The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 was originally developed in the Soviet Union as an interceptor. The RD-45 turbojet powered it, which was a copy of the Rolls Royce Nene. Designed to shoot down heavy bombers, it carried one 37mm and two 23mm cannons. German experience in WWII had shown the need for cannons larger than 20 mm to bring down four-engine heavy bombers.
The prototype MiG-15 first flew in December 1947. It began appearing in service in 1949 and by 1952 it had been provided to a number of Communist satellite nations, including North Korea where it was used extensively against United Nations forces.
At the end of 1946 Chief Designer of A.I. Mikoyan was sent to England. Great Britain, as a goodwill gesture under a Labour Government, had allowed Rolls Royce to sell the license to engines to the Soviet Union. During the talks, the parties agreed on the acquisition of the Soviet Union in the UK's most advanced turbojet engines from the firm Rolls-Royce: Derwent-V 1590 kg thrust, "Nene-I" with 2040 kgf thrust and" Nene-II with 2270 kgf thrust - to use them when creating a new Soviet jet aircraft and the subsequent production. Subsequently, the Derwent-V was manufactured under license by domestic industry called the RD-500 and Nene I and II - as the RD-45 and RD-45F. The new engines allowed the USSR to create next-generation jet fighters. Because of the Nene's challenge to the American jet engine community, it became known as the "Needle engine." The Soviet-built version of the engine subsequently powered the MiG-15 jet fighter that fought US fighters and bombers during the Korean War.
By an order of 11 March 1947, the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved the plan at the 1947 aircraft prototype development, whereby the order MAP dated 15 April 1947, OKB-155 was a frontline fighter jet engine and the hermetic cabin crew. Project management and analysis to create an Ye-310(c) with the Rd-45F engine - the future MiG-15, which began as early as January 1947, was assigned to the Deputy Chief Engineer and Designer A.G. Brunova A.A. Andreev.
On December 30, 1947 by V.N. Űganov lifted into the air, his first prototype. During the manufacturer's testing aircraft showed good results and the resolution of the Council of Ministers on 15 March 1948, he was put into series production at the plant No. 1. Stalin. MiG-15 was the first serial fighter of Soviet strelovidnym (35 °) wing. It is worth noting that even in 1945, the arrow-like wing was the refinement of the flight conditions at an experimental piston plane Mig OKB-155-8 "Duck". This machine was introduced and other new-gear with a nose wheel.
The plane had swept wings and empennage, a tricycle landing gear and a pressurized cabin. of the aircraft at high speed, an ejection seat was incorporated. engine, first an RD-45 with a thrust of 2270kg, later a VK-1 with a thrust of 2700 kg, was located behind the pilot's cabin. 37-mm cannon and two 23-mm cannons. tion for them were located in the fuselage on gun mounts which could be lowered. under the wings. The MiG-15 had a take-off weight of about 4800kg and a speed of up to 1050 kph.
The requirement was based on a 4,400 pound thrust engine that was to be available within a year. In fact the British granted permission to export ten of the 4,800 pound Nene engines to the Soviets in September of 1946. In all, 55 Nene and Derwent engines were shipped to the U.S.S.R. in 1947. At the time the design started, however, all that was available was the RD-21, a slightly improved version of the BMW-003 rated at about 2,200 lbs. In effect, reliance on British engines facilitated a design based on twice the power then available from native engines.
It has been common to erroneously attribute the MiG-15 to a design by Kurt Tank, who had been chief designer for Focke-Wulf during WWII. Although the fuselage arrangement bears a superficial similarity to Tank's later Pulqui II aircraft, the wing planform is decidedly different. Further, Tank himself went through a straight-wing configuration in 1947 before producing his Argentine swept-wing prototype in 1950. In fact, the Soviets may have understood theoretical aspects of transonic flight some three years before the West. An effort began in 1942 to develop a unified general theory of supersonic wings. Results of the coordinated inquiry were published in 1946 and 1947. Among the contributions was an exploration of the application of conical flow theory to delta wings; it was written by Mikhail J. Gurevich. Therefore, it seems appropriate that one consider the theoretician Gurevich and the production expert Mikoyan perfectly capable of developing an impressive machine. The apparent similarity between the U.S. F-86 Sabre, the MiG-15, and Tank's designs derives from a common reliance on the 1940's technology and from the principles of aerodynamics as given practical meaning by extensive German wind tunnel testing available to all competing post war nations.
The MiG-15 first flew on December 30, 1947, barely three months after the American F-86. The Gurevich account talks of an initial prototype, however, which flew on July 2 and was to have been ready for the Tushino show - a plausible objective. This otherwise undocumented prototype purportedly crashed soon after its first flight. (This portion of the account may be intentionally confused with the first MiG-9 prototype.) Nevertheless, the MiG-15 as we know it flew only some 20 months after the first Soviet jets and confirmation of the requirement. The design was thought to be so successful that a production commitment was made in March 1948-before aircraft tests were half through. This rather drastic step is a measure of the importance attached to the MiG-15 program.
The MiG-15 designed by Mikoyan's design office was the jet fighter produced in the largest numbers. Serial production of the MiG-15 and its modifications carried out on 9 (!) of aircraft factories of USSR, which was built a total of 13,131 aircraft of this type. In addition, the serial production of the MiG-15 was launched on Soviet license in Poland and Czechoslovakia. Total production of the MiG-15 jet fighters reached record values - over 18 thousand machines.
The MiG-15 was simple and reliable design, high-performance and operating characteristics, as well as a gunship, a single 37 mm gun and two 23 mm-caliber. During governmental testing that took place in May and August 1948, the MiG-15 was well received: the maximum speed-of-climb, ceiling and range, he was the best of local fighters of that time. On basic flight performance he even bested by the challenge to the tactical and technical requirements: at an altitude of 5000 m speed MiG-15 was 1028 km/h and at an altitude of 2620 m-1042 km/h on the basis of the MiG-15 was built training fighter MiG-15 UTI ("St"), which had also been adopted and put into mass production.
In 1949, OKB-155 was modified serial MiG-15 with VK-1 with a thrust of 2700 kg, which improved flight performance. Maximum speed increased to 1076 km/hours later by plane, a MIG-15bis name ("SD"), were also installed a rapid-fire gun Nr-23, čleronami power management system, and blind landing equipment instrument OSP-48.
The MiG-15 had several faults, most notably its dangerous spin. It was found necessary to send air force test pilots to units converting to the aircraft in order to demonstrate proper spin recovery measures. For a period spinning was banned, pending the investigation of a number of accidents; even afterward, special clearances were required for the maneuver. Early attention was given to a trainer version and use of YAK-17 trainers, but numerous pilots graduated directly to the MiG from conventional aircraft. Beside the spin problem, the aircraft was poorly armed. It mounted two 23-mm. and one 37-mm. cannon. The 23-mm. lacked punch and the 37-mm. lacked firing rate. All three lacked sophisticated ranging devices.
The MiG-15s received their combat baptism in the Korean war and proved superior to the American F-86, the Sabres. The MiG-15 was deployed against American Air Forces in December of 1950 in Korea. On November 8, 1950, 1st Lt. Russell Brown, flying an F-80, shot down a MiG-15 in the first all-jet dogfight in history. It was apparent, however, that the MiG-15 was superior to any aircraft then in the US inventory.
The MiG-15 and MiG-15bis showed their apparent advantage over American fighter aircraft. During the Korean war MiG-15bis proved to be reliable, its machine. As technology such as aircraft remembered was neither before nor after it. In air battles of the Korean war MiG-15 won the right to be called one of the best mass-produced fighter early 50 's. It brought world fame construction Bureau. For the creation and development of the MiG-15 series, designing his systems and units of the Group of employees in the DESIGN were awarded Stalin Prize of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd degrees.
Initial encounters with American aircraft led to the development of the MiG-15bis (improved). In 1950, MIG-15bis succeeded in assembling shops mass-produced plants MiG-15. It was designed and built by serially modified as escort fighter MiG-15Sbis (SD-UPB) and aircraft MiG-15Rbis ("CP"). Its VK-1 engine had 1,000 lbs more thrust than the RD-45 engine of the earlier version, and had hydraulic ailerons. Although the MiG-15bis could climb faster and higher than the F-86, poor turning performance and high mach instability limited its dogfight performance. In aerial combat against the F-86, the MiG-15 suffered high losses, but against the B-29 it was very effective and prevented the heavy bombers from operating in daylight.
Fighter MiG-15bis also became the base for testing the first domestic radar stations. The prototype aircraft PO-1 in the 1949-1950. RADAR the refinement was the thorium-a, but SP-5 in 1951-1952. "Izumrud". Emerald station for the first time allowed to fully apply the single-seat fighter to intercept enemy aircraft and conduct aimed fire on them, regardless of visibility. In addition, many experienced aircraft based on MiG-15, MIG-15bis and MiG-15 UTI, were testing different samples of aviation equipment and armament.
Even prior to the creation of Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC) in 1951, USAF technical intelligence analysts in Dayton OH had begun examining Soviet military systems and had developed estimated performance characteristics for the new Soviet fighter. Early in 1951, ATIC analysts obtained engine parts and the tail section of a crashed MiG-15 from the Korean theater. Later, in July, the center received a complete, though crashed, MiG-15. In addition to conducting its own assessment, ATIC invited fourteen major aircraft companies to view the MiG-15, to offer technical assessments, and to become more familiar with the Russian aircraft. ATIC provided the Far East Air Force (FEAF) with the performance characteristics of Russian aircraft in theater and charts depicting the combat radius of the MiG-15. This support allowed FEAF to more effectively develop engagement tactics for its F-86 fighters.
That the MiG-15 was a brilliant accomplishment became apparent in Korea. It had put Soviet aviation ahead of European rivals and nearly equal with the United States. It out-climbed, out-maneuvered, outaccelerated, and flew higher than its principal opponent, the North American Sabre. It maintained a speed advantage until the F model of the Sabre appeared late in the Korean war. Its record was marred by poor guns and bad pilots.
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