers (930 miles), was introduced as early as 1996. In February 2000, Lin Chong-pin, vice chairman of the cabinet-level Mainland Affairs Council, stated that Beijing had also developed a mid-range "Hongniao 2" cruise missile. According to an August 2001 report of doubtful reliability, PLA Navy vessels involved in June 2001 exercises test-fired for the first time the Hongniao-2 cruise missiles, which was claimed to have a range of 1,000 km. According to some reports, the HongNiao-II may have a range of 1,800km, with an inertial and terrain-following guidance system.
Lin Chong-pin also stated in February 2000 that Beijing was developing a long-range "Hongniao 3" cruise missile, with a range of 2,500 kilometers, similar to the Tomahawk cruise missile. Other reports claim that the HN-3 is a 3,000-km-range strategic LACM, capable of both ground-based deployment and of installation on old H-6 bombers and the new-generation HJ-7/FBC-1 bombers. This missile might enter service after 2005.
DH-10 - Dong Hai-10 / East China Sea-10
In September 2004 it was reported that China had test-fired a land attack cruise missile (LACM) with a range of 1,500km. The new missile, designated Dong Hai-10, or East China Sea-10, is likely to be accurate to within 10m. According to Jane's Missiles and Rockets, China is developing a land-attack cruise missile known as the Dong Hai-10 (DH-10) that has a range in excess of 1,500 kilometers (Jane's Missiles and Rockets, October 2004). Defense officials in Taiwan stated that some of China's LACMs will be highly accurate, with circular error probables (CEPs) of 10 meters or less (Taipei Times, October 5, 2004).
The U.S. Department of Defense assesses that these LACMs will allow for "greater precision than historically available from ballistic missiles for hard target strikes, and increased standoff". In 2006, the US DoD reported that "Land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs), such as the DH-10 now under development, or special operations forces could be used to attack regional land bases." In March 2009 the US DoD reported that "The PLA is developing air- and ground-launched LACMs, such as the YJ-63 and DH-10 systems for stand-off, precision strikes. As of April 2008 the PLA had 150-350 DH-10 ground-launched cruise missiles."
The CH-10 [East Sea-10] is China’s new LACM [Land Attack Cruise Missile] that was originally designated the DH-10. It is believed to be a variant of the six copies acquired from Ukrainian of the Russian Kh-55 cruise missile that China reverse engineered. CH-10 is believed to have a range of 1,500- 2,000 kilometers with as many as 250 or more produced and deployed in groups of 20 - 30 launchers with three missiles each. Mail display cards from the pre October 1, 2009, 60th. anniversary celebration showed the CH-10 type as a Naval and or land PLA (army) system but the entire mailing card series seemed to be themed towards the PRC’s Navy.
CAMA – China Airborne Missile Academy is the design organization for China's UAV’s, ALCM’s and ALCM’s.
CJ-20 air-launched cruise missile
The CJ-20 air-launched cruise missile is intended for delivery by the H-6 bomber, and may have a range of 2,200 kilometers. A report by the United States Air Force published in 2009 suggested that the CJ-20 also had the potential to carry a nuclear payload. In a war between China and the US, the American naval base on Guam could be a primary target for the CJ-20. The CJ-20 could be ready within five years, the head of the Air Force Global Strike Command indicated in briefing slides dated 07 May 2013.
|Surface-Launched||Hong Niao-1||Hong Niao-2||Hong Niao-3|
|Air-Launched||Chang Feng 1||Chang Feng 2||CJ-20|
|Chang Feng||Chang Feng JIA|
|Operational||? 1992||? 1996||2015 +|
|Range||600 km||1,000 - 1,800 km||2,500 -3,000 km|
|Accuracy||? 15 meters||??? 5 meters|
|total weight||1,400 kilograms||?||?|
|warhead weight||300-400 kg||?||?|
|yield||? 90 kt||?||?|
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