SA-4 GANEF is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. Over the years at least four variants of the missile have been produced, designated 9M8, 9M8M, 9M8M1 and 9M8M2, though external differences are minimal. The 9M8M1 and 9M8M2 variants are the primary types in service. The 9M8M1, introduced in 1967, is a 8.8 meter long-nosed version (the SA-4a) with effective range limits of 8 to 55 km and effective altitude limits of 100 to 27000 m. The 9M8M2, introduced in 1973, is the short-nosed 8.3 m version (SA-4b or GANEF Mod 1). It has improved close-range performance to reduce the dead zone above the TEL at the expense of losing some 3000 m in altitude and 5-10 km in maximum range capabilities. Both versions have a fuselage diameter of 0.86 m, a wing span of 2.3 m and a tail span of 2.73 m. The HE warhead weighs 135 kg and is detonated by a proximity fuse.
The missile is launched by four solid booster rockets mounted externally on the body. The missile is armed 300 meters from the launcher. After launch the boosters burn for about 15 seconds and then fall away when the fueled ramjet kerosene sustainer motor ignition speed of over Mach 1 is attained at about 9 km from the TEL. The four fins are fixed and the four wings, in two pairs, are hydraulically operated.
A battery typically has one TEL fitted with the 9M8M2 and two TELs with the 9M8M1 missile, although some TELs may carry one missile of each type. An electro-optical fire control system is fitted for use in a heavy ECM environment.
Targets are initially detected by the long range LONG TRACK early warning E-band radar, which has a 150 km range and 30 km maximum altitude coverage. LONG TRACK is mounted on a lengthened version of the AT-T heavy artillery tractor with a large van body added, and is also used for the SA-6 SAM.
This system passes data to the SA-4 GANEF battery where the H-band PAT HAND continuous wave fire control and command guidance radar takes over. The PAT HAND radar is mounted on the same chassis as the GANEF launcher, with the whole assembly collapsed flat and a grill raised in front of the radar for road transit. This radar acquires the target at about 120-130 km and when it is within the 80-90 km tracking range a single missile is launched and guided to the target by the guidance beam with a semi-active terminal homing phase for the final stage. The missile is tracked in flight by a continuous wave radar transponder beacon attached to one of the tail fins. If required the PAT HAND can handle two missiles per target in order to increase the kill probability.
Target altitude information is also provided by the 240 km range THIN SKIN truck- or trailer-mounted height-finder H-band radar.
The SA-4 TEL (Industrial Index designation 2P24) consists of a tracked armored chassis on top of which is mounted a hydraulically operated turntable carrying two missiles. The launcher can be traversed by 360º with the missiles being elevated up to an angle of 45º on their launcher arms for launching. The vehicle's engine is to the right of the driver with the remainder of the space in the vehicle taken up by the crew and electronics. Hatches for the other crew members are on either side of the missile turntable. The torsion bar suspension consists of seven dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear, and four track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and overpressure NBC system and an IR night vision system for the commander and driver but no amphibious capability.
Reserve missiles are carried on Ural-375 (6 x 6) trucks, and reloading the TEL takes between 10 and 15 minutes.
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