Military

SS-N-3 SEPAL
SSC-1a SHADDOCK

The "SHADDOCK/SEPAL" missile is an interesting example of the limits of Western intelligence during the early years of the Cold War, since NATO applied the SHADDOCK designation to six different and unrelated missiles, yet the virtually identical S-35 and P-35 missiles were given two different codenames -- SEPAL and SHADDOCK, respectively.

Limited production of the P-6 (SS-N-3a) was reported to be continuing in the mid-1980s but production of the P-7 (SS-N-3c) had been completed by that time. Small numbers of P-35 (SS-N-3b) were still being produced in 1986 possibly to replace wastage or possibly as Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV). It was unclear if any of the missiles remained in production for the anti-shipping role, but it seemed unlikely. The SS-N-3 was in service only with the Russian Navy.

The 'Whisky Twin Cylinder' class was deployed only to the Northern and Pacific Fleets but circa 1960 there was a major change in Soviet naval policy away from the emphasis upon land attack, which could be better handled by the land-based missiles of the Strategic Rocket Forces, and more towards anti-ship, specifically the new generation of US 'super carriers' which could threaten the Soviet homeland. This led to a change in role for the 'Echo I' class while work already under way to improve the P-5 was exploited to produce a long-range anti-ship missile designated P-6 Progress (NATO designation SS-N-3a 'Shaddock') which was assigned to the submarine force from circa 1963. The limitation of the Progress missile system was that it could not be launched by a submerged submarine.

The Progress missile is a long slim cylinder with pointed nose and a large air scoop under the fuselage. It has short swept-back wings which fold, and a clipped delta tailplane under the rear of the fuselage. Also at the rear are two moving tail surfaces low down on the fuselage and two slim, rectangular stabilizers in 'V' shaped configuration high up. In 'Shaddock' (P-617) the air intake is unimpeded but in 'Sepal' (P-25) it is split. Both versions use twin-booster packs weighing some 800 kg and attached to the rear sides to get into the air but the packs are slightly different in design.

Reports indicated that air support was especially important for submarine-launched missiles. The submarine has to remain on the surface for 20 minutes after launch to track the missile and provide course corrections and during this time its speed would be reduced to as little as eight knots. To protect it against aerial retaliation a 'Snoop Slab' or 'Snoop Tray' I-band radar in the fin is used to track friendly aircraft and to provide target update data.

P-5 Pityorka

The SS-N-3 is a family of turbojet-powered, cruise missiles with three variants [confusingly, the Western nomenclature designates the initial P-5 variant with the highest number -- SS-N-3c].

The P-5 [SS-N-3c Shaddock], an inertially-guided missile, is launched from Echo II, Whiskey Conversion, and Juliett submarines and flies to a maximum range of 250 nm at a speed of . It is the oldest of the three SS-N-3 missiles and is almost identical to the Soviet Army SSC-1a (Shaddock).

The P-5 cruise missile was designed in the 1950's by the Chelomey design bureau. The P-5 had a special system of two unfolding wings "ARK-5", which allowed it to be launched from the relatively low diameter cylindrical submarine launcher. P-5 had a range of 500 km at an altitude of 100-400 meters and a speed of 345 m/s [Mach 0.9]. The later P-7 variant had a range of 1000 km. These characteristics allowed the P-5 to effectively penetrate the US coastal air defense system of the early 1960's. The circular error probable at full range was 3,000m, which was compensated by the 930 Kg "RDS-4" nuclear warhead. As with the US Navy's Regulus, to fire the SS-N-3c the submarine platform had to surface for launch, deploy and activate a tracking radar, and remain on the surface linked to the high altitude cruise missile in flight via datalink, providing guidance commands based on the submarine radar's tracking data.

P-6 / R-7 Progress

The P-6 [SS-N-3a Shaddock] is a more accurate cruise missile later developed for targeting US Aircraft carriers. This radar-homing missile is launched from Echo II and Juliett submarines and flies to a maximum range of 220 nm at a cruise speed of Mach 1.2. A 2200-lb conventional or nuclear warhead is estimated for the SS-N-3a. In its antiship version, the Echo depended on prior cueing by a radar-equipped maritime patrol aircraft and terminal homing by a radar seeker on the SS-N-3 itself. The high altitude, relatively slow SS-N-3 was vulnerable to air defenses in flight, and its radar seeker was vulnerable to jamming and deception measures.

The P-7 (SS-N-3c) (A -7) - the antiship missile of sea (PL) basing. Start is above-water. Guidance system - inertial. Engines: march - VRMD (it is suspended from below the fuselage), starting - SPRD. The airframe is a high wing monoplane, all-metal, riveted construction. Front fairing is radio-transparent, honeycomb construction. Basic materials used: Dy', AMG, E0KHGSA. Large nomenclature of large-dimension colored casting ML -8. Fuselage has complex aerodynamic outline. The tank is large-dimension, is riveted. Rocket underwent testing, but not it was accepted to the armament, since start with PL was above-water.

For missile production A-7 were organized the shop for the production of details from the nonmetals, the shop of aggregate assembling. Shifting test bench of articles was designed and inculcated. The production of flexible tanks was mastered. But in 1962 the panel assembling of tanks was inculcated.

At the end of 1960 with the mastery of article A -7 began the introduction of the new technology of the production of large-dimension casting from the magnesium alloys. Such the complex and large dimensions of casting shop # 12 never yet carried out - complex frames, niche for the board sockets, the beam of sphere- balloons, etc. some details had a wall thickness to 4 mm.

The arrangement of orders on the casting of main batch at the specialized foundry- mechanical plant Of balashikha city by success did not crown: they refused to loam casting this large-dimension and complex (all in the rods) thin-walled casting without the subsequent machining.

The mastery of this casting became difficult examination for the workers of shop # 12. General foreman was at that time Of lezhenin Victor Nikolayevich.

Many experimental castings were carry outed for the purpose of finalizing model rigging. In this case it was necessary to completely re-equip shop earthen laboratory and to conduct the reorganization of the section of the molding of magnesium casting. By this time because of the squeezed conditions the need for the isolation of smithy from the building, where foundry production was located ripened. Technical requirements for the new smithy were comprised and is given out Giproaviapromu task for its design.

Work on the mastery of magnesium castings conducted twenty-four hour, but with the piece-payment system of all, who directly participated in the mastery of casting. The modification of model rigging it was necessary to produce in motion, sometimes directly in the shop # 12. New technological process was completely mastered toward the end of March of 1961, and fifteen complete sets of these complex castings were returned in time, also, without the defects. Then in the shop # 13 was organized the impregnation of magnesium and aluminum casting with the sealing varnish.

In 1962 a new blacksmith housing was put into use, the blacksmith production of shop # 12 is transferred into the new housing, and over the freed areas of shop was organized extended section of large-dimension magnesium casting for the articles A -7, X -22, X -20, etc.

The P-35 SS-N-3b (SEPAL), also a radar-homing missile, was launched from Kynda and Kresta I class guided-missile cruisers and generally flies to a range of 150 nm at a speed of Mach 1.2. It was estimated to carry a 2200-lb warhead.

The S-35 SSC-1a "SHADDOCK" missile is transported in and launched from a long cylindrical container mounted on an eight-wheel vehicle of distinctive appearance. For launching, the crew lowered the four hydraulic stabilization jacks, removes the hemispherical end covers to the top-mounted tables, clamps down the blast shields over the windows, and elevates the container to the proper launch angle. The SSC-lb coastal defense version can be distinguished by the longer driver's cab on the transport-launch vehicle.



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