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Sea Based Support


Because of Soviet reluctance to become too dependent upon foreign land-based stations, or perhaps because not all nations approached were willing to be hosts, the Soviet Union has put considerable emphasis upon developing a sea-based support system. These consist of several classes of ships. One group operates in the mid-Pacific, and has been pictured in Western magazines and books. These are fairly impressive looking, loaded down with radomes and many specialized antennas and theodolites. They serve both to record missile tests, in the area where the dummy warhead is to splash; or in sight of the orbital path of spacecraft over flying the Pacific, usually for their initial revolution.

Other less well-equipped ships in comparison with the missile trackers have for some years operated in the tropical Atlantic and the Mediterranean along the path of orbital flights. Such ships would put into various ports in these parts of the world for supplies and crew rest, and when they left port it was usually an indication that new space launches were pending.

By noting what tracking ships are registered by the Russians as civilian type vessels, and which are treated as naval ships, it appears that the Pacific missile tracking ships whose pictures have been published after being photographed at sea by U.S. aircraft, are under the operational control of Soviet military authorities.

By contrast, the ships seen in the Atlantic and Mediterranean have now been identified as operating for the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Where once these ships were merchant vessels with only a minimum of modifications in appearance to serve the space program, now there has been a marked upgrading and even the development of highly sophisticated big ships with considerable communications equipment on board. In December 1967, the science ships were identified as the Dolinsk, Bezhitsa Kistna, Aksay, Morshovets, Kegostrov, Nevel, Borovichi, and Kosmonaut Vladimir Komarov. (39) Since that time virtually all of these ships have been named by the Russians as being in particular regions to support certain space flights, especially in the Atlantic, but also in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent to the 1967 listing, two progressively larger and better science tracking ships have been added: the Akademik Sergey Korolev, and the Kosmonaut Yuriy Gagarin.



34. TASS 0755 GMT, December 7, 1967 .

35. Moscow Radio, 1800 GMT, April 13, 1988 .

36. Granma, Havana . October 19, 1968 , p. 6

37. TASS, 1840 GMT, February 8, 1970 .

38. TASS, 1719 GMT, February 8, 1972 .

39. Moscow Radio, 2200 GMT, November 26, 1967 .

40. TASS, 1964 GMT. June 5, 1970 .

41. Pravda Ukrainy, Kiev . June 23, 1970 , p. 4.

SKI Omer USSR Academy of Sciences S ??????: SKI Omer USSR Academy of Sciences Regular article SKI Omer - Space Research Department of sea expeditions of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the branch subordinated to the Academy of Sciences (formally) and the Ministry of Defence of the USSR (in fact), which was in conducting research vessels, designed to provide space programs of the USSR. Vessels Soviet Union, there was also connected Navy measurement system works for the Navy, Strategic Missile Forces and GUKOS, but SKI Omer relationship does not apply. The reasons for the creation in 1950 in the development of rocket technology, a new direction. We started designing and testing a rocket that could carry cargo into orbit around the Earth. Designer Sergei Korolev launched a program to launch a manned spacecraft. Spacecraft from the beginning to the end of the flight must be monitored and controlled. To this end, since 1956 the Soviet Union began to develop a network of ground command and measuring points. Later they were called - "a scientific measurement points," the NPC. However, with 16 daily turnover 6 - "deaf" are radio visibility from the territory of the USSR. I have not seen NIPam and most of the trajectory over the Atlantic, where they were conducted major operations - docking undocking of spacecraft deceleration and descent of the spacecraft, as well as the "second start" - the conclusion interplanetary space stations with an intermediate orbit to the desired trajectory. At the beginning of 1960, it became clear, the necessity of the measuring points in the ocean. The Beginning is ripe for the creation of specialized courts, with the possibility to maintain radio contact with the crew of the spaceship, to carry out surveillance and control of spacecraft. For this purpose, promptly at three merchant ships of the Ministry of Merchant Marine, "Voroshilov" ( "Illichivsk"), "Krasnodar" and "Dolinsk" was installed radio telemetry. In August 1960, the Court came to its first flight. In 1960, these three ships, united in the floating complex telemetry (PTC), became part of the complex commands measurement of soil (NKIK) in Nii-4 Ministry of Defence of the USSR. In 1962 they were joined by the tanker "Aksay" as the bunker and at the same time - telemetry ship. According to the directive of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR (Soviet General Staff) â "- Org / 9162079 dated 11/26/1962 in 1963. All works related to the creation of the mission, organization and conduct measurements handed over command-measuring complexes (CIC / h 32 103). Its composition was created in a special / h 26179, which were forwarded to the Court of PTK. Later, the number of Directive of the USSR General Staff of the Armed Forces org / 7/86632 of 01.17.69 in / h 26179 was named "Private complex floating measurement (OPIC) and 25/01/73 as Directive â" - 314/4/00364 -Â «9 th separate control and measurement in the sea "(9 OM CIC) as part of a complex command and measurement to the Central subordinated management of space assets (TSUKOS, 1970 - GUKOS) of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR. Until 1967, the Court of PTC, under the flag of the Soviet Union, he traveled as part of a fleet of fishing vessels supply a legend. Employees of the expedition is to the crew, a special technique in the journal vessel has not been determined. As a result of this secret any input port can lead to trouble and provocation. Thus, in custody in the ports are "Illichivsk", "Ristna", "Kegostrov." June 18, 1967 published by TASS "the creation of the department of scientific Naval Academy of the USSR research vessels Faculty explore the upper atmosphere and provide the flight of space objects, manned spacecraft and interplanetary automatic stations." In all ships pennant he was raised by the Academy of Sciences and in all external relations with port authorities and the press came to be called the Soviet research vessels. Decree of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on November 4, 1970 â "- 34-1466 on the Department of Marine expeditionary work was created" research space "- SKI Omer USSR. So OM CIC acquired its name from the public. Expansion of the fleet in 1967, as part of the court OM CIC were "Dolinsk", "Aksay", "Bezhitsa", "Ristna." In the course of 1,967 years, the Court joined the Navy t. N. "Lunar Flotilla" - "cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov", "Borovichi", "Kegostrov", "Morzhovets" and "Nevel", transformed into the first - within the framework of the project in 1917 ( " Sirius') freight ship "Genichesk", the rest - in the framework of the project in 1918 ( "Selena"), a series of wooden "Vytegrales." The purpose of these vessels tracking the Soviet lunar program of manned flights. In 1970 he was commissioned a research vessel "Akademik Sergei Korolev" - project from 1908 ( "Canopus"), and in 1971 years - the flagship of the fleet cosmic sea, "cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin" - a project in 1909 ( "Phoenix"). In 1977-78 the USSR Academy pennant was raised on the research ships "Cosmonaut Vladislav Volkov," "cosmonaut Pavel Belyaev," "Cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky," and "Cosmonaut Viktor Patsaev" converted Project 1929 ( "Selena-2") wood series & q ... uot; Vytegrales. "At the end of 1978, the fleet consisted of 11 vessels SRS Omer based in Leningrad and Odessa Odessa:" Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin "- w / h 30108" Akademik Sergei Korolev "- w / h 29508" Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov "- w / h 29466 Leningrad" Borovichi "- w / h 30057" Kegostrov "- w / h 40217" Morzhovets "- w / h 40215" Nevel "- w / h 29480" Cosmonaut Vladislav Volkov "- w / h 49517 "Cosmonaut Pavel Belyayev" - w / h 49504 "Cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky" - w / h 59944 "Cosmonaut Viktor Patsaev" - w / h 59945 Measures The entire history of the Soviet space program is closely connected with reliable support from the "cosmic sea fleet." The aim of the "great", Odessa by a board therefore support the courts spacecraft trajectory and telemetry from the spacecraft and crews of the station. Appointment of Leningrad - Tanks telemetry and communications support. In the SIC Omer its research vessels operating in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. The subject of former space station long-term (DOS) "Salut" and "Mir" spacecraft "Soyuz", "Soyuz-T", "Soyuz-TM" cargo ship "Progress", a number of satellites, both military and civilian aim - satellites communication, recognition, positioning system GLONASS carrier rocket "Energy" and the spacecraft reusable "Buran". In carrying out the tasks related to the testing of space technology such as unmanned aircraft rocket Orbital BOR-4 and the space shuttle "Buran", the court SKI Omer interact with specialized naval - ships hydrographic expedition Pacific (toge) and search and rescue ships of the Black Sea Fleet of the USSR . Making long flights months in different regions of the ocean, ships SKI Omer came to supply food, water and fuel in the ports of many countries in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas, causing a continued interest among residents. Managing Services Managing all these powerful fleet in coordination with ground stations and provide guidance in SIC Omer. The first head of the Omer (1951-1986) - Hero years from the commander of the Soviet Union Ivan D. Papanin.Pervy in / h 26179 (PTC, OPIC, OM CIC 1963-1983 biennium) - Captain Vitaly G. Bezborodov. End of the story in 1989 broke up a trip "small" vessels of "Selena". In 1990, the ship was sold for scrap in Alang (India). In 1989, it is excluded from OM CIC and sold to a new owner - "ECOS-conversion" Research vessel "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov". In 1994 he sold the ship for scrap in Alang (India). In 1991-94 he returned from his last remaining cruise ships and stood for a long time, "a joke." On 04/01/1995, the directive of the General Staff of the Armed Forces 01.26.95 â "- 314/3/012 financing discontinued OM CIC. SKI Omer ceased to exist. In 1995, the court "Cosmonaut Vladislav Volkov," "cosmonaut Pavel Belyaev," "Cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky," and "Cosmonaut Viktor Patsaev" were transferred from the Ministry of Defence of the Russian space agency ( "Roscosmos"). In 1996, the court "cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin", "Academician Sergei Korolev" inherited after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Black Sea Shipping Company (Ukraine), changed its name to "AGAR" and "Orolo" and was sold for scrap in Alang ( India). In 1998-99. Steps have been taken to enable the research vessel "Cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky" in the framework of the project "Sea Launch" (Sea Launch). The ship was set to suitable equipment, began preparing to leave on the fly. But it did not take place. In 2000, "Cosmonaut Vladislav Volkov "and" cosmonaut Pavel Belyayev "dismantled a shipyard in Kaliningrad" Repair of ships Baltica ". in 2006," cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky, "changed its name to the« Cosmos », went for scrap in Alang (India). at this time (2015) there is only one ship "space fleet" - "Cosmonaut Viktor Patsaev" standing in the port of Kaliningrad on the pier Museum of the World Ocean. the board is partially hardware stores receive telemetry data and NGO workers on board instruments (Korolev), but continued to carry out work on reception of telemetry data and to ensure communication with the probe, including - to the International Space Station (ISS). Nautical Club Space veterans Fleet Personnel performing maintenance work on a spaceship and maintenance of radio equipment on board the flight SKI Omer, was established as an officer in the Soviet army and civilian experts, engineers and technicians. SKI Omer no longer exists, but the veterans services united in the organization - Veterans Club. If the club is a museum. Veterans meet regularly to discuss plans and simply communicate. ------------------------------------------------------------ CIVILIAN SPACE RESEARCH SHIPS OPERATED BY THE SOVIET ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ------------------------------------------------------------ Introduction: ------------- The following ships are operated by the Soviet Academy of Sciences in support of manned spaceflight activities and are considered to be civilian research/tracking vessels. The Soviet Academy of Sciences also operates a much larger fleet of oceanographic and weather research ships. The Soviet Navy operates a separate fleet of missile range ships in support of ballistic missile tests. These ships are based in the Pacific. The largest and newest (1984) of these ships is the AGI Marshall M.I. Nedelin, based at the Pacific Ocean Fleet headquarters in Vladivostok. GAGARIN Class ------------- Kosmonaut Yuri Gagarin [UKFI] The Gagarin is the largest Soviet research ship, displacing 45,000 tons. Launched in 1970 at Leningrad, the Gagarin has a hull design similar to that of a tanker. The 773 ft. long ship has 4 dish type antennas arrayed in-line amid-ships. This spacecraft/satellite tracking vessel is based in the Black Sea, probably at Odessa. The ship was named after the Soviet Union's first cosmonaut, who died in a 1968 aircraft accident. KOMAROV Class ------------- Kosmonaut Vladimir Komarov [UUVO] The Komarov was originally launched in 1966 as the dry cargo vessel, Genichesk. The Komarov, named in honor of the Soviet Union's first space fatality, was converted for use as a tracking ship at Leningrad in 1967. The 510 ft. Komarov displaces 17,500 tons, and has 2 large/1 small radome type antennas. The Komarov's home port is Odessa. KOROLEV Class ------------- Akademik Sergei Korolev [UISZ] The 21,500 ton Korolev was launched at Nikolayev in 1970 and was named after the director of the early Soviet space program. The 596 ft. tracking vessel has 2 dish type and 1 small radome type antennas. An older, much smaller ship, with a similar name, the Akademik Korolev, is an Akademik Kurchatov Class research ship assigned to Hydromet and is based in Vladivostok. The Akademik Sergei Korolev is based in Odessa, on the Black Sea. From September 1987 to February 1988, the Korolev was operating off Nova Scotia in support of the orbiting MIR space complex. BELYAYEV Class -------------- Kosmonaut Pavel Belyayev [UTDX] Kosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky [UZZV] Kosmonaut Vladislav Volkov [UIVZ] Kosmonaut Viktor Patsayev [UZYY] All of the above ships were formerly Vytegrales class freighters converted to spaceflight tracking ships at Leningrad between 1977 and 1978. The Patsayev, Volkov, and Dobrovolsky were named after three cosmonauts who died during the landing of Soyuz 11 in 1971. These 400 ft., 5,970 ton ships have atleast one dish type antenna amid-ships. They are based in the Baltic port of Tallinn. VYTEGRALES Class ---------------- Borovichi [UVAU] Kegostrov [UKBH] Morzhovets [UUYG] Nevel [UUYZ] This class of satellite/spaceflight tracking ships were formerly timber carriers. They were converted to their present role at Leningrad in 1967. They have various arrays of tracking and directional antennas. All are based in the Baltic, at Tallinn. Communications via RTTY ----------------------- Soviet Academy of Sciences operated research ships contact their home ports via radioteletype on maritime shortwave frequencies. Scientific data and telemetry are transmitted back to various control centers, such as Flight Control at Kaliningrad, via satellite. The message traffic consists mainly of crew telegrams to their families. These are similar to our military's MARSGRAMS. In addition, message traffic between various scientific organizations and other Academy of Sciences vessels can be seen. Soviet ships transmit RTTY at 50 Baud, 170 HZ shifts. In some cases, 75 and 100 baud, normal and reverse polarity have been seen. Frequencies around 4178, 6268, 8297.5-8299.5, 8344-8357, 12492-12526, 16696-16705 KHZ are the most active RTTY frequencies for Soviet ships. Soviet coastal stations can be found throughout the shortwave maritime bands. Soviet tracking ships monitor scheduled broadcasts of "traffic lists" from either their home port or UAT Moscow Radio. "Traffic lists" from coastal radio stations are broadcast in high speed CW and RTTY. When the vessel's radio operator spots his call sign, contact is made with the coastal station in CW. The coastal station will acknowledge and assign the vessel a frequency to TRANSMIT its' messages. The vessel RECEIVES RTTY traffic from the coastal station on a different frequency. The tracking ships usually contact URD Leningrad, UFB Odessa, and UAT Moscow almost exclusively. UAT is monitored for message traffic originating from other ships at sea. The following is an example of the "RY" test tapes which precede message traffic between ship and coastal station. UFB is the call sign of Odessa Radio. UISZ is the call sign of the tracking ship Akademik Sergei Korolev. RYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRY UFB UFB DE UISZ UISZ K RYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRY UFB UFB DE UISZ UISZ K RYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRY UFB UFB DE UISZ UISZ K RYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRYRY UFB UFB DE UISZ UISZ K The following are message headers from various tracking ships. NIS AK S KOROLEW ODS/..! 340 WE QTXQW PWPPV NIS KOSM WL KOMAROW ODS/..! 384 WY QYXR PTPPV NIS KOSM P BELQEW LNG/..! 240 WU QUXR PEPPV NIS MORVOWEC LNG/..! 106 WI QPXY PTPPV NIS KOSM G DOBROWOLXSKIJ LNG/..! 149 WP QYXY PEPPV NIS KOSMONAWT WL WOLKOW LNG/..! 22 WW PWXPR PRPPV "NIS" is the Cyrillic/Baudot keyboard abbreviation for the Russian words "Scientific Research Vessel." Cyrillic spellings of ship names differ in some cases from the "Latin" transliterations appearing in Jane's Fighting Ships. For example, MORVOWEC, in Cyrillic, appears as Morzhovets in "Latin" versions of ship names. Without the "NIS" designator, the Gagarin and Komarov can be confused with fish carrier vessels with similar names. Tracking ships usually remain at sea for 120 days before being relieved. However, due to the availability of these ships, they may be ordered into a foreign port to transfer crew and then return to their previous position. Crews in the North Atlantic are usually exchanged at Rotterdam and Cueta, a Spanish port opposite Gibralter. During their deployment, these vessels may visit nearby ports for crew "rest and relaxation." For tracking ships in the South Atlantic, port calls are usually made at Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands. Vessels in the Carribean have visited Willemstad, Curacao; Vera Cruz, Mexico; and Havana. Operations ---------- The Soviets usually position a large tracking ship such as the Gagarin, Komarov, or the Korolev, in the North Atlantic off Canada's Sable Island. During manned spaceflights, such as the current MIR missions, Soviet tracking ships monitor voice, telemetry, and TV signals from the spacecraft. This data is then relayed back to Flight Control in Kaliningrad (a suburb of Moscow) via polar orbiting nongeosynchronus communications satellites. Soviet Molniya communications satellites rise and set over Hudson's Bay in the Canadian Arctic. Because of winter ice and spring/summer ice berg seasons, the most favorable position for a tracking ship is off Nova Scotia. The Molniya's have an operational period of 6 hours over the Arctic. For an hour, at appogee, they "hang" almost motionless over Hudson's Bay. As one satellite sets, another one is rising. Thus, the tracking ships can maintain continous contact with the Soviet Union. During the MIR's hour and a half orbit, it is "in sight" of atleast one of these tracking ships for approximately 7-10 minutes. This is when telemetry is monitored. Other tracking ships are positioned off the West coast of Africa near Togo and Montevideo, Uruguay. These tracking ships monitor the MIR when it is out of "sight" of the North Atlantic tracking ships. Tracking ships frequently change position, depending on orbital parameters, in order to keep the spacecraft "in sight" during subsequent orbits. Occasionally, you will see numerical data transmitted in "QWERTYUIOP" shorthand between tracking ships via a coastal station, usually UAT Moscow. With the aid of a word processor, with search and replace features, this data can be decoded. The numbers 1,2,3,4 .... are substituted for Q,W,E,R .... with (/) and (.) substituted for X and M. The following is an example of decoded data. These are apparently "look up angles" used to aim dish antennas at orbiting spacecraft. No identifying column headings are transmitted. However, the tracking ships' call sign, latitude and longitude, and sometimes an orbit number is sent in a header accompanying each block of data. Usually, the position is reported as, for example, "35001 53001," meaning latitude 35 00 South, longitude 53 00 West. The last digit, in this case "1" may refer to the quadrant, North, South, East, or West. 0.29.17 227.46 0. 0 0.29.30 227H42 00.46 0.30. 0 227.33 2.49 0.20.50 227.23 5V10 0.30.50 227.15 6.59 V.31. 0 227.12 7.54 0.31.30 226.57 11.16 0.32.0 VVV39 15.35 0.32.30 226.14 21.33 0.33. 0 225.32 30.36 0.33.30 224. 0 45.52 0.34. 0 216X3 72.34 0.34.30 57.35 71. 9 0.35. 0 50.53844.48 0.35.30 49.26 29. 6 0.36. 0 48.45 20.50 0.36.30 48.21 14.55 0.37. 0 48. J 10.38 0.3KV30 47.52 7.18 0.37.33 47.50 6.59 0.38. 0 47.41 4. 0.38.30 47.33 2.04 0.39. 0 47.25 0.10 0.39. 2 47.24 0. 0V In this example, elapsed time, azimuth, and degrees above horizon for one orbit were sent. The ten minute period covered in this data indicates the time necessary for the object to cross the horizon and is consistent with a low earth orbit. This particular object crossed almost directly overhead, which accounts for the abrupt change in azimuth from southwest to northeast. Conclusion: ---------- Tracking ships in the North Atlantic, particularly those off the coast of Nova Scotia, have strong signals for SWL's on the East Coast. At present, there are atleast 6 tracking ships in the Atlantic, (2 in the North, 2 in the South, 1 in the Carribean, and 1 enroute to the South Atlantic). As with most Soviet commercial vessels, tracking ships are in daily contact with their home ports. Tracking ships are usually the most active of the Soviet Academy of Sciences research vessels. ------------------------------------------------------------ Sources: Janes Fighting Ships 1984-85 "The Soviet Space Challenge," U.S. Dept. of Defense, November 1987. 1918 Vytegrales VYTEGRALES Class ---------------- Borovichi [UVAU] Kegostrov [UKBH] Morzhovets [UUYG] Nevel [UUYZ] This class of satellite/spaceflight tracking ships were formerly timber carriers. They were converted to their present role at Leningrad in 1967. They have various arrays of tracking and directional antennas. All are based in the Baltic, at Tallinn. Kegostrov, Morzhovets, Nevel, and Borovichi—joined the fleet in 1967. Typically, these were ships in the order of 6,100 ton displacement and a crew of 36. The Borovichi, Morzhovets, Kegostrov and Nevel were sold while the Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov was turned into an ecological museum. Borovichi (Ex Svirles) - Kegostrov (Ex Taimyr) - Morzhovets - Nevel Old transport units built at the shipyard of Leningrad Zhdanov in 1965-66 and fully modified with a large monitoring and detection system. Additional laboratories built warehouses. Vytegrales sister ships of the Navy, based on the Baltic. Same measures as the Baskunchak class, but the gross tonnage increased to 5277. FEATURES Displacement: 5277 t. Length: 122.10 mt Width: 16.8 mt Draught: 6.8 m Engine: diesel, 1 axle, 5200 HP Speed: 15 knots Autonomy: 16,000 nmi to 12 knots Crew: 92 Radar: 2 Don-2 x, telemetering Quiet Spring,, 2 Quad Spring, Antennas tlc Vee Cone A series of undefined positions in the Pacific are manned by Soviet military tracking ships which support ICBM tests in that area as well as space missions. These positions are not crucial to the space programme. Besides the Komarov, the Korolyov and the Gagarin, several of the older support ships are still used. Under the direction of the Academy of Sciences, these ships conduct research in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, support space activities and engage in electronics eavesdropping when situations permit. Such ships as the Dolinsk, Bezhitsa, Ristna, Aksay, Morzhovets, Kegostrov, Nevel and Borovichi have been active since 1967 in the support of manned flights in particular. The Vasily Golovnin is the flagship of the Soviet ocean-recovery forces and has been stationed at LI and L2. The second descent recovery ships were at L2, further to the south-east of LI. The latter is at about 55°E, 15°S; L2 is near 70°E, 40°S. These sites will probably be used again in any future Russian manned lunar program. The ships belonged to the Soviet Academy of Sciences (now Russian). The maritime part was under the responsibility of the authorities of ships Black / Baltic Sea. Ships whose port of origin were in Ukraine ( Kosmonavt Yurii Gagarin and Akademik Sergei Korolyov ) now belonged to that country so their role in space travel ended abruptly. These wonderful vessels did some sightseeing trips, but without success. Both were used to evacuate Russian military people and their families from Cuba to St. Petersburg, after which they returned to Ukrainian ports. The Russians were not interested, still had four ships in the Western Hemisphere and one more under construction. Flights over the Pacific are covered by two ships of the Russian navy, the Nedelin Marshall and Marshall Krylov. The Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov was previously based in Odessa had been transferred to Leningrad and modified for other uses, ecological expeditions in the North Atlantic and the Baltic. but those attempts were unsuccessful commercial use. So in the Batic Russia they were left with four ships: Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev , Kosmonavt Vladislav Volkov , the Kosmonavt Viktor Patsayev and Kosmonavt Georgii Dobrovolskii . . A new ship, the Akademik Nikolai Pilyugin had been launched and should be completed.

Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev space event support

ships (4 ships) Displacement: 7,230 tons full load Dimensions: 121.8 x 16.7 x 5.6 meters/399.6 x 54.8 x 18.4 feet Propulsion: 1 diesel, 1 shaft, 5,200 bhp, 15 knots Crew: 56 + 70-80 mission crew Concept/Program: Converted from Vytegrales class timber carriers. Operated by the Navy until transferred to the Ministry of Space in 1995. Mostly inactive since 1991. Builders: Construction and conversion by Severnaya Verf 190, St. Petersburg, Russia. Name Year FLT Homeport Notes Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev 1963/77 Kosmonavt Vladislav Volkov 1964/77 Kosmonavt Viktor Patseyev 1968/78 Kosmonavt Georgiy Dobrovolskiy 1968/78 [Back To Top] Discarded Classes: All other space event support ships discarded as follows: Akademik Nikolay Pilyugin sold incomplete for conversion to a cruise ship, Kosmonavt Yuriy Gagarin and Akademik Sergey Korolev to Ukraine upon the breakup of the USSR and sold for scrapping in 1997; all four Borovichi class sold for scrapping 1989. Kosmonaut Vladimir Komarov, 1966–1989 (scrapped) Akademik Sergei Korolev, 1970–1996 (scrapped) Kosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, 1971–1996 (scrapped) Kosmonaut Viktor Potsaev (ru), 1968–2001 (museum attraction) Kosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky (ru), 1978–2006 (scrapped) SSV-33 Ural, 1989–2001 (laid up, scrapping in progress) Marshal Nedelin (ru), 1984–1996 (scrapped) Marshal Krylov (ru), 1990


broadband whips, with additional center-loaded HF whips midships. The first TTC receiving "Ship Globe" dish of eight meter diameter, in its own 18 meter dome, is located here, along with a smaller two meter "Ship Wheel" dish in a 7.5 meter dome for tracking purposes. „

Amidships is the main mast, carrying a set of HF ' Vee-Cone arrays, the Komarov's two "Don Kay" radars and MF antennas, and a VHF whip. Starboard of the mast is a large motorboat—unique to this vessel, with eight lifeboats on either gunwale. A derrick of eight tons capacity is at the foot of the main mast, which is used for launching the motorboat, and a VHF omni directional aerial.

Towards the stern is the second eight meter "Ship Globe transmitting dish, and the stern mast, with the funnel incorporated. Here is the second pair of "Vee-Cone" log periodic aerials, and six lifeboats, two on the port side being of the GRP covered-in design, and one on the starboard side.

Chapters from the book "History of the Baltic plant", ed. O.Shulyakovsky, ed. "Gidrometeoizdat", 2003 "Astronauts". On the construction of research vessels "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov" and "Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin" " Seagoing space fleet ." On the construction of the first ships toge "Astronauts" A decade of space exploration programs initiated by the autumn of 1957 the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 and the first artificial satellite, was marked by new breakthroughs in space exploration. It was supposed to carry out two stages of human flight to the moon - the program "L-1" (manned lunar flyby spacecraft) and "A-3" (astronaut landing on the moon from the crew who is in lunar orbit). Upon returning to Earth landers, flying over the western hemisphere of the planet, it turned out to be out of range of land-based means of space flight control and management of the network from the territory of the USSR and with floating measuring complexes in the western coast of Africa. In order to ensure flight program, it should create a new floating command-measuring complex. He was supposed to be a qualitatively new technical means of ensuring the spaceflights from previously created floating measuring points and intended to participate actively in the implementation of the planned lunar missions. The prime contractor in the creation of this unique ship began to CDB-17 and Baltiysky Zavod. The project received a symbolic number - 1917 (in 1967 marked the 50th anniversary of the 1917 revolution). Development conducted under the code "Sirius". Chief designer of the project in 1917 was appointed A.E.Mihaylov. Design Assignment command-measuring complex provided for the establishment of the ship, capable of providing the work installed on it the newest electronic and telemetry means in any part of the world's oceans, including a tropical climate. He was supposed to determine the coordinates of the spacecraft, send and receive specific information, to register and process telemetry and trajectory measurements provide information on communication lines. The vessel, with the same type Genichesk Floating command-measuring complex created by the conversion of one of the ships of the Navy (has been in operation since August 1966 series of dry-cargo ship project 595 "Genichesk" with deadweight of 12 500 tons of construction Kherson Shipyard Technical project developed by experts of the Nevsky PKB (until 1966.. - CDB-17). One of the main directions of development for obscheproektnoy part was to find architectural solutions ship layout. It was necessary to ensure the optimal location on it antennas command-measuring and telemetry systems, their equipment, radio communications and navigation, comfortable accommodation of the crew. This should make the most of experience in designing and construction of the Baltic plant and operation (1958-1962 years) of vessels and ships the first two measuring systems. Significant changes in the load elements of the ship mass, placing laboratory, office and residential premises required to increase the height amidships 2.5 m. It was also decided to merge the forecastle to poop and install a new three-level add-in about 125 m (almost 80% of the length of the ship) . In order to ensure the requirements of the USSR Register of stability and unsinkable ship, it was installed additional main transverse bulkheads and onboard Boolean nadelki on its body width of 1.3 m. As for housing, then it was a question of creating new structures, foundations and reinforcements, excluding unacceptable deformation and displacement stabilized antenna platform command-measuring system for a given accuracy of their targeting. In addition, the developers have included the reinforcement of structures saved with the account to minimize dismantling volume, reducing body strain and provide a broad front works for a construction plant. The habitability of the envisaged introduction of a two-channel high-pressure air conditioning system in the posts, laboratories, residential and public areas. Designing power system was connected with the choice of energy sources, provide with the necessary reserve power supply of consumers with different parameters for the current race, voltage and frequency. We had to develop a new generation of circuit and power network, ensuring reliable power supply of consumers of the special equipment, instruments, systems and ship devices. A particular challenge in the development of the project represents the primary placement of the specific ship equipment - space command and measurement "Creton" system, which occupies 65 buildings. She had to carry out distance measurement and the radial velocity of space objects, with their reception of telemetry data, the transmission of commands and maintaining radio communications with the astronauts. Large high gain antenna (reception and transmission) with a parabolic mirror with a diameter of 8 m, parametric input amplifiers, cooled with nitrogen, high-power transmitters allowed to maintain a stable radio communication with space objects at a distance of up to 400 thousand. Km. This connection was first implemented when working with the automatic interplanetary station "Zond-4" and "Zond-5" (1968). Small (DF) antenna with a diameter of 2.1 m mirror designed to search for signals from outer space objects and their automatic tracking and generating signals for prompting large antennas. All three antennas installed on a stabilized platform, capable to keep on rolling under the power of emotion to 6 points, with wind speeds up to 20 m / s horizontal position with an accuracy of 15 arc minutes. Most antenna (biaxial supporting-turning device and a stabilized platform) had a mass of 28 tonnes, a small -. 18 m antenna is a spherical radiotransparent shelters (PAR), which protects them from additional wind loads, rain and salty sea water. The diameter of the large RPU antenna is 18 m, small -. 7.5 m They consisted of a three-layer fiberglass panels connected by glue. Outside the police station were painted with paint radio transparent water-repellent properties. Service System special vehicle equipment ensures operation of the basic system "Creton". They included positioning system ( "binding") of geographical coordinates of points working in the ocean, where the sessions were held, with the use of navigation satellites. gyrostabilization system allowed to determine the exchange rate, the parameters of pitching and yawing of the ship, inductive and sonar logs, speed. 40 different types of antennas was carried out reception and transmission of signals. Equipment and office space systems for solving problems of forwarding has been placed in 43 laboratories. All the space and service systems have centralized control. To convert the project into a floating vessel 595 command-measuring complex had to dismantle some 2500 tons of structures, install more than 8000 tons of new structures and equipment, new flooring decks and platforms. It also included new steel superstructures weighing about 750 tons, a plurality of main and auxiliary bulkheads, local reinforcements. It was necessary to equip about 850 different rooms, install 4 additional diesel generator with 600 kW, a 300-kilowatt emergency and 100 kW, 600 to mount the main group and electricity boards, to lay electrical cables with a total length of 520 km. It was necessary to install three auxiliary boiler steam capacity up to 8 t / h, six steam jet refrigerating machines, more than 200 350 fans and air coolers, space to mount and service the system a total weight of 500 tonnes. The complexity of works, the builder of the plant identified in the 3.5 million labor times. According to a joint decision on the approval of the project Baltic Shipyard in the construction was to use the simplified working drawings and diagrams, follow the instructions of the chief designer and responsible representatives of the Bureau of integrated teams consisting of specialists Nevsky PKB, the Baltic plant, the enterprise "ERA-1" and the acceptance of the customer . The decision to issue a simplified operating design documentation allowed from the start retrofitting the vessel to ensure the plant a wide front of work. In order to smoothly and timely hardware, machinery and equipment, ordered only what has already been disbursed and the industry has been in mass production. Due to the operational coordination of supply statements from the Ministry of the device, the service of the Baltic plant and Nevsky PKB equipped with everything necessary for work on the project for three months of 1917. The supply security involved 190 companies from 81 cities in the country. It was produced 85 thousand. Pieces of equipment and products 3200 items. Deadlines (six months) perform the Baltic plant responsible government jobs require special arrangements. The leadership of the refurbishment of the ship attracted the most experienced and qualified professionals, have mobilized engineers and best workers. The hull and outfitting work involved two leading Leningrad Shipyard: Admiralty and them. Zhdanov. Director of the Baltic plant Ya.Ya.Kuznetsov appointed chief builder of the order of Deputy Chief Engineer A.I.Rimmera, Ministerial Order that was issued in 1917 as deputy chief designer of the project. Minsudproma Manual approved operational control chart, which have been identified as possible the completion of the main stages of construction and testing of the ship. "Genichesk" recalled to Leningrad radiogram, when he returned from a trip to Cuba, and in the evening January 9, 1967, he stood up to the wall of the outfitting of the Baltic plant. The next day, the ship began to clean the board and double bottom tanks of fuel residues. Simultaneously launched and dismantling. Prior to registration of transfer of the plant to the vessel (20 January) with his shot anchor, cargo, boat and towing devices; Equipment posts and logging; housing, health care and public spaces; wood paneling holds. With the arrival of the first body to the company drawings started to elaborate on their plaza. Implementation schedule required a clear interaction of all plant services in working out of the working technology in the decisive sectors of production: on the loft and layout work, the hull steel sequence Dismantling and erection works, logistics, continuous energy supply ship. Daily operational meetings were held under the main builder, then chief engineer Igor Belousov, later occupied the post of Minister of the USSR shipbuilding. We worked on the ship in three shifts. In a particularly intense period of construction, which required significantly increase the number of employees on the night shift (when tightening the cable and so on. P.), Deputy director of the plant for the production of at midnight (at the junction of the evening and night shifts) additional operational meetings. January 22, 1967 with the help of a floating crane "Demag" dismantled superstructure vessel then proceeded to install the new designs of the main body. Until the end of February 5000 tonnes of rolled black has been processed and made almost all sections of hull structures, including superstructures total weight of 4,000 tons. In order to shorten the construction period, the assembly was carried out on the daily schedule. Thus, the chimney section collected over 17 days, twice as fast as for large tankers. By February 15, when the dismantling has been completed, in the shops of the plant manufactured all the main sections of the longitudinal and transverse bulkheads, platforms, secondary bulkhead from the deck of the second floor to the lower deck, six sections onboard Boolean nadelok. At the same time it ended the production of sections of the upper and main decks and bulkheads on the ship and all the cubicle to the lower deck were installed. By the end of February afloat established nadelok all sections, except for the terminal, the bulkhead and the cubicle to the upper deck, barbettes stabilized platforms, foundations for machinery, devices and equipment, finished loading 1,600 tons of ballast. On the ship were loaded auxiliary boilers, diesel generators and chillers, went installation of pipelines and systems, has begun tightening the trunk. Number of working on the ship reached 2,500. In March, we completed the installation of all structural (except for the upper part of the mast and chimney), completed the welding of sections of superstructures and training to bore barbettes stabilized platforms. The boiler and engine rooms, in the diesel generator room continued to mount the chimneys and flues, piping, ventilation. 115 km of cables have been tightened, mounted main distribution boards (MDB), established local boards and fittings lighting network. At the same time we began assembling equipment navigation system and loading of individual elements of the command and the measuring system, the assembly of the first police station. Busy working on the ship to add another 1,200 people. By the end of April, experts have completed the installation of masts and chimney, lavishing barbettes and found all three platforms and stabilized antenna to them. At the same time have been taken on the construction of premises 706 (from 834), tested for watertight compartments 95 (out of 127), completed insulation works in 140 rooms (including all positions and aggregate), completed laying of trunk cable. Was immersed apparatus command-measuring system, April 22 accepted the power from the shore to the main switchboard, including the staffing coverage on the lower deck. The ship has 4,500 people working. April 30 started mooring trials. May 27, 1967 the ship left the factory and made the transition to Kronstadt. There he waited for dock work (welding to the housing bottom edge Boolean nadelok, improvement of the navigation system on the hard ground and the other). Dock period lasted until June 9 and was the most saturated with the completion of operations on installation of devices, decoration, testing of bottom-side valve body and painting. inclining the ship after surfacing at the dock confirmed the calculated values ??of displacement and stability. Mooring trials ended July 15 is already at the Baltic Shipyard. Then the ship took, fuel, water, provisions, spare parts and the next day went to the acceptance tests. After operations on the stand bezobmotochnogo demagnetization station he went to the southern part of the Baltic Sea to work with the space equipment. During the transition were tested ship mechanisms, devices and systems, defined maneuvering and inertial characteristics. June 18 dimensional line Seskar Islands area and identified Hogland full speed ship running. In the process of testing space equipment was tested using aircraft-lab, "PM" satellites and "Molniya-1". June 25 it returned to the Baltic plant. By 30 June is completed audit mechanisms, eliminate defects, finally painted the ship. He was handed over to the customer for a month before the period established by government decree. Since the beginning of the construction of a floating command-measuring complex before its delivery took 5 months and 20 days. It was called "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov" in memory of the dead while returning to Earth 24 April 1967 cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov. At the meeting, held at the Baltic Shipyard July 4, 1967, and dedicated to delivery of the object, the astronaut P.R.Popovich said: "We are waiting for a ship." Create a unique ship, it was noted in 1971 State award year. Her winners were ten leading experts and industry customers, including the chief designer of the project A.E.Mihaylov, chief engineer of the Nevsky PKB V.K.Labetsky, chief builder of the Baltic A.I.Rimmer plant and others. Floating command and measuring complex "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov" Displacement of the ship "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov" project in 1917 with total reserves amounted to 17 850 tonnes, the maximum length - 155.7 m, width - 23.3 m, draft - 8.6 m main engine power 9000 hp. provided the travel speed of 16.0 knots. Installed generator power was 3700 kW and the cruising range at full speed - 19 000 miles, autonomy provisions for reserves - 130 days, the number of the crew - 114 people, the expedition - 126 people. "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov" was in operation 22 years old, has made 27 expeditions flights lasting from one to eleven months. He went into the seas and oceans more than 700 thousand miles (over 13 years of continuous swimming), was actively involved in the control and management of flights of Russian space objects of virtually all types -. Of spacecraft "Soyuz" and "Progress" space stations "Salut" and "Progress" to the AMC, "Venus" and "Vega". In December 1984, "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov" located in the Atlantic off the west coast of Africa, where controlling the work of accelerating engines rockets at AMC "Vega-1" and "Vega-2". May 22, 1989 the ship returned to the port of Odessa from its registry last expeditionary voyage. After that, it was moved in the Baltic Sea basin, and turned into a Ecology Aerospace Center in 1990. In the early 1990s there was an idea to use the ship as a museum of the history of space exploration. However, political change and deep economic crisis in our country dashed those plans, and the ship after a long stay in the commercial port of St. Petersburg was sent to a breaker in India. Chapters from the book "History of the Baltic plant", ed. O.Shulyakovsky, ed. "Gidrometeoizdat", 2003 " Astronauts ". On the construction of research vessels "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov" and "Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin" "Seagoing space fleet." On the construction of the first ships toge Court maritime space fleet About the end of 1950 it appeared a fundamentally new class of ships, providing testing rocketry and space exploration. At first, under time pressure, for this purpose converted civilian court. Ship Polish project B31, type "Donbass" The first measurement systems have become the four-ship converted uglevoza of a series of "Donbass" vessels (built in 1952-1957 years by order of the USSR at the Gdansk shipyard in Poland). April 9, 1958 the government adopted a decree must ensure that in the II quarter of 1959 the willingness of floating measuring instruments measuring complex on converted ships. They are required for completion of work starts the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 OKB SP. Korolev in full flight range (8,000 km) in the Pacific Ocean. Develop and transfer the plant to the main drawings on the body was already necessary by December 1958. Due to the tight deadlines design and technical documentation should produce in abbreviated and simplified form. The development of these projects led by chief designer CDB-17 V.V.Ashik. Project materials were presented to the customer 30 December 1958, reviewed and approved - in January 1959. Tehproekt 1128 provided for conversion of the three ships in the court-meters, TEHPROEKT 1129 - one ship in broadcasting point. For conversion into a floating vessels measuring complex were identified: the Ministry of the Navy - steamers "Pervouralsk" and "Perm", the Ministry of Fisheries - steamers "Prokopyevsk" and "Pavlograd." They were handed over to the Baltic Shipyard in November-December 1958. After acceptance began to dismantle associated with a change in purpose ships: deck machinery removed (cargo winch) polumachty, ventilation, wooden Rooms' holds, equipment rooms on the main deck, in part - pipelines ship systems (fire, ballast, drainage, etc.). On board the "Perm" (to dismantle) at the end of December 1958 were carried out acoustic field testing in the Bay of Hara-Lahti Gulf. They confirmed that the noise level when operating machinery and electrical equipment in the most "silent" mode is close to the required standards. On the reverse transition to Leningrad on a vessel identified and checked fuel consumption control. January 5, 1959 the government issued a decree on the procedure for execution of works related to the refurbishment of the courts of "Donbass" and their transfer to the Far East. Court Project 1128 "Pavlograd," "Pervouralsk", "Prokopyevsk" and in 1129 the project "Perm" were classified as expeditionary oceanographic vessels (EOS) I rank. They got a new name: EOS "Sakhalin", "Suchan", "Siberia" and "Chukotka". (V.Proschenko: Here, in this article, the data that have been renamed as the court of "Donbass" in toge ships, not coincide with the data of the site toge and Wikipedia. Hopefully, over time, be able to determine where the data is more accurate) KMC "Sakhalin" Conversion of ships under the design documentation CDB-17 performed at the Baltic Shipyard (chief builder A.M.Kosach) involving counterparties to June 30, 1959. In addition, gauges ships mounted a platform for special means of measuring complex, the helicopter hangar and personnel of the expedition. This was done due to the elimination of cargo holds. In order to ensure the specified autonomy and cruising range, the volume of fuel oil tanks were increased and provision store (with the installation of steam jet refrigeration machines for cooling provisions) and superstructure volumes. Additionally mounted three diesel generators with a capacity of 300 kW (with equipment of diesel fuel tank) supplies electricity to the work of measuring devices. Decree of the Government on May 16, 1959 was changed the route of the expedition ships go to the place of home - the Northern Sea Route. It demanded that the Baltic plant to perform a number of works on ships, provides a transition in difficult ice conditions. The conversion of ships such as "Donbass" in the court of floating measuring complex plant conducted in conditions of irregular metal supply, electric cable and counterparty of the product. We worked on rigid schedule, in three shifts. In those days, one shift at the courts have been busy to 3 thousand people. Mooring trials were held in April and June 1959. June 20 crews took the court, an experimental test the stability of vessels (inclining) was held on 27-29 June, in late June, completed their treatment at the station bezobmotochnogo demagnetization. After that, the court moved to Kronstadt for drydocking and installation on buildings near the waterline more reinforcements. Ice belts and other constructions increased the strength of the transition of the Northern Sea Route. There you have completed the installation and perform acceptance testing. Last July 20, 1959 have been successfully completed. And on July 24 on the eve of the Day of the Navy, on ships raised flag of hydrographic ships. On the same day began the transition to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. By destination ships arrived on August 30. Crews have begun to prepare for the first outlet to the Pacific Ocean. They had to perform martial (measurement) works on developing new models of intercontinental ballistic missiles. In connection with the further build-up of production of new types of intercontinental ballistic missiles and carrier rockets and spacecraft vehicles by government decree on 27 October 1960 it was decided to create a second floating measuring complex. State Committee on Shipbuilding of the USSR Council of Ministers by the order of 15 November of the same year ordered the CDB-17 to develop the technical design and produce working drawings for the construction of ships of this complex (Project 1130). Customer has issued terms of reference at the end of December 1960. It takes into account the experience of creating the first set, and provided for an increase and renewal of measuring instruments, increased requirements for habitability, cruising range and autonomy. Vessel type "Dzhankoy". It lays as "Dolgoschele" Government Decree dated 11 September 1961 on the order of works on creation of new vessels provided for measuring complex refurbishment of two more advanced ships uglerudovozov-type "Dzhankoy" (a series of vessels being built for the Soviet Union at the shipyard "Warnow-Werft" in Warnemünde GDR ). As part of the second set it was necessary to have a three-meter ship. September 25 The Council of Ministers of the USSR issued a decree on redeveloping EOS "Chukotka" in ship-meter 1129-bis of the project as the third ship of the complex. The development of the project in 1130 led by chief designer AE Mikhailov (in 1952-1960 years - Head and chief designer CDB-17). The Ministry of Defence and the SCS approved the technical project of the ship in March 1962. The project involved a year-round air conditioning system for any area of ??navigation, including the tropics; diesel generator installation on false foundations with vibration-damping coatings (noise is reduced when operating in "silent" mode); a new antenna design for short-wave radio transmitter that enables communication with the shore without special broadcasting vessel. cerebral vessel (ship "Dangara") The conversion was entrusted to the Baltic plant, the second ( "Dudinka") - Kronstadt Naval Marine Plant. Both the ship arrived at the company in mid-January 1962. Production of new hull designs Balts began in March, and used materials from other orders. Due to the shortage of dismantling the first phase lasted until June. In October of the same year, the ship was towed to Kronstadt, where the docking took place with the implementation of activities in the underwater hull. After the withdrawal from the dock, in December 1962, the ship was transferred to Leningrad and delivered to the outfitting wall of the Baltic plant. KMC "Chazhma" The conversion was completed in June 1963, mooring trials and inclining demagnetization held from May 31 to July 6, the acceptance tests completed July 21, 1963. Due to the need to ensure the transition to a permanent place of vessels based in the Northern Sea Route navigation 1963 duration running tests reduced to a week (instead of four for the test program). According to tests the speed of the full ships remained virtually unchanged, increased cruising range of up to 19 000 miles, autonomy provisions on stocks - up to 120 days. The total capacity of the diesel generator was 2400 kW. Court of Justice of the project in 1130, converted in Leningrad and Kronstadt, were classified as expeditionary oceanographic ships (EOC) I rank. They got a new name - "Chazhma" and "Chumikan". October 5, 1963 the two ships of the second measuring complex, passing the Northern Sea Route, arrived in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and soon with the EOC "Chukotka" began to combat duty in the Pacific. The entry of these ships of the Navy of the USSR confirmed the great contribution to the creation of Baltic nuclear-missile shield in the country and development of outer space. Chapter from the book VP Kuzin, V.I.Nikolsky Soviet Navy 1945-1991 Historical Maritime Society of St. Petersburg in 1996 Chapter V. ships and support vessels of the USSR Navy, built in 1945-1991 YEARS 5.1. Reconnaissance ships From V.Proschenko: The authors attributed tracking ship to the class of intelligence. This is not true. In the Soviet classification were called Expedition and oceanographic ships (AES) ... The advent of ballistic missiles, and then the spacecraft for various purposes has led to the need to create special vehicles with radar systems for measuring parameters of their flight trajectories, as well as for receiving different information from satellites over the sea and ocean areas, where it was impossible to create a stationary complexes. Finally, these ships was entrusted with the task of search and rescue satellites (including manned). For this reason, the creation of a new subclass of scout ships - tracking ship (KMC), has become an important task for all space-faring nations, especially in the light of all the strategic arms race accelerates. The first CIC etc.. 1128 (3 ships) and pr.1129B (1 ship), the Soviet Navy were obtained by an urgent refit in 1959 from bulk carriers with a displacement of 6000 tons. In 1963, the project in 1130 was converted into two more cargo ship with a displacement of 12 500 tons. All these ships were almost the same radio telemetry equipment consisting of a set of "Tral", UK and others. Finally, the Chief of the Office of the Military Space Forces (GUKOS) (The .Proschenko:. GUKOS error - General Directorate of space vehicles) was converted in 1967 from KMC cargo ship "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov". In addition, in 1966-68 years 8 timber pr.596 been converted into a search and rescue vessels (MSS) pr.596P intended for rescue of the descent of spacecraft and their crews. A little later, with the increase in the total number of CIC, most of these ships was used as military transports. Timber of this project were converted and later to work with the spacecraft, but for the USSR Academy of Sciences and other departments. These first 7 and 8 MSS CIC provided almost to the beginning of the '70s all the basic tasks like tracking of spacecraft USSR and the spacecraft potential enemy, as well as for experimental launches of its various ballistic missiles. However, in the mid-60s it became clear that in order to work with the spacecraft need special ships built. As in the same period, the space was divided into a "peace" and "war", it became part of the KMC built under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences and other departments. CIC representatives to serve the "peaceful" space ships were: pr 1908 - "Akademik Sergei Korolev" displacement of 21 250 tons, speed of 17 knots, 79 laboratories with 190 scientific workers, built in Nikolaev in 1970 .;. pr.1909 - "Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin" with a displacement of 53 000 tons (V.Proschenko: Error Total displacement NIS CUG - 45 thous.) , speed 17 knots, 212 researchers. The equipment allows to work with two space objects at once. Built in Leningrad on the Baltic CVD, etc. on the basis of the tanker. 1589 (such as "Sophia"), in 1971. Newest KMC for "peaceful" space became pr.1930 - "Academician Nikolai Pilyugin" displacement of 21 260 tonnes (V.Proschenko: Error 19510 project "Adonis", the displacement of 16,280 tons..) , The speed of 17 knots, its construction in 1991 It has not yet been completed at the Admiralty in association GS-Petersburg. Of course, it was obvious that the CIC may partially work in the interests of "war" of the cosmos, so they were built taking into account the wishes of many of the military. Construction of specialized CIC for "military" space was started only in the 80 years following the acquisition of certain operating experience KMC first and second generation. In the late 70-ies. in CDB "Baltsudoproekt" CIC pr.1914 design was completed. The ship was designed to test new models of rocket and space systems, tracking the various spacecraft and liaison with them. In addition, it was intended for search, rescue and evacuation of crews and landers space objects landed on the water in different regions of the World Ocean. The ship was equipped with a powerful means of trajectory and telemetry:. "Zephyr-A", "Zephyr T", "Woodpecker-2", "Marten-2", "Zodiac" and other Aircraft Armament included two helicopters Ka-27 with their custody in the hangar. In addition, the ship placed PP means RTR and GAR, as well as the seats were reserved for 30-mm AK-630M radar with "Vympel" and launchers MANPADS "Igla". Ships of the project could also be used as a command ship of the fleet and the SMF. Draught Prospect. 1914 amounted to more than 25 000 tonnes, the total speed exceeded 22 knots. Main propulsion diesel (diesel 4 at 8000 hp) twin-shaft, a cruising range of more than 15 000 miles, and the autonomy of 120 days. Pr.1914 lead ship "Marshal Nedelin" was built in the GCC "Leningrad Admiralty Association" in 1983. Before the collapse of the USSR was built another KMC several revised draft 19141, and one was in the building, but could not finish it. Further evolution of views on the CIC led to the development in the early 80-ies of the project KMC with a nuclear power plant. This was done at the insistence of the main customer - the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the USSR, who dreamed to have a scout ship almost year-round with autonomy. Designing of the ship, get a room pr.1941, was carried out in CDB "Iceberg" (V.Proschenko: But the "Ural" (NE-33) is really - the intelligence ship, not CIC Although, obviously, it can perform similar tasks. ) . Complex trajectory and telemetry installed on it, in practice little different from pr.1914, although some of its elements have been more perfect. Aircraft armament consisted of one helicopter Ka-27. Just like the prospect. 1914 on the ship placed PP means RTR and GAR. Unlike pr.1914 on this ship immediately placed staffing defensive armament: two 76-mm gun mount AK-176 and four 30-mm AK-630 control radar "Vympel" MANPADS "Igla" and four 12.7 mm machine gun . Displacement of the ship reached 35 000 tons (it was the largest in the world "neavianosny" nuclear surface ship), full speed over 21 knots. Home two-reactor nuclear power plant, two-shaft, the autonomy of up to 180 days. The first and only ship pr. 1941 "Ural" was built on the Baltic CVD Leningrad in 1987. GRU persistently demanded construction of the second ship, the Navy objected, since the construction in 1941, etc.. Interfere with the already sluggish construction of nuclear HRD etc.. 1144. According to many experts, the creation of the CIC was already too much "fun". For this reason, further construction of such ships, in spite of the desperate resistance of the representatives of the General Staff, was discontinued. Navy Leaders in the struggle to use standard trick - how to not reject in principle, the feasibility of the construction of such ships, offered to do it instead of a RRC pr.1144 or program instead of atomic icebreakers of "Siberia" (loose stacks of suitable size in the Baltic CVD absent, and other plants could not build nuclear surface ships). The outcome of the struggle "under the carpet" and the Navy General Staff has determined the collapse of the Soviet Union: the second ship lay pr.1941 did not have time, but the fifth and the RRC pr.1144 cut into stocks. Total from 1945 to 1991, it was built and capitally converted 48 of BRD and CIC. Main TTE BRD are shown in Table 5.1, and TTE KMC in Table 5.2. ??? ???? SKI OMER Space Research Division of Marine expeditions

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