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RIM-156 SM-2 Block IVA

In order for the United States to 'project power', the Navy must play a large role in the protection of friendly assets from TBM attacks. Thus, the Navy is continuing to develop new systems and technologies as it attempts to migrate older weapons systems to fulfill this mission into its initial ballistic missile defense concept. For the Navy, the lower-tier weapon provides area protection of debarkation ports, coastal airfields, and expeditionary forces ashore. The Army's upgraded PATRIOT system provides an example of this baseline proficiency. The intercepting weapon used in this phase should be a dual-purpose surface-to-air missile (SAM) able to engage TBMs and aircraft.

The Standard Missile was produced in two major types, the SM-1 MR/SM-2 (medium range) and the SM-2 (extended range). It is one of the most reliable in the Navy's inventory. Used against missiles, aircraft and ships, it first came into the fleet more than decades ago. It replaced Terrier and Tartar missiles and is part of the weapons suit of more than 100 Navy ships. The SM-2 (MR) is a medium range defense weapon for Ticonderoga-class AEGIS cruisers, Arleigh Burke-class AEGIS destroyers.

The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization [later the Missile Defense Agency] and the Navy were co-sponsors in the development of a Navy TBMD capability. The Navy's Program Executive Officer for Theater Surface Combatants manages the Navy's TBMD Program. Raytheon Missile Systems, Tucson, AZ, is the prime contractor for the development and production of the SM-2 Block IVA missile. Lockheed Martin Naval Electronic and Surveillance Systems manufactures the Aegis Weapon System installed onboard Aegis cruisers and destroyers and is the prime contractor for Vertical Launch Systems.

RIM-156 SM-2 Block IVA Navy Area Defense (NAD)

The Navy Area Defense (NAD) system [referred to as the Navy Lower Tier system prior to 1996] consisted of Standard Missile-2 Block IVA interceptors deployed aboard Aegis ships. The capability provided by this system has the advantage of being able to be brought into theater quickly without having to put forces on land. The Standard family of missiles is one of the most reliable in the Navy's inventory. A weapon which can be used against missiles, aircraft, and ships, it first came into the fleet more than two decades ago, replacing the Terrier and Tartar.

The Navy Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) program builds on the national investment in AEGIS ships, AEGIS Weapon Systems (AWS), and Navy Standard Missile II (SM-2) Block IV missiles. Two classes of ships continue to be deployed with the AEGIS combat system: the CG-47 TICONDEROGA-class cruisers and the DDG-51 ARLEIGH BURKE-class destroyers. Navy Area TBMD will take advantage of the attributes of naval forces including overseas presence, mobility, flexibility, and sustainability in order to provide lower tier protection to debarkation ports, coastal airfields, amphibious objective areas, Allied forces ashore, and other high value sites. Navy assets will provide an option for initial TBMD allowing the insertion of additional land-based TBMD assets and other expeditionary forces in an opposed environment. Navy Area TBMD is designed to be fully interoperable within the Theater Missile Defense (TMD) Family of Systems (FoS) architecture, will complement the land-based PAC-3 system, the Navy Theater Wide (NTW) and Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) upper tier TBMD systems.

The Navy Area Defense System program represents a critical lower-tier MD capability that can take advantage of the strength and presence of our naval forces, and build upon the existing AEGIS/Standard Missile infrastructure. Naval vessels that are routinely deployed worldwide are currently in potential threat areas or can be rapidly redirected or repositioned. A Naval MD capability can therefore be in place within a region of conflict to provide MD protection for nearby land based assets before hostilities erupt or before land based defenses can be transported into the theater. Equally significant, Navy Area Defense can provide protection to critical points of debarkation, such as seaports and coastal airfields.

The Navy Area Program modified the Aegis SPY-1 radar to allow detection and tracking of theater ballistic missiles. These changes are being made not by changing the total power output of the radar, but by development of special high-energy waveforms and by changing and improving signal processing. These are required to support endo-atmospheric engagement of small, high-speed TBMs with the SM-2 Block IVA missile, in order to defeat short- to medium-range TBMs during their terminal phases of flight.

The SM-2 Block IVA utilized a side-mounted imaging infrared seeker to detect and track incoming ballistic missiles and guide to a lethal intercept over a 100-kilomter-by-50- kilometer area, while retaining previous SM-2 Block IV capabilities. Both Aegis and other variants of the SM-2 missile are currently on over fifty Aegis cruisers and destroyers, with twenty-nine more in the production pipeline. The SM-2 Block IVA missile maintains the capabilities of earlier variants of the SM-2 missile while adding a TBMD capability. The primary mission of the Navy AREA TBMD system will be to defend troops and to protect coastal airfields and seaports, critical assets, population centers and large geographic regions against tactical ballistic missile attack.

SM-2 Block IVA Navy Area Defense Program Developments

The BMD Program Review was conducted by Dr. Paul Kaminski the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology. The Program Review established specific guidance for the BMD program over the next several years. The most significant result of the review was a reaffirmation of the Department's fundamental priorities for missile defense. The first priority remained defense against theater-class ballistic missiles. The Department's Program Review established the TMD lower-tier systems -- the PAC-3 and Navy Area Defense programs -- as the first priority to ensure enhancing defensive capabilities against short- to medium-range ballistic missiles as quickly as possible.

The $45 million added by Congress in the Fiscal Year 1996 Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills was used to compensate for system engineering and design efforts not fully funded in Fiscal Year 1995. The Program Review added $186 million to Navy Area Defense through the FYDP in order to make it fully executable on a moderate risk profile. These funds will cover delays in risk reduction flights and adjusted cost estimates for test targets and lethality efforts.

In 1996 the plan was to field a UOES capability in Fiscal Year 1999 and an FUE in Fiscal Year 2001. Thereafter, operational units will use the legacy UOES system for continued testing and as a contingency warfighting capability.

DOD added about $120 million to this program in the FY97 budget. These funds covered delays in risk-reduction flights and adjusted cost estimates for test targets and lethality efforts. This allowed proceeding expeditiously with the EMD program and LRIP missile procurement.

In February 1997, the NAD program was reviewed during the Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) Readiness Meeting (DRM), which approved the program to enter into the EMD phase. This put NAD on the path to have a User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) capability on two cruisers late in fiscal year 1999, with the first unit equipped [FUE] in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2001. In September 1997, the Navy awarded an Engineering and Manufacturing Development contract to build 46 test vehicles required for developmental and operational testing.

By early 1999 the program, which had been due to enter production by 2001, was $420 million over budget and at least a year and a half behind schedule.

During fiscal year 1999, the program began encountering problems that directly impacted the start of the flight-test program. The problems included vibration-induced test failures, less than anticipated software code reuse, technical challenges associated with design and integration of multiple sensors, and various schedule and cost impacts related to contractor business consolidation decisions. Collectively, the problems resulted in a 6-month delay of the first control test vehicle flight and program cost growth of $55 million. According to program officials, the problems had been addressed and a fix for the vibration anomaly has been incorporated into the missile design.

The FY 2000 budget request called for 23 SM- 2 Block IVA missiles to start off the lowrate initial production buy. Recent delays in the next phase of development of the Aegis weapon system software had impacted the program's schedule. The first unit equipped was projected for FY 2003, and it will require two successful TBM intercepts, as with Patriot's PAC-3, and an additional anti-air warfare intercept, before proceeding to low-rate initial production in late FY 2000.

FY 2000 Accomplishments included begining SM-2 Block IVA missile land based testing at WSMR by successfully conducting two Control Test Vehicle Flight Tests of the SM-2 Block IVA Missile. Completed exit criteria to support Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) Long Lead Material (LLM) decision. Continued Engineering/Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the SM-2 Block IVA missile. Continued fabrication and delivery of White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) flight test and LINEBACKER missiles. Continued fabrication and delivery of Inert Operational Missile (IOM)/Engineering Design Model (EDM) test rounds. Continued Aegis Weapon System (AWS) Baseline 6 Phase III (B/L 6.3) full capability (tactical) computer program development and initiated computer program testing at Combat Systems Engineering Development Site (CSEDS). Continued follow-on AWS Baseline 7 Phase I (B/L 7.1) computer program development. Continue implementation of modifications to Navy Command and Control systems to maintain consistency with the Joint Planning Network (JPN), Joint Data Network (JDN), and Joint Composite Tracking Network (JCTN). Continued Live Fire Test & Evaluation (LFT&E) ground test program activities. Continued required lethality analyses.

The exit criteria to enable entry into Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) Long Lead Material (LLM) were completed in August 2000. Specifically, these included: SM-2 Block IVA Critical Design Review (CDR), AEGIS Weapon System tactical computer program CDR, Initial SM-2 Block IVA Production Readiness Review, Initial SM-2 Block- IVA Pre-Production Reliability Design Review, successful completion of two SM-2 Block IVA Controlled Test Vehicle (CTV) tests, ground testing and analysis on lethality against threat representative targets, and provide ground testing and analysis on fuzing performance. The actual decision to proceed with LRIP LLM was the next step.

FY 2001 Planned Program was to continue EMD of the SM-2 Block IVA missile. Continue WSMR missile flight testing. Continue fabrication and delivery of EMD test rounds. Complete AWS Baseline 6 Phase III full capability (tactical) computer program coding and computer program testing at CSEDS. Begin preparations for delivery of AWS tactical computer program to Developmental Testing/Operational Testing (DT/OT) test ship. Continue follow-on AWS Baseline 7 Phase I computer program development. Continue implementation of modifications to Navy Command and Control systems to maintain consistency with the JPN, JDN, and JCTN. Gain LRIP LLM decision and awarded LRIP LLM contract December 01.

As of mid-2000, the program was scheduled for first unit equipped [FUE] in 2003. The SM-2 Block IVA EMD [Engineering and Manufacturing Development] contract with Raytheon was initially supposed to begin full-rate production in April 2003. However, by July 2001 it appeared the program would start production in December 2004, with deployment of the system delayed to 2005. The schedule delays were due to problems with missile guidance section hardware and software integration, computer program development and stability and radar processor-computer integration. As of 2001 the Navy had budgeted $2.2 billion through 2007 to order 496 Standard Missile-2 IVA missiles and modify destroyers to carry them.

On 14 December 2001, the Pentagon cancelled the program, which was more than 50 percent over budget and more than two years behind schedule. By the time the program was terminated, a total of $2.4 billion had been spent on the development effort. This was the first defense acquisition program that DOD officials could recall having been canceled as a result of a decision to not certify under a Nunn-McCurdy unit cost breach.

SM-2 Block IVA Testing

  1. To demonstrate the capabilities of the NAD system, in January 1997, a target simulating a threat ballistic missile was successfully engaged. The Missile Defense Agency and the U.S. Navy launched a prototype Standard Missile-2 Block IVA from the "Desert Ship" complex at White Sands Missile Range, N.M. These tests, conducted on January 24, 1997, were part of the Developmental Test Round flight test program for the Navy Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense system.
  2. On 26 September 1997 the Navy conducted a risk reduction missile flight test at the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) in Kauai, HI, using a modified SM-2 Block IV. The flight was declared a "NO TEST" because the missile did not complete second stage flight and the proper operation of the SM-2 Block IV second stage was not the focus of this test.
  3. The first Control Test Vehicle-1 (CTV-1) flight test was successfully completed in June 2000. This was the first of five planned flight tests at White Sands. These tests do not involve target intercepts. The objectives were to demonstrate performance of launch and fly-out functions, autopilot performance at near maximum angle of attack, autopilot response performance, and stable autopilot performance throughout flight.These tests at White Sands didn't include the Lockheed Martin Aegis radar and battle management system, to be integrated in tests at sea in 2002 and 2003 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii.
  4. The flight on August 24, 2000, designated "Control Test Vehicle Two" (CTV-2), evaluated the SM-2 Block IVA flight performance envelope and provided engineers with missile guidance, autopilot and stability data. The objectives were to demonstrate performance of launch and fly-out functions, enhanced missile structural integrity, autopilot response performance, and stable autopilot performance throughout flight. This test was the second in a planned series of eight engineering and manufacturing development test flights.
  5. The remaining six tests in a planned series of eight engineering and manufacturing development test flights were cancelled following program cancellation in late 2001. As of mid-2001 the program was scheduled to do a "fly-by" or non-intercept test [initially scheduled for winter 2001] in early 2002.
  6. The remaining six tests in a planned series of eight engineering and manufacturing development test flights were cancelled following program cancellation in late 2001.
  7. The remaining six tests in a planned series of eight engineering and manufacturing development test flights were cancelled following program cancellation in late 2001.
  8. The remaining six tests in a planned series of eight engineering and manufacturing development test flights were cancelled following program cancellation in late 2001.
  9. The remaining six tests in a planned series of eight engineering and manufacturing development test flights were cancelled following program cancellation in late 2001.
  10. The remaining six tests in a planned series of eight engineering and manufacturing development test flights were cancelled following program cancellation in late 2001.


SM-2 Block IVA

SM-2 Block IVA
Design Enhancements (43K)

Infrared View of
Incoming Lance Target (23K)


Standard Missile-2 Block IV Launch at White Sands (53K)

AEGIS Cruiser Launch of Standard Missile-2 Block IV (33K)

AEGIS Cruiser Launch of Standard Missile-2 Block IV (60K)

Contractor:

Hughes Missile Systems Company (formerly General Dynamics' Ponoma Division, sold to Hughes in 1992) Ponoma Division; Raytheon Motorola; Morton-Thiokol; Aerojet General and others

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