The SA-9 GASKIN is a short-range, low-altitude self-propelled SAM-carrying system based on the BRDM-2 chassis. The vehicle carries quadruple SA-9 SAM launchers on a revolving mount in place of the KPV/PK machine gun turret. The missiles are usually fired in pairs against each target to increase the kill probability, with an interval between rounds of about five seconds. Reloading is performed manually and takes about five minutes.
The 30 kilogram Mach 1.5 Strela-1 missile is 1.8 meters long and 0.12 meters in diameter with a wing span of 0.375 meters. It carries an HE-fragmentation warhead and proximity fuse with a lethal radius of 5 meters and damage radius of 7.6 meters. The original version of the Strela-1 was known as the 9M31 (SA-9A GASKIN Mod 0) and used an uncooled first-generation lead sulfide (PbS) infra-red (IR) seeker operating. This was supplemented by the 9M31M variant (SA-9B GASKIN Mod 1) which has an improved seeker providing greater target sensitivity and lock on ability. The minimum range of the 9M31 is 800 m and the maximum range 6500 m within altitude limits of 15 to 5200 m. The minimum range of the 9M31M is 560 meters and the maximum range 8000 meters (increasing to a possible 11000 meters when used in a tail-chase engagement) within altitude limits of 10 to 6100 meters. When engaging a head-on target the system has a considerably reduced range.
One SA-9 TEL (SA-9 Mod A, BRDM-2A1 or SA-9A TEL) in each battery is fitted with FLAT BOX A passive radar detection antenna, one either side of the hull above the front wheel housings, one under the left launch canisters pointing forward and one mounted on a small frame above the rear engine deck plate pointing rearwards to give 360º coverage. The TEL without the FLAT BOX A system is known as the SA-9 Mod-B, BRDM-2A2 or SA-9B.
The BRDM-2 transporter erector launcher (TEL) has the chain-driven belly wheels removed and the normal turret replaced by one with four ready to launch SA-9 container-launcher boxes. These are normally lowered to the horizontal when traveling to reduce the overall height of the vehicle. The vehicle crew of three consists of the commander, driver and gunner. An air-filtration and overpressure NBC system are standard.
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