Arkhangelsk, located on the delta of the Dvina River as it enters the White Sea, is the oldest seaport in Russia. It is also a major port, provincial capital, and the largest city on the Russian Arctic Coast. Arkhangelsk is icebound up to 190 days annually, so icebreakers are used to maintain shipping traffic.
Located about 30 miles across the delta of the Northern Dvina River from the city of Arkhangelsk is Sverodvinsk, home to the world's largest shipyard. Severodvinsk was built to make the Northern Fleet independent of the Baltic shipyards and serves as the principal Russian shipyard for the Northern Fleet.
Severodvinsk is a second largest city in the Archangelsk region, with a population of 240,000 people. The city, about 650 miles north of Moscow, was built in the 1930s to support Stalin's naval ship-building program. Construction of the city began in June 1936 on the deserted banks of the Severnaya Dvina (North Dvina) River by thousands of prisoners. The new city was named Molotovsk on 11 August 1938. By the start of the Great Patriotic War the city housed 40,000 people. A sea port opened in December 1941, more than a half of the cargo received through lend-lease from England and the US was going to Archangelsk was actually unloaded in Molotovsk. Molotovsk was renamed Severodvinsk in 1957.
Severodvinsk is an inspectable SLBM facility under the START-1 agreement. It is one of two SLBM loading facilities -- the other is located at Okol'naya. The United States and the Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) on 31 July 1991. When START entered into force on 05 December 1994, the signatories began to implement the Treaty's complex set of intrusive inspection and verification measures. As part of START's verification provisions, each signatory was required to declare all facilities related to ICBMs, submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and heavy bombers. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has declared over five dozen START-inspectable sites in all categories, including five SLBM facilities and six submarine facilities.
Shipyard No. 402
Northern Mashinebuilding Enterprise
Arkhangelskoye shosse 58 Severodvinsk, 164500. Russia Tel (81842) 94962, 61441, tel/fax +4778916122 telex 242144 IAGRY RU
The state Plant SEVMASH is a well-equipped shipbuilding complex located in Severodvinsk that builds and repairs submarine. Initially known as Shipyard No. 402, the State Unitary Enterprise "Proizvodstvennoye Ob´edineniye "Severnoye Mashinostroitelnoe Predpriyatiye" [Sevmashpredpriyatie] is commonly known as Sevmash - Severnoye [Northern] Mashinebuilding Enterprise. Sevmash built the K-3 (called "Leninskiy Komsomol"), which was the first Soviet nuclear powered submarine.
Russian nuclear submarine production is now centered at Sevmash. As of mid-1998 three nuclear-powered submarines were under construction: the first fourth-generation strategic Borei-class ballistic submarine; a Severodvinsk-class "multi purpose" prototype submarine, and one Akula-class attack submarine. The Yuri Dolgoruki, the first of the Borei-class strategic ballistic missile submarines, is intended to replace the obsolete submarines being dismantled with Nunn-Lugar funds. It will have about half the displacement of the giant Typhoon, while carrying 20 SLBMs. The fourth-generation Project 885 Severodvinsk, which was laid down on 21 December 1993, is the follow-on to the Akula class of multipurpose nuclear attack submarine.
In early November 1999, it was reported that India and Russia had signed an agreement to sell the Admiral Gorshkov heavy cruiser [the last Kiev-class vessels] to the Indian Navy. The ship is to be modified into an ordinary-type aircraft carrier to provide takeoff operations for the MiG-29K deck fighters. Reportedly, the Nevskoye marine design bureau and the SevMash shipyard will conduct the ship's modifications over a two and a half year period.
Workers at SevMash built Russia's Typhoon-class subs, the world's largest. Sevmash is engaged in the work of cutting up and dismantling Russian strategic nuclear missile-carrier submarines, including those of the Typhoon class. US officials awarded a contract on 02 September 1999 to SevMash for the dismantlement of a Typhoon-class submarine. Presiouvsly submarines were being only at the Zvyozdochka plant, located across the bay from Sevmash.
Sevmash built a passenger-carrying tourist submarine, Neptun, in 1991. It worked in the Caribbean for three years before returning to Russia for repairs in 1996. The yard's work also includes domestic and foreign commercial contracts for oil and gas industry equipment and installations.
In May 1992, the ZAO [private joint-stock company] Rosshelf was created for the development of oil and gas fields in the Arctic seas. Combining Russian defense enterprises for submarine construction and the largest domestic oil and gas geological companies, the company includes some of the largest Russian fuel and energy and defense enterprises: the RAO [Russian joint-stock company] Gazprom, Arkhangelskgeologiya, the production association Sevmash, the Cherepovets Metallurgical Combine, the design bureaus Rubin, Malakhit, and Lazurit, and others. Rosshelf was issued a license for working the most promising fields of the Barents Sea&mdash: the Prirazlomnyy Oil and Shtokmanovskiy Gas Condensate Fields. By the beginning of 1997 Gazprom and Rosshelf had invested about R300 billion in northern projects. Of this, R200 billion went for the needs of the northwestern region of the Russian Federation, including for reconstruction of defense enterprises in Severodvinsk.
In 1997 Gazprom initiated a project for the construction of a drilling platform to extract oil at the Prirazlomnoye deposit. Construction at the Sevmash production association, which will cost $800 million, will be completed by the year 2001. In 1999, LUKOIL planned to order from the Sevmash shipyards construction of ice-breaking tankers with reinforced hulls and dead-weight capacities of 60,000-80,000 tons. In February 2000 it was reported that Sevmash, Norilsky Nikel and Norilsk Mining Company had agreed on a project to transport nickel by submarines. Norilsky Nikel was said to be ready to invest 80 million dollars in the conversion of decommissioned submarines of the Northern Fleet for this purpose. Most of the ice breakers that carry ore from Norilsk on the Taimyr to the Severonikel plant will have reached the end of their service life by 2005, and there is not enough funding to replace them all.
Pr. Mashinostroiteley 12, 164509 Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk region, Russia Tel.: +7(818-42) 7 93 60 Fax : +7(818-42) 7 28 50
The state engineering enterprise Zvezdochka [Zvyozdochka] is a large industrial company located in Northwest Russia. The company employs 8000 qualified workers, has modern slips, floating docks, ship transporting cars, quays, workshops with up-dated equipment. The Zvezdochka enterprise, located across the bay from the SevMash Shipyard in Severodvinsk, builds and repairs submarines. During the Cold War, Russian workers at Zvezdochka maintained ballistic missile submarines. Today, they spend their days using American-supplied equipment and technology to dismantle Soviet-era vessels. The metal subs are cut into 20-ton sections that are then chopped, formed and pressed into cubic-meter blocks. The European-standard-sized chunks can be smelted all over the continent. The United States provided all of Zvezdochka's scrapyard machinery and infrastructure. US-funded construction is under way for processing facilities that will remove the subs' nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes and convert them into forms suitable for long-term storage or reuse.
By 1996, so much waste had accumulated at Zvezdochka that there was a danger of a serious environmental disaster. On 10 September 1999 a complex for storage of liquid radioactive wastes opened at Zvezdochka after 14 months of construction. The complex was built by Russian workers with Norwegian management and financing, within the framework of Norwegian and Russian governments' agreement on utilisation of Russian nuclear submarines with the aim to improve nuclear and radiotion safety in the region.
Responsibility for decomissioned nuclear-powered submarines was transferred from the Defence Ministry to the Ministry of the Atomic Energy in late 1998 under Government Resolution No.518. Consequently, all the operations for the dismantling of nuclear-powered submarines and ships was transferred totally to the industrial sector -- the defence enterprises Zvezdochka and Nerpa located in the North, and Zvezda in the Far East -- the three Russian enterprises that scrap old submarines.
As of October 1999 the Nuclear Ministry was searching for places for temporary storage of the spent fuel from nuclear-powered submarines. It was considering bases on the Kola peninsula, the Andreyeva inlet, Gremikha, the Nerpa ship-repairing plant near Murmansk, and Kamchatka.
Current US Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) projects address solid radioactive wastes as part of the dismantlement and disposal of targeted Russian ballistic missile submarines and their reactor components. CTR has provisions to process solid radioactive wastes only at Zvezdochka near Severodvinsk and Zvezda near Vladivostok in the Far East. The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation Program (AMEC) solid radioactive wastes processing system will be established at facilities on the northeastern portion of the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk, which are more than 500 miles from Severodvinsk.
In 1998 Zvyozochka built for Gazprom a semi-submersible jack-up rig for prospecting offshore fields in the Barents and Pechora seas. The project to build the rig originated in 1994. Another was built at Sevmash.
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