Iran /r Azerbaijan
The 1943 Tehran Declaration guarenteed Iran's territorial integrity and independence following the conclusion of World War II. However, the Soviet Union resented the fact that Iran refused to grant the USSR oil consessions. In response, the Soviet Union fomented revolts among Azeris and Kurds in Iran and soon formed the People's Republic of Azerbaijan* (December, 1945) and the Kurdish People's Republic not long after, both being run by Soviet-controlled leaders. However, Soviet troops remained in Iran following the January 1946 expiration of a wartime treaty providing for the presence of Soviet, American, and British troops in Iran during the war. While the British had withdrawn their troops in keeping with the treaty, it was becoming obvious that the Soviets did not intend to do the same. This led the US to bring Iran's case to the United Nations, protesting the Soviet violation of the treaty. This led the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops in May, 1946 after receiving a promise of oil consessions from Iran. However, with the removal of Soviet support the People's Republic of Azerbaijan and the Kurdish People's Republic soon collapsed due to a lack of Soviet and popular support, and both republics were deposed by Iranian troops. Then, adding insult to injury, the Iranian parliament voted against giving oil consessions to the Soviet Union, leaving the Soviets nothing for their troubles in Iran.
*The People's Republic of Azerbaijan should not be confused with the Azeri Soviet Socialist Republic (modern-day Azerbaijan). Both entities were populated by Turkic, Muslim Azeris, with the People's Republic of Azerbaijan comprising Azeris living in Iran.
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