Military


Ukraine Political Parties

Parliamentary Representation
Group 2013
actual
2012
elect
2007 2006 2004 2002 Election
Total #1 *2
Party of Power 239 228 175 186 215 225 54 171
Party of Regions 207 185 175 186 37 --- --- ---
For a United Ukraine --- --- --- --- --- 102 35 67
Working Ukraine --- --- --- --- 48 --- --- ---
Social Democratic Party --- --- --- --- 34 24 19 5
Rukh (Udovenko) --- --- --- --- 19 --- --- ---
People's Democratic Party --- --- --- --- 19 --- --- ---
Green Party --- --- --- --- 17 --- --- ---
Democratic Party --- --- --- --- --- 4 0 4
People's Bloc [Lytvyn] --- --- 20 --- --- --- --- ---
Not affiliated 32 43 --- --- 41 95 0 95
Left Opposition 32 32 27 54 128 90 80 10
Communist Party of Ukraine 32 32 27 21 112 66 60 6
Socialist Party of Ukraine --- --- --- 33 16 24 20 4
Right Opposition 173 178 228 210 106 139 91 48
Svoboda [Oleh Tyahnybok] 36 37 --- --- --- --- --- ---
UDAR [Vitaliy Klitschko] 42 40 --- --- --- --- --- ---
VOB [Arseny Yatsenyuk] 95 101 --- --- --- --- --- ---
Our Ukraine --- --- 72 81 --- 112 70 42
Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc --- --- 156 129 --- 21 21 0
Motherland --- --- --- --- 33 --- --- ---
Solidarity --- --- --- --- 23 --- --- ---
Rukh (Kostenko) --- --- --- --- 21 --- --- ---
Reforms-Congress --- --- --- --- 15 --- --- ---
Yabluko --- --- --- --- 14 --- --- ---
Unity / Yednist YE --- --- --- --- 0 4 0 4
Other - 5
United Center --- 3 --- --- --- --- --- ---
People's Party --- 2 --- --- --- --- --- ---
Radical --- 1 --- --- --- --- --- ---
Union --- 1 --- --- --- --- --- ---
Vacant 6 5
Total 450 450 450 450 449 452 225 227
#1 Proportional
*2 Individual

Ukraine's political party situation is subject to constant change. In order to achieve any political objective, it is necessary to build a coalition among parties. The proliferation of similarly named parties is due to frequent disagreements among party leaders that have resulted in the creation of additional factions. President Leonid Kuchma submitted the Law on Political Parties, with provision that if any MP elected via a specific party list changed factions, he or she would automatically lose his or her mandate. This provision was expected to introduce much-needed stability and party discipline to the Verkhovna Rada, if ever adopted, but nothing ever came of it.

For the purpose of parliamentary elections, most parties formed voting blocs, providing greater representation than they would otherwise receive. Ukrainian law requires that a party must receive at least four percent of the vote in order to be represented in parliament. In the Ukrainian Parliament, 225 seats are elected proportionally, and 225 seats are elected individually.

Anders Åslund, Director of the Russian and Eurasian Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace noted in testimony on May 12, 2004 before the Subcommittee on Europe Committee on International Relations US House of Representatives:

"The three most important oligarchic groups are regional: the Donetsk group, the Dnepropetrovsk group and the Surkis-Medvedchuk group in Kiev. These groups are both economic and political. At present, the strongest group by far is the Donetsk group. Its leader is Rinat Akhmetov, a businessman who owns System Capital Management, Ukraine's biggest corporation, focusing on metallurgy. Its parliamentary faction, the Regions, has some 65 members out of a total of 450. The second most important group is the Dnepropetrovsk group, whose business leader is Viktor Pinchuk, who owns the metallurgical company Interpipe. Its party, Labor Ukraine, has about 40 parliamentarians and is led by the Chairman of the National Bank, Serhiy Tyhypko. Pinchuk owns three TV channels. The Kiev businessman Hryhoriy Surkis and President Kuchma's chief of staff Viktor Medvedchuk form the third group, which is much more state-oriented. Unlike the other groups, it has not developed normal private enterprises as yet. Medvedchuk controls the three biggest TV channels, and he plays a great role in law enforcement. Their United Social Democratic Party comprises some 40 parliamentarians. President Leonid Kuchma rules by playing off these and other less important oligarchic groups against one another."

In March 2002, Ukraine held its third round parliamentary elections, since it separated from the Soviet Union. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) characterized the elections as flawed, but improved over the 1998 vote. The reformist Our Ukraine bloc of former Prime Minister Viktor Yushchenko won 70 seats through proportional voting and 42 seats by individual election. For a United Ukraine won almost twice as many individual seats as it did proportional seats, and ended up with a total of 102 representatives. The Communist Party of Ukraine received 66 seats, primarily through proportional balloting. Non-partisan candidates won 95 seats in the Rada, while the remaining 77 seats were divided between five additional groups elected through individual votes. In 2004, the top two voting blocs became the primary challengers in the presidential election.

In the 2007 elections, five parties gained seats in the Rada, Ukraine's unicameral parliament. The frontrunner with 34.37% is the Party of Regions, headed by Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovich. The second is Yulia Timoshenko's Bloc with 30.7%. The pro-Presidential Our Ukraine - People's Self Defense Bloc (OU-PSD, NUNS in the Ukrainian acronym) gained 14.15%. The Communist party received 5.39 percent and the force led by former parliament speaker Vladimir Litvin trailed behind with only 3.96.

The 1996 Constitution stipulated that the parliament is elected for four years, while the current parliament was elected in 2007 for five years, after the amendments had been introduced. Ukraine's Constitutional Court ruled on 30 September 2010 that the 2004 constitutional reform, which transferred a significant amount of power from the president to parliament, was adopted in breach of the constitution. The court's decision meant that the amendments that came into force in summer 2006 are no longer valid, and that the norms of the 1996 Constitution have been restored. On 08 October 2010 President Viktor Yanukovych said Ukraine will not hold early parliamentary elections following the recent changes made to the country's constitution, which boosted the powers of the president.

On 11 March 2010, the Party of Regions, the Communists, the Lytvyn Bloc, and 16 non-aligned members of parliament (MPs) established the "Stability and Reform" ruling coalition in the Rada composed of 235 MPs. Also on 11 March 2010, the Rada confirmed President Yanukovych's nomination of Mykola Azarov as Prime Minister and replaced the entire cabinet of ministers. Opposition MPs and others argued the coalition had been formed illegally, as a coalition could only be composed of factions, not individuals. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled on April 8 that the Party of Regions-led coalition was constitutional, stating that individuals MPs do in fact have the right to take part in forming parliamentary coalitions. The ruling consolidated the position of the Azarov government.




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